Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}
Book
Call
Send
Get Help
Feed
Reviews

About

Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.It is important to us that you feel comfo......more
Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Emergency Medicine, Infectious Diseases Physician, Pediatrician.It is important to us that you feel comfortable while visiting our office. To achieve this goal, we have staffed our office with caring people who will answer your questions and help you understand your treatments.

Timings

MON-SAT
07:30 PM - 09:00 PM 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Location

Behind Radhika movieplex
ECIL Hyderabad, Telangana - 500062
Get Directions

Photos (5)

Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic Image 1
Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic Image 2
Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic Image 3
Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic Image 4
Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic Image 5

Videos (1)

Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

read more

Amenities

Reception
Parking
Online Appointments

Doctor

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician
22 Years experience
₹200 online
Available today
07:30 PM - 09:00 PM
10:00 AM - 12:00 PM
View All
View All

Specialities

Pediatrics

Pediatrics

Aim to offer the best form of childcare to infants and children up to 18 years
View All Specialities

Network Hospital

May Flower Hospital For Women And Children

Opposite Bharat Petrol Pump, SainikpuriHyderabad Get Directions
1 Doctor
1 Speciality
...more
View All

Patient Review Highlights

"Practical" 2 reviews "Very helpful" 3 reviews "Caring" 4 reviews

Reviews

Popular
All Reviews
View More
View All Reviews

Feed

Nipple Problems and Discharge

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Nipple Problems and Discharge

What are some common nipple problems?


Nipple conditions are a common benign (noncancerous) breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation. Others are not. Like all breast conditions, any nipple problems should be reported to your healthcare provider for a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

What is ectasia?

As a woman approaches menopause (around her late 40s, early 50s), the mammary ducts—located under the nipple—become dilated (widened). This normal process of dilation of the milk gland is called ectasia.

Ectasia is a benign (noncancerous) breast condition. In some cases, ectasia can lead to a blockage of the ducts. As a result, fluid may become pooled and leak into the surrounding tissue causing infection, chronic inflammation, or abscesses. If an infection (also referred to as periductal mastitis) happens, it may cause scar tissue to develop, thus drawing the nipple inward. In addition, this infection may cause breast pain and thick, sticky nipple discharge.

Treatment for ectasia

Specific treatment for ectasia will be determined by your healthcare provider based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment for ectasia generally involves treating the symptoms. This may include warm compresses and/or antibiotics. In some cases, surgery is required to remove the affected breast duct(s).

What is intraductal papilloma?

An intraductal papilloma is a small, wart-like growth that projects into the breast ducts near the nipple. This causes a bloody or sticky discharge. In addition, any slight bump or bruise near the nipple can cause the papilloma to bleed. If the discharge becomes bothersome, the duct can be surgically removed. This can often be done without changing the appearance of the breast.

While single papillomas most often affect women nearing menopause, multiple intraductal papillomas are more common in younger women. They often happen in both breasts. Multiple intraductal papillomas are more likely to be associated with a lump than with nipple discharge. Any papilloma associated with a lump is surgically removed.

What about other types of nipple discharge?

  • While nipple discharge can be alarming to many women, discharge that appears only when the nipple and breast are squeezed may not be a cause for concern. The risk of cancer when nipple discharge is the only symptom is relatively low.
  • If there is a lump with the discharge, this will be of primary concern to your healthcare provider. Keep in mind, however, that in breastfeeding women, lactational mastitis complicated by an abscess can often cause a lump beneath the areola, as well as a discharge.
  • A milky discharge from both nipples, when it is not related to breastfeeding, is called galactorrhea. This is usually due to an increase in the hormone prolactin, which produces milk. Galactorrhea may be caused by tranquilizers, marijuana, or high doses of estrogen. It is often accompanied by an absence of menstrual periods.
  • Nipple discharges that are a result of a benign breast condition may be treated by keeping the nipple clean, among other treatments. Nipple discharges that are a result of infections may require hospitalization.

How is nipple discharge diagnosed?

  • Your healthcare provider will, most likely, want to determine if the discharge is coming from 1 duct or several. Multiple duct discharge is nearly always benign and is likely due to changes like ectasia. When the discharge is coming from a single duct, this may be more significant. However, if mammography shows no abnormality, surgery may not be necessary.
  • Nipple discharge may be a variety of colors and textures. Your healthcare provider may take a sample of the discharge and have it analyzed in a lab to confirm a diagnosis.

Know About Birthmarks

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know About Birthmarks

What are birthmarks?

Birthmarks are areas of discolored and/or raised skin that are apparent at birth or within a few weeks of birth. Birthmarks are made up of malformed pigment cells or blood vessels.

Although the cause of birthmarks is not known, most of them are benign (noncancerous) and do not require treatment. Babies with birthmarks should be examined and diagnosed by a health care provider.

