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Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.It is important to us that you feel comfo......more
Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.It is important to us that you feel comfortable while visiting our office. To achieve this goal, we have staffed our office with caring people who will answer your questions and help you understand your treatments.

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MON-SAT
06:30 PM - 07:30 PM 10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

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Shop No.4, Lorven House Apartments, Behind Radhika Movieplex, ECIL, Anupuram
ECIL Hyderabad, Telangana - 500062
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Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

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Dr. Ramakanth Reddy

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician
86%  (91 ratings)
23 Years experience
300 at clinic
₹200 online
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06:30 PM - 07:30 PM
10:00 AM - 11:30 AM
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Aim to offer the best form of childcare to infants and children up to 18 years
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What Is a Gluten-Free Diet?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Gluten-free foods seem to be everywhere these days. Restaurants and cafes regularly feature gluten-free dishes and pastries. Supermarkets offer gluten-free bread, rolls, and crackers.

Many people are reducing or eliminating their dietary intake of gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and sometimes oats. But only those who have celiac disease need to completely stop eating gluten. Celiac disease is a condition in which the immune system is abnormally sensitive to gluten. Others who have a gluten sensitivity may simply feel better if they eat much less of it. 

How to tell if gluten is affecting your digestive tract

In people with celiac disease, gluten can damage the digestive tract. In particular, it harms the small intestine’s villi. Villi are small, fingerlike projections that absorb nutrients from food. If the villi are damaged, the body cannot absorb enough nutrients. You may begin to feel stomach pain, indigestion, bloating, and other unpleasant symptoms. Left untreated, the disease can cause conditions that are more serious.

Healthcare providers diagnose the need for a gluten-free diet based on the diagnosis of celiac disease. This is a diagnosis based on blood test results and biopsy samples taken of the small intestine. If you have celiac disease, you need to avoid all gluten forever, whether or not you have symptoms. However, symptoms are very common and can be intestinal or nonintestinal. In patients with celiac disease, these symptoms can include:

  • Joint pain and inflammation

  • Digestive problems, including stomach pain and bloating

  • Indigestion and acid reflux

  • Constipation or diarrhea

  • Fatigue

  • Anxiety, mood swings, or depression

  • Vitamin deficiencies

  • Skin rashes and itching

  • Infertility

  • Recurring miscarriages

  • Migraines

  • Canker sores

  • Tingling in the hands and feet

Treating gluten troubles with diet

For anyone with celiac disease, eating gluten can damage the small intestine and other tissues and organs. This can make it hard for the body to absorb nutrients. Some people without celiac disease also have trouble tolerating gluten or are sensitive to it.

Diet is the main way to treat gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity. A big part of a gluten-free diet is to avoid foods made with wheat, rye, or barley. This means most regular breads, pizza, cereals, pastas, cakes, and cookies. Also, many processed foods contain hidden gluten. The most common culprits are soy sauce, gravies, canned soups, nutritional bars, barley malt, and veggie burgers. It can even include medicines and probiotic, vitamins, and supplements.

Foods like rice, corn, quinoa, some oats, fruits, vegetables, and some alcoholic beverages, are gluten-free.

But even products like lipstick and medicines can contain gluten. If you have celiac disease, you'll need to become an expert at reading food and product labels. This is a skill that your healthcare provider or a gluten-free support group can help with. Most people should see a nutritionist to help them since the diet must be done carefully and forever. 

Be careful when replacing gluten foods with foods that are gluten-free. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) says that packaged gluten-free foods aren’t necessarily better or healthier. In fact, some gluten-free foods are higher in fat, sugar, and total calories than foods with gluten. As with any diet, the variety of nutritious foods in your gluten-free diet will determine how healthy it is.

Protecting your health by going gluten-free

If you are living with a gluten sensitivity or intolerance, you may choose to avoid or reduce your gluten intake. However, if you have celiac disease, you’ll need to work with your healthcare providers to make sure that you're getting enough vitamins and minerals. Your healthcare provider can let you know if you need to take a supplement to replace any missing nutrients. Be aware that some supplements are made with ingredients that contain gluten, so be sure to choose supplements carefully. The NIH provides a list of foods and other products containing gluten.  