What are the most common types of vascular birthmarks?

The following are the most common types of vascular birthmarks:

  • Macular stains or salmon patches. These are characterized by pink to red marks that may appear anywhere on the body. Angel kisses and stork bites are the most common type of vascular birthmark:

    • Angel's kisses. Marks located on the forehead, nose, upper lip, and eyelids that usually disappear with age.

    • Stork bites. Marks on the back of the neck that usually disappear with age.

  • Hemangioma. A common vascular birthmark. Hemangiomas become visible within the first few weeks or months of life and continue to grow rapidly for about 6 to 9 months. Then, they gradually lose this red color and also shrink. They are called strawberry patch hemangiomas. By age 5, 50% resolve and 90% resolve by age 9 without any treatment. Hemangiomas that grow into other organs or structures or become ulcerated should be evaluated by your health care provider.

  • Port-wine stain (also called nevus flammeus). A port-wine stain is a flat, pink, red, or purple mark that appears at birth, often on the face, arms, and legs, and continues to grow as the child grows. Port-wine stains do not go away and often need treatment if located on the eyelid or forehead. Port-wine stains involving the face may cause eye problems and be associated with other developmental disorders.

What are the most common types of pigmented birthmarks?

The following are the most common types of pigmented birthmarks:

  • Moles (also known as congenital nevi). These can be skin-colored, brown, or black, flat or raised and small or large. They can happen anywhere on the body. Moles can also happen in adulthood, but only moles that are present at birth are considered birthmarks. Other nevi that behave like congenital nevi can appear within the first 2 years of life. Congenital nevi can develop into cancer later in life, with larger nevi having a higher risk of becoming cancerous.

  • Cafe-au-lait spots. This is French for coffee with milk. These are usually oval-shaped and light brown or black. Typically these fade with age and are not a problem. However, many of them grouped together can be a sign of other health issues and should be examined by a health care provider. 

  • Mongolian spots. These are blue or blue-gray spots on the lower back or buttocks. They are most common in babies with darker skin, like African-American or Asian babies. They can be mistaken for bruises and they usually fade with age.  

Know More About Measles

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a viral illness. It has a distinct rash and a fever. Measles is very contagious. It is usually spread through direct contact with droplets from coughs or sneezes from a person with measles. Although not as common, it can be spread by droplets in the air. The symptoms of measles happen about 8 to 12 days after coming in contact with a person with the virus.

What are the symptoms of measles?

Measles usually begin with cold like symptoms. Symptoms may include:

  • Fever

  • Runny nose

  • Inflammation and redness of covering of the eye (conjunctivitis)

  • Cough

  • Tiny white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)

Within another few days, a red rash appears. It usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body. Once the rash appears, the fever may get much higher. This rash fades after 4 to 7 days as symptoms subside.

The symptoms of measles may look like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

What is the treatment for measles?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

A child who doesn't have enough vitamin A may need to take extra doses of this vitamin. Vitamin A does not treat measles by itself, but it prevents the bad outcomes tied to vitamin A deficiency. It lessens the chance of serious complications and death. Since most people don't know if they are lacking in vitamin A, your child's healthcare provider will probably give your child extra vitamin A if he or she has measles. Other treatment includes:

  • Staying away from other people

  • Medicine for fever

  • Antibiotic medicine for bacterial infections that may develop. Antibiotics don't treat viral infections like measles. But they can treat a complication such as a bacterial infection

What are the complications of measles?

Most children recover with no lasting effects. But measles can lead to serious complications or even death. Complications of measles include:

How can measles be prevented?

The measles vaccine is part of the routine vaccines recommended for children. Children should be vaccinated for measles with 2 doses:

  • First dose at 12 to 15 months of age

  • Second dose at 4 to 6 years of age

For people who have not been vaccinated, getting the vaccine up to 3 days after exposure to measles may prevent the disease.

People who have had measles are immune for life. But if you work in education or health care, or are planning international travel, you may want to be vaccinated to boost your immunity.

When to call the healthcare provider

Call your child's healthcare provider right away if you suspect measles. Get emergency care if your child has:

  • A fever higher than 105°F (40.5°C)

  • Trouble breathing

  • A severe headache

  • Confusion or clumsiness 

Vitamin D and Calcium

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Vitamin D and Calcium

What are Vitamin D and Calcium?