After you start on your gluten-free diet, your small intestine will start to repair the damage to its villi. After a while, your body will begin absorbing food normally again. Your digestive symptoms will begin to disappear. You also should start to feel much better overall.

If you don't notice enough improvement, it's usually because small amounts of gluten remain in your diet. Also, other conditions can interfere with a gluten-free diet. These include irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and bacterial overgrowth in the intestine. Check in with your healthcare provider regularly to check on your condition. Call your healthcare provider right away if you continue to have symptoms or side effects once you’re on a gluten-free diet. In rare situations, the disease and symptoms continue even with a completely gluten-free diet. In this situation, more tests are needed.

Untreated celiac disease can lead to chronic permanent health problems and increase your risk of certain cancers. 

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Urinary Incontinence in Children

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Urinary Incontinence in Children

What is urinary incontinence (enuresis)?

Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control. In children under age 3, it’s normal to not have full bladder control. As children get older, they become more able to control their bladder. When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis. Enuresis can happen during the day or at night. Enuresis can be frustrating. But it’s important to be patient and remember that it’s not your child’s fault. A child does not have control over enuresis. And there are many ways to treat enuresis and help your child.

When is enuresis a problem?

Many children may have enuresis from time to time. It can take some children longer than others to learn to control their bladder. Girls often have bladder control before boys. Because of this, enuresis is diagnosed in girls earlier than in boys. Girls may be diagnosed as young as age 5. Boys are not diagnosed until at least age 6.

Types of enuresis

Doctors divide enuresis into 4 types. A child may have one or more of these types:

  • Diurnal (daytime) enuresis. This is wetting during the day.

  • Nocturnal (nighttime) enuresis. This means wetting during the night. It’s often called bedwetting. It’s the most common type of enuresis.

  • Primary enuresis. This occurs when a child has not fully mastered toilet training.

  • Secondary enuresis. This is when a child has a period of dryness, but then returns to having periods of wetting.

What causes enuresis?

Enuresis has many possible causes. The cause of nighttime enuresis often is not known. But some possible causes may include one or more of these factors:

  • Anxiety

  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  • Certain genes

  • Constipation that puts pressure on the bladder

  • Diabetes

  • Not enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body during sleep

  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

  • Overactive bladder

  • Slower physical development

  • Small bladder

  • Structural problems in the urinary tract

  • Trouble feeling that the bladder is full while asleep

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)

  • Very deep sleep

Daytime enuresis may be caused by:

  • Anxiety

  • Caffeine

  • Constipation that puts pressure on the bladder

  • Not going to the bathroom often enough

  • Not urinating enough when going

  • Overactive bladder

  • Small bladder

  • Structural problems in the urinary tract

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)

How is enuresis diagnosed?

Your child’s health care provider will ask about your child’s medical history. Make sure to tell the health care provider:

  • If other members of the family have had enuresis

  • How often your child urinates during the day

  • How much your child drinks in the evening

  • If your child has symptoms such as pain or burning when urinating

  • If the urine is dark or cloudy or has blood in it

  • If your child is constipated

  • If your child has had recent stress in his or her life

The health care provider may give your child a physical exam. Your child may also need tests, such as urine tests or blood tests. These are done to look for a medical problem, such as an infection or diabetes.

How is enuresis treated?

In many cases, enuresis goes away over time and does not need to be treated. If treatment is needed, many methods can help. These include:

  • Changes in fluid intake. You may be told to give your child less fluids to drink at certain times of day, or in the evening.

  • Keeping caffeine out of your child’s diet. Caffeine can be found in cola and many sodas. It is also found in black teas, coffee drinks, and chocolate.

  • Night waking on a schedule. This means waking your child in the night to go urinate.

  • Bladder training. This includes exercises and urinating on a schedule.

  • Using a moisture alarm. This uses a sensor that detects wetness and sounds an alarm. Your child then gets up to use the bathroom.