Vitamin D (a hormone) and calcium (a mineral) are nutrients that sustain healthy bones. They are also needed for:

  • Muscle movement

  • Nerve communication

  • Absorption of calcium and phosphorous (vitamin D)

  • Immune system responses (vitamin D)

  • Signaling between cells (calcium)

  • Hormonal secretion (calcium)

  • Blood vessel flow (calcium)

Without enough vitamin D or calcium, your parathyroid glands compensate by producing too much of their hormone, a condition called hyperparathyroidism. That can lead to bone weakening (osteoporosis) and increased fracture risk. 
Other problems from calcium and vitamin D deficiencies include:

  • Skeletal deformities (rickets) in children ages 6-24 months

  • Muscle weakness in children and the elderly (vitamin D only)

Given the crucial role of both nutrients in bone health, The Endocrine Society and the Institute of Medicine recommend certain consumption levels based on age and health. They have not yet found, however, that taking vitamin D provides cardiovascular protection.

 

How Does Vitamin D Affect Women’s Health

 

How Much Vitamin D and Calcium Do You Need?

The Endocrine Society and The Institute of Medicine have suggested recommended daily allowances (RDA) for vitamin D and calcium, as well as maximum daily consumption amounts that you should not exceed for your safety:

 

Population

Calcium RDA (mg)

Calcium Max (mg)

Vitamin D RDA (IU)

Vitamin D Max (IU)

0-6 months

200

1,000

400

1,000

6-12 months

260

1,500

400

1,500

1-3 years

700

2,500

600

2,500

4-8 years

1,000

2,500

600

3,000

9-13 years

1,300

3,000

600

4,000

14-18 years

1,300

3,000

600

4,000

19-30 years

1,000

2,500

600

4,000

31-50 years

1,000

2,500

600

4,000

51-70 years male

1,000

2,000

600

4,000

51-70 years female

1,200

2,000

600

4,000

70+ years

1,200

2,000

800

4,000

14-18 pregnant/lactating

1,300

3,000

600

4,000

19-50 pregnant/lactating

1,000

2,500

600

4,000



The recommendations come with two precautions:

  • Some people may need more than the RDA (after talking with their doctor) if they are:

    • Obese

    • Taking anticonvulsant medications, glucocorticoids, antifungals such as ketoconazole or medications for AIDS

  • Taking too much of either nutrient appears to be harmful, with:

    • Kidney stones associated with too much calcium from supplements

    • Very high levels of vitamin D (above 10,000 IUs per day) potentially causing kidney and tissue damage

How Do You Get Vitamin D and Calcium?

Your body makes Vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sun, but several factors limit its creation:

  • Living anywhere in the country above latitude 33 degrees (the top of Louisiana)

  • Wearing sunscreen to protect against melanoma

  • Aging, which changes absorption ability

  • The amount of sun you would need to achieve normal blood vitamin D levels is probably more than is safe for your skin, so most people may need supplements to achieve a normal vitamin D level.

Either form of vitamin D (D2 or D3) benefits the body, but very few foods naturally contain the nutrient or are fortified with it. That’s why doctors recommend supplements to make up the difference. Foods containing vitamin D include:

  • Cod liver oil: 400-1,000 IU per teaspoon

  • Wild caught salmon: 600-1,000 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Farmed salmon: 100-250 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned salmon: 300-600 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned sardines: 300 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned mackerel: 250 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Canned tuna: 236 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Fresh shitake mushrooms: 100 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Sundried shitake mushrooms: 1,600 IU per 3.5 oz

  • Egg yolk: 20 IU per yolk

Milk, orange juice, infant formula, yogurt, margarine, butter, cheese and breakfast cereals are often fortified with vitamin D.


Calcium is found in:

  • Dairy products

  • Chinese cabbage

  • Kale

  • Broccoli

  • Fortified fruit juices, drinks, tofu and cereals

3 people found this helpful

Overview of Kidney Disorders!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

How do the kidneys work?

Illustration of the anatomy of the kidney

  • The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has used all the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
  • The kidneys and urinary system help to excrete the waste products and also keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Kidneys filter and remove several toxic materials from the body that are the products of food metabolism. These waste materials can cause several problems to the body if they build up. The kidneys also control the fluid and acid-base balance in the body
  • Two kidneys, a pair of purplish-brown organs, are located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to
  • Remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine
  • Keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood
  • The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. There are about one million nephrons in each kidney, located in the medulla and the cortex. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule.
  • Once the urine is formed, it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. Urine collects in the calyces and renal pelvis and moves into the ureter, where it flows down into the bladder.
  • In addition to filtering waste from the blood and assisting in the balance of fluids and other substances in the body, the kidneys perform other vital functions. The kidneys:
  • Release hormones, such as renin, that help to regulate blood pressure and heart function
  • Produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids formation of red blood cells
  • Convert vitamin D into a form that can be used by the body's tissues
  • Interact with corticosteroids (produced by the adrenal glands that sit on top of the kidney) that help to regulate kidney function and the body’s inflammatory response system

What is nephrology?

Nephrology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the kidneys, and doctors who specialize in kidney disease are called nephrologists. Other health professionals who treat kidney problems include primary care doctors, pediatricians, transplant specialists, and urologists.