  • Medications. Medicines can boost ADH levels or calm bladder muscles.

  • Counseling. Working with a counselor can help your child cope with life changes or other stress.

Work with your child’s health care provider to find out the best choices that may help your child.

Tips for managing enuresis

  • Remember, your child can’t control the problem without help. Make sure not to scold or blame. Make sure your child is not teased by family or friends.

  • Keep in mind that many children outgrow enuresis.

  • Protect your child’s mattress bed with a fitted plastic sheet.

  • Have a change of clothes on hand while out and about.

Inhalers and Nebulizers

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Inhalers and Nebulizers

Several types of devices are used to deliver medicine in a fine mist directly into the lungs. They are used to treat asthma and other lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). These devices cause fewer side effects than medicine taken by mouth or injection. 

Types of Inhalers

The type of device you are given will depend on your:

  • Age

  • Ability

  • Medical history

  • Personal choice

  • Severity and frequency of your symptoms

The most common types of inhalers are:

  • Metered-dose inhaler (MDI). This is the most common type of inhaler. A metered-dose inhaler uses a chemical to push the medicine into the lungs. It is held in front of or put into the mouth as the medicine is released in puffs.

  • Nebulizer. A nebulizer is a machine that sprays a fine, liquid mist of medicine. The medicine is delivered with a mouthpiece or mask. Nebulizers are often used by people who cannot use metered-dose inhalers, such as infants and young children, and people with severe asthma.

  • Dry powder or rotary inhaler. Dry powder is inhaled with these devices. They are activated by your breath. They may be used by children and adults. It’s important to keep these inhalers dry so that the powder doesn't clump together.

Medicines

These devices may deliver both quick-relief and controller medicines. For example:

  • Corticosteroids to reduce airway swelling and inflammation

  • Bronchodilators to open narrowed airways

  • Other medicines for some lung conditions

Talk with your healthcare provider, nurse, or pharmacist about how to use the inhaler or nebulizer prescribed for you. Also make sure you read and follow the instructions that come with the device. And, make sure you know how to keep your inhaler or nebulizer clean.

Feeding Guide for the First Year

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Feeding Guide for the First Year

Making appropriate food choices for your baby during the first year of life is very important. More growth occurs during the first year than at any other time in your child's life. It's important to feed your baby a variety of healthy foods at the proper time. Starting good eating habits at this early stage will help set healthy eating patterns for life.

Recommended feeding guide for the first year

Don't give solid foods unless your child's healthcare provider advises you to do so. Solid foods should not be started before age 4 months because:

  • Breast milk or formula provides your baby all the nutrients that are needed for growth.

  • Your baby isn't physically developed enough to eat solid food from a spoon.

  • Feeding your baby solid food too early may lead to overfeeding and being overweight.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all infants, children, and adolescents take in enough vitamin D through supplements, formula, or cow's milk to prevent complications from deficiency of this vitamin. In November 2008, the AAP updated its recommendations for daily intake of vitamin D for healthy infants, children, and adolescents. It is now recommended that the minimum intake of vitamin D for these groups should be 400 IU per day, beginning soon after birth. Your baby's healthcare provider can recommend the proper type and amount of vitamin D supplement for your baby.

Guide for formula feeding (0 to 5 months)

Age

Amount of formula per feeding

Number of feedings per 24 hours

1 month

2 to 4 ounces

6 to 8 times

2 months

5 to 6 ounces

5 to 6 times

3 to 5 months

6 to 7 ounces

5 to 6 times

Feeding tips for your child

These are some things to consider when feeding your baby:

  • When starting solid foods, give your baby one new food at a time — not mixtures (like cereal and fruit or meat dinners). Give the new food for 3 to 5 days before adding another new food. This way you can tell what foods your baby may be allergic to or can't tolerate.

  • Start with small amounts of new solid foods — a teaspoon at first and slowly increase to a tablespoon.

  • Start with dry infant rice cereal first, mixed as directed, followed by vegetables, fruits, and then meats.

  • Don't use salt or sugar when making homemade infant foods. Canned foods may contain large amounts of salt and sugar and shouldn't be used for baby food. Always wash and peel fruits and vegetables and remove seeds or pits. Take special care with fruits and vegetables that come into contact with the ground. They may contain botulism spores that cause food poisoning.

  • Infant cereals with iron should be given to your infant until your infant is age 18 months.

  • Cow's milk shouldn't be added to the diet until your infant is age 1. Cow's milk doesn't provide the proper nutrients for your baby.

  • The AAP recommends not giving fruit juices to infants younger than 1 year old. Only pasteurized, 100% fruit juices (without added sugar) may be given to older infants and children, but should be limited to 4 ounces a day. Dilute the juice with water and offer it in a cup with a meal.

  • Feed all food with a spoon. Your baby needs to learn to eat from a spoon. Don't use an infant feeder. Only formula and water should go into the bottle.

  • Avoid honey in any form for your child's first year, as it can cause infant botulism.

  • Don't put your baby in bed with a bottle propped in his or her mouth. Propping a bottle has been linked to an increased risk of ear infections. Once your baby's teeth are present, propping the bottle can also cause tooth decay. There is also a risk of choking.

  • Help your baby to give up the bottle by his or her first birthday.

  • Don't make your child "clean the plate." Forcing your child to eat all the food on his or her plate even when he or she isn't hungry isn't a good habit. It teaches your child to eat just because the food is there, not because he or she is hungry. Expect a smaller and pickier appetite as the baby's growth rate slows around age 1.

  • Infants and young children shouldn't eat hot dogs, nuts, seeds, round candies, popcorn, hard, raw fruits and vegetables, grapes, or peanut butter. These foods aren't safe and may cause your child to choke. Many healthcare providers suggest these foods be saved until after your child is age 3 or 4. Always watch a young child while he or she is eating. Insist that the child sit down to eat or drink.

  • Healthy infants usually require little or no extra water, except in very hot weather. When solid food is first fed to your baby, extra water is often needed.

  • Don't limit your baby's food choices to the ones you like. Offering a wide variety of foods early will pave the way for good eating habits later.

  • Don't restrict fat and cholesterol in the diets of very young children, unless advised by your child's healthcare provider. Children need calories, fat, and cholesterol for the development of their brains and nervous systems, and for general growth.

Feeding guide for the first year (4 to 8 months)

Item

4 to 6 months

7 months

8 months

Breastfeeding or formula

4 to 6 feedings per day or 28 to 32 ounces per day

3 to 5 feedings per day or 30 to 32 ounces per day

3 to 5 feedings per day or 30 to 32 ounces per day

Dry infant cereal with iron

3 to 5 tbs. single grain iron fortified cereal mixed with formula

3 to 5 tbs. single grain iron fortified cereal mixed with formula

5 to 8 tbs. single grain cereal mixed with formula

Fruits

1 to 2 tbs., plain, strained/1 to 2 times per day

2 to 3 tbs., plain, strained/2 times per day

2 to 3 tbs., strained or soft mashed/2 times per day

Vegetables

1 to 2 tbs., plain, strained/1 to 2 times per day

2 to 3 tbs., plain, strained/2 times per day

2 to 3 tbs., strained, mashed, soft/2 times per day

Meats and protein foods

 

1 to 2 tbs., strained/2 times per day

1 to 2 tbs., strained/2 times per day

Snacks

 

Arrowroot cookies, toast, crackers

Arrowroot cookies, toast, crackers, plain yogurt

Development

Make first cereal feedings very soupy and thicken slowly.

Start finger foods and cup.

Formula intake decreases; solid foods in diet increase.

Feeding guide for the first year (9 to 12 months)

Item

9 months

10 to 12 months

Breastfeeding or formula

3 to 5 feedings per day or 30 to 32 ounces per day

3 to 4 feedings per day or 24 to 30 ounces per day

Dry infant cereal with iron

5 to 8tbs. any variety mixed with formula

5 to 8 tbs. any variety mixed with formula per day

Fruits

2 to 4 tbs., strained or soft mashed/2 times per day

2 to 4 tbs., mashed or strained, cooked/2 times per day

Vegetables

2 to 4 tbs., mashed, soft, bite-sized pieces/2 times per day

2 to 4 tbs., mashed, soft, bite-sized pieces/2 times per day

Meats and protein foods

2 to 3 tbs. of tender, chopped/2 times per day

2 to 3 tbs., finely chopped, table meats, fish without bones, mild cheese/2 times per day

Starches

 

1/4-1/2 cup mashed potatoes, macaroni, spaghetti, bread/2 times per day

Snacks

Arrowroot cookies, assorted finger foods, cookies, toast, crackers, plain yogurt, cooked green beans

Arrowroot cookies, assorted finger foods, cookies, toast, crackers, plain yogurt, cooked green beans, cottage cheese, ice cream, pudding, dry cereal

Development

Eating more table foods. Make sure diet has good variety.

Baby may change to table food. Baby will feed himself or herself and use a spoon and cup.

Vision, Hearing and Speech Overview

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Vision, Hearing and Speech Overview

Vision, hearing, and speech are an important part of your child's life. When an infant is born, his or her eyesight is immature. The infant later develops the ability to focus. Hearing appears early in fetal development and is necessary for proper progression of speech and language. Monitoring your child's ability to see, hear, and speak is an important part of the health of your growing child.

The American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Optometric Association, and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) have recommended the following vision screening stages:

  • Newborn. All newborns are examined in the nursery for eye infections and other eye disorders, such as glaucoma.

  • 6 months. Visual screening of infants should be performed during the well-baby visits, particularly checking for how the eyes work together.

  • 3 to 4 years. Formal visual acuity tests and the complete eye exam should be performed.

  • 5 years and older. Annual visual screening tests and eye exams should be performed.

Children develop speech, language, and hearing skills at different ages. However, hearing loss can lead to delays in your child's ability to make sounds, learn to speak, and communicate. The AAP recommends hearing screening for all newborns before they leave the hospital. Talk with your child's healthcare provider if you're concerned about your child's hearing or speech, or if you notice any of the following:

  • No response to sound at any age

  • Infant doesn't move or jump when a loud sound is made

  • No babbling by the time the infant is 9 months old

  • No words spoken by age 18 to 24 months

  • Doesn't follow simple commands by age 2

  • Poor voice quality at any age

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Natal Teeth

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Natal Teeth

What are natal teeth?

Natal teeth are teeth that are present when a baby is born. The teeth are often not fully developed and may have a weak root.

Natal teeth are not common. They are not the same as neonatal teeth that erupt in the child’s mouth during the first month of life.

What causes natal teeth?

The cause of natal teeth is unknown. But they may be more likely to occur in children with certain health problems that affect growth. This includes Sotos syndrome.

What are the symptoms of natal teeth?

Natal teeth may sometimes look like normal teeth. But they are often:

  • Small
  • Loose
  • Brown or yellow

How are natal teeth diagnosed?

Your child’s healthcare provider or dentist can often diagnose natal teeth with a physical exam of your child’s mouth. He or she may also order X-rays. An X-ray makes images of internal tissues, bones, teeth, and organs. An X-ray may show a tooth root that is not fully formed.

How are natal teeth treated?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

Your child’s dentist or healthcare provider may decide no treatment is needed. In other cases, natal teeth may be loose because the root is not fully developed. The teeth may then be removed. This done to lower the risk of your child inhaling the tooth into his or her airways. Or the teeth may be removed if they are damaging your baby’s tongue. Another choice may be to smooth the top edges of the teeth. This prevents damage to your child's tongue.

What are possible complications of natal teeth?

Complications that may happen as a result of natal teeth are:

  • Problems with breastfeeding. This is because your baby may accidentally bite you while breastfeeding.
  • Injury to your child’s tongue
  • Possible risk of your child inhaling the tooth into his or her airway and lungs if the tooth breaks free

Key points about natal teeth

  • Natal teeth are teeth that are present when a baby is born.
  • These teeth are often not fully developed and may have a weak root.
  • They may be small, loose, and discolored.
  • The cause of natal teeth is unknown.
  • Your child’s healthcare provider or dentist may recommend having them removed if they may cause a problem.
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Screening Tests for Common Diseases

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Screening Tests for Common Diseases

What is a screening test?

A screening test is done to detect potential health disorders or diseases in people who do not have any symptoms of disease. The goal is early detection and lifestyle changes or surveillance, to reduce the risk of disease, or to detect it early enough to treat it most effectively. Screening tests are not considered diagnostic, but are used to identify a subset of the population who should have additional testing to determine the presence or absence of disease.

When is a screening test helpful?

What makes a screening test valuable is its ability to detect potential problems, while minimizing unclear, ambiguous, or confusing results. While screening tests are not 100% accurate in all cases, it is generally more valuable to have the screening tests at the appropriate times, as recommended by your healthcare provider, than to not have them at all. However, some screening tests, when used in people not at high risk for disease, or when testing for very rare diseases, can cause more problems than they help.

Some common screening tests

Be sure to consult your healthcare provider regarding the appropriate timing and frequency of all screening tests based on your age, overall health, and medical history. The following are some examples of common screening tests:

Cholesterol measurements

Cholesterol is a waxy substance that can be found in all parts of the body. It aids in the production of cell membranes, some hormones, and vitamin D. The cholesterol in the blood comes from 2 sources: the food you eat and production in your liver. However, the liver produces all of the cholesterol the body needs.

Cholesterol and other fats are transported in the bloodstream in the form of spherical particles, called lipoproteins. The 2 most commonly known lipoproteins are low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), or "good" cholesterol.

Cholesterol screening is performed by a blood test. People with high cholesterol measurements from a blood sample have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), than those with cholesterol in the normal range. Studies have shown that people with high cholesterol can reduce their risk for heart disease by lowering their cholesterol. It is important to understand, however, that people can still have heart disease even with cholesterol levels in the normal range.

Fecal occult blood test

Fecal occult blood is detected by microscopic analysis or by chemical tests for hemoglobin (blood) in the stool. People with blood in their stool may have a cancerous growth indicative of colorectal cancer. The test requires collection of 3 stool samples that are examined under the microscope for blood. It is important to understand that when blood is present in a stool sample, it can be due to other noncancerous factors, such as certain medications or foods, gastrointestinal bleeding, or hemorrhoids. Testing is recommended starting at age 50 by many organizations including the American Cancer Society.

Pap test (also called Pap smears)

Pap smears are samples of cells taken from the cervix in women to look for cellular changes indicative of cervical cancer. The Pap smear is an important screening test in sexually active women under the age of 65, to detect cancer at a stage when there are often no symptoms. It is important to understand that a Pap smear may be referred to as "abnormal," but may not mean that a person has cervical cancer. Some organizations also recommend HPV (human papilloma virus) screening in certain populations during the Pap smear.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

This blood test measures the prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in the blood. Antigens are any substances that evoke responses from a person's immune system. The prostate specific antigen levels can be elevated in the presence of prostate cancer. However, it is important to understand that other benign prostate conditions may also elevate PSA, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is noncancerous swelling of the prostate. The PSA test is not recommended for all men, and there is considerable controversy over the role of PSA testing. Some organizations, such as the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), now recommend against PSA screening. The pros and cons of PSA screening should always be discussed with your healthcare provider before testing. Some of the cons include unnecessary testing and procedures, unnecessary costs, and significantly increased anxiety.

Mammography

Many organizations, including the USPSTF, recommend mammography screening for breast cancer every 1 year to 2 years after age 50. This test is done in conjunction with a clinical breast exam

Colonoscopy

Many organizations, including the USPSTF, recommend screening for colon cancer or colon polyps at age 50, earlier if you have a family history or other risk factors

Diabetes or prediabetes

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that all adults be screened for diabetes or prediabetes starting at age 45, regardless of weight. Additionally, individuals without symptoms of diabetes should be screened if they are overweight or obese and have one or more additional diabetes risk factors.

Consult your healthcare provider regarding all of these as well as other types of screening tests, based on your medical condition, as not all healthcare providers are in agreement in regard to which screening tests should be done and for which age groups.

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Nipple Problems and Discharge

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Nipple Problems and Discharge

What are some common nipple problems?


Nipple conditions are a common benign (noncancerous) breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation. Others are not. Like all breast conditions, any nipple problems should be reported to your healthcare provider for a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

What is ectasia?

As a woman approaches menopause (around her late 40s, early 50s), the mammary ducts—located under the nipple—become dilated (widened). This normal process of dilation of the milk gland is called ectasia.

Ectasia is a benign (noncancerous) breast condition. In some cases, ectasia can lead to a blockage of the ducts. As a result, fluid may become pooled and leak into the surrounding tissue causing infection, chronic inflammation, or abscesses. If an infection (also referred to as periductal mastitis) happens, it may cause scar tissue to develop, thus drawing the nipple inward. In addition, this infection may cause breast pain and thick, sticky nipple discharge.

Treatment for ectasia

Specific treatment for ectasia will be determined by your healthcare provider based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment for ectasia generally involves treating the symptoms. This may include warm compresses and/or antibiotics. In some cases, surgery is required to remove the affected breast duct(s).

What is intraductal papilloma?

An intraductal papilloma is a small, wart-like growth that projects into the breast ducts near the nipple. This causes a bloody or sticky discharge. In addition, any slight bump or bruise near the nipple can cause the papilloma to bleed. If the discharge becomes bothersome, the duct can be surgically removed. This can often be done without changing the appearance of the breast.

While single papillomas most often affect women nearing menopause, multiple intraductal papillomas are more common in younger women. They often happen in both breasts. Multiple intraductal papillomas are more likely to be associated with a lump than with nipple discharge. Any papilloma associated with a lump is surgically removed.

What about other types of nipple discharge?

  • While nipple discharge can be alarming to many women, discharge that appears only when the nipple and breast are squeezed may not be a cause for concern. The risk of cancer when nipple discharge is the only symptom is relatively low.
  • If there is a lump with the discharge, this will be of primary concern to your healthcare provider. Keep in mind, however, that in breastfeeding women, lactational mastitis complicated by an abscess can often cause a lump beneath the areola, as well as a discharge.
  • A milky discharge from both nipples, when it is not related to breastfeeding, is called galactorrhea. This is usually due to an increase in the hormone prolactin, which produces milk. Galactorrhea may be caused by tranquilizers, marijuana, or high doses of estrogen. It is often accompanied by an absence of menstrual periods.
  • Nipple discharges that are a result of a benign breast condition may be treated by keeping the nipple clean, among other treatments. Nipple discharges that are a result of infections may require hospitalization.

How is nipple discharge diagnosed?

  • Your healthcare provider will, most likely, want to determine if the discharge is coming from 1 duct or several. Multiple duct discharge is nearly always benign and is likely due to changes like ectasia. When the discharge is coming from a single duct, this may be more significant. However, if mammography shows no abnormality, surgery may not be necessary.
  • Nipple discharge may be a variety of colors and textures. Your healthcare provider may take a sample of the discharge and have it analyzed in a lab to confirm a diagnosis.

Know About Birthmarks

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know About Birthmarks

What are birthmarks?

Birthmarks are areas of discolored and/or raised skin that are apparent at birth or within a few weeks of birth. Birthmarks are made up of malformed pigment cells or blood vessels.

Although the cause of birthmarks is not known, most of them are benign (noncancerous) and do not require treatment. Babies with birthmarks should be examined and diagnosed by a health care provider.

What are the most common types of vascular birthmarks?

The following are the most common types of vascular birthmarks:

  • Macular stains or salmon patches. These are characterized by pink to red marks that may appear anywhere on the body. Angel kisses and stork bites are the most common type of vascular birthmark:

    • Angel's kisses. Marks located on the forehead, nose, upper lip, and eyelids that usually disappear with age.

    • Stork bites. Marks on the back of the neck that usually disappear with age.

  • Hemangioma. A common vascular birthmark. Hemangiomas become visible within the first few weeks or months of life and continue to grow rapidly for about 6 to 9 months. Then, they gradually lose this red color and also shrink. They are called strawberry patch hemangiomas. By age 5, 50% resolve and 90% resolve by age 9 without any treatment. Hemangiomas that grow into other organs or structures or become ulcerated should be evaluated by your health care provider.

  • Port-wine stain (also called nevus flammeus). A port-wine stain is a flat, pink, red, or purple mark that appears at birth, often on the face, arms, and legs, and continues to grow as the child grows. Port-wine stains do not go away and often need treatment if located on the eyelid or forehead. Port-wine stains involving the face may cause eye problems and be associated with other developmental disorders.

What are the most common types of pigmented birthmarks?

The following are the most common types of pigmented birthmarks:

  • Moles (also known as congenital nevi). These can be skin-colored, brown, or black, flat or raised and small or large. They can happen anywhere on the body. Moles can also happen in adulthood, but only moles that are present at birth are considered birthmarks. Other nevi that behave like congenital nevi can appear within the first 2 years of life. Congenital nevi can develop into cancer later in life, with larger nevi having a higher risk of becoming cancerous.

  • Cafe-au-lait spots. This is French for coffee with milk. These are usually oval-shaped and light brown or black. Typically these fade with age and are not a problem. However, many of them grouped together can be a sign of other health issues and should be examined by a health care provider. 

  • Mongolian spots. These are blue or blue-gray spots on the lower back or buttocks. They are most common in babies with darker skin, like African-American or Asian babies. They can be mistaken for bruises and they usually fade with age.  

Know More About Measles

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a viral illness. It has a distinct rash and a fever. Measles is very contagious. It is usually spread through direct contact with droplets from coughs or sneezes from a person with measles. Although not as common, it can be spread by droplets in the air. The symptoms of measles happen about 8 to 12 days after coming in contact with a person with the virus.

What are the symptoms of measles?

Measles usually begin with cold like symptoms. Symptoms may include:

  • Fever

  • Runny nose

  • Inflammation and redness of covering of the eye (conjunctivitis)

  • Cough

  • Tiny white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)

Within another few days, a red rash appears. It usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body. Once the rash appears, the fever may get much higher. This rash fades after 4 to 7 days as symptoms subside.

The symptoms of measles may look like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

What is the treatment for measles?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

A child who doesn't have enough vitamin A may need to take extra doses of this vitamin. Vitamin A does not treat measles by itself, but it prevents the bad outcomes tied to vitamin A deficiency. It lessens the chance of serious complications and death. Since most people don't know if they are lacking in vitamin A, your child's healthcare provider will probably give your child extra vitamin A if he or she has measles. Other treatment includes:

  • Staying away from other people

  • Medicine for fever

  • Antibiotic medicine for bacterial infections that may develop. Antibiotics don't treat viral infections like measles. But they can treat a complication such as a bacterial infection

What are the complications of measles?

Most children recover with no lasting effects. But measles can lead to serious complications or even death. Complications of measles include:

How can measles be prevented?

The measles vaccine is part of the routine vaccines recommended for children. Children should be vaccinated for measles with 2 doses:

  • First dose at 12 to 15 months of age

  • Second dose at 4 to 6 years of age

For people who have not been vaccinated, getting the vaccine up to 3 days after exposure to measles may prevent the disease.

People who have had measles are immune for life. But if you work in education or health care, or are planning international travel, you may want to be vaccinated to boost your immunity.

When to call the healthcare provider

Call your child's healthcare provider right away if you suspect measles. Get emergency care if your child has:

  • A fever higher than 105°F (40.5°C)

  • Trouble breathing

  • A severe headache

  • Confusion or clumsiness 

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