What causes problems with the kidneys?

Problems with the kidneys may include conditions, such as kidney failure, kidney stones, and kidney cancer. These problems with the kidneys may be caused by the following:

  • Aging. As we age, changes in the structure of the kidneys can cause them to lose some ability to remove wastes from the blood, and the muscles in the ureters, bladder, and urethra tend to lose some of their strength. However, this alone does not cause chronic kidney diseases.
  • Illness or injury. Damage to the kidneys caused by illness or an injury can also prevent them from filtering the blood completely or block the passage of urine.
  • Toxicity. The kidneys may be damaged by substances, such as certain medications, a buildup of some substances in the body, or toxic substances such as poisons.

About kidney and urogenital diseases

Diseases of the kidney and urinary tract remain a major cause of illness and death in the United States. The National Kidney Foundation states that more than 26 million Americans are affected by kidney and urologic diseases, and millions more are at risk.

What are the symptoms of kidney disease?

The following are the most common symptoms of kidney disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

The symptoms of a kidney disease may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.

2 people found this helpful

Depression in Children!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Depression in Children!

What is Depression?

Depression can strike a child at any age. A mood disorder, depression is characterized by a persistent sad or empty feeling, irritability, and a loss of interest in everyday activities. Unlike normal sadness or grieving, most bouts of depression last for weeks, months, or even years. A smaller number of children and adolescent suffer from biploar disorder-bouts of depression interspersed with periods of elevated (manic) mood (bipolar disorder).

Although depression is usually not considered life-threatening, it can lead to thoughts of and attempts at suicide.

Symptoms

  • Persistent feelings of sadness, apathy, or hopelessness lasting more than two weeks.

  • Diminished interest in most daily activities, particularly pleasurable ones.

  • Decreased appetite and subsequent weight loss; increased appetite and weight gain.

  • Lack of sleep (insomnia), frequent awakening throughout the night, or conversely, an increased need for sleep.

  • Anxiety; diminished ability to think or concentrate.

Diagnosis

Because there are no reliable laboratory tests to diagnose depression, physical examination and psychological evaluation are essential.

  • Expression of either of the first two symptoms of depression (see Symptoms box), in conjunction with other symptoms, for a period of two or more consecutive weeks.

  • A positive family history of depression or a prior depressive episode helps establish the diagnosis.

Treatment

  • Psychotherapy is as effective as drug treatment in mild cases. Psychotherapy may also be used in conjunction with drug therapy.

  • Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are mainstays of treatment.

  • Exposure to bright light, known as light therapy, may be effective, particularly when depression is related to seasonal changes (seasonal affective disorder).

  • In secondary depression, the underlying cause is addressed, although antidepressant therapy may also be prescribed.

1 person found this helpful

Age-Appropriate Speech and Language Milestones!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

 

The ability to hear is essential for proper speech and language development. Hearing problems may be suspected in children who are not responding to sounds or who are not developing their language skills appropriately. The following are some age-related guidelines that may help to decide if your child is experiencing hearing problems.

It is important to remember that not every child is the same. Children reach milestones at different ages. Talk your child's healthcare provider if you are suspicious that your child is not developing speech and language skills correctly. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and other experts list the following age-appropriate speech and language milestones for babies and young children.

Milestones related to speech and language

Birth to 5 months

  • Coos

  • Vocalizes pleasure and displeasure sounds differently (laughs, giggles, cries, or fusses)

  • Makes noise when talked to

6 to 11 months

  • Understands "no-no"

  • Babbles (says "ba-ba-ba")

  • Says "ma-ma" or "da-da" without meaning

  • Tries to communicate by actions or gestures

  • Tries to repeat your sounds

  • Says first word

12 to 17 months

  • Answers simple questions nonverbally

  • Says 2 to 3 words to label a person or object (pronunciation may not be clear)

  • Tries to imitate simple words

  • Vocabulary of four to 6 words

18 to 23 months

  • Vocabulary of 50 words, pronunciation is often unclear

  • Asks for common foods by name

  • Makes animal sounds, such as "moo"

  • Starting to combine words, such as "more milk"

  • Begins to use pronouns, such as "mine"

  • Uses 2-word phrases

2 to 3 years

  • Knows some spatial concepts, such as "in" or "on"

  • Knows pronouns, such as "you," "me" or "her"

  • Knows descriptive words, such as "big" or "happy"

  • Uses 3-word sentences

  • Speech is becoming more accurate, but may still leave off ending sounds. Strangers may not be able to understand much of what is said.

  • Answers simple questions

  • Begins to use more pronouns, such as "you" or "I"

  • Uses question inflection to ask for something, such as "my ball?"

  • Begins to use plurals, such as "shoes" or "socks" and regular past tense verbs, such as "jumped"

3 to 4 years

  • Groups objects, such as foods or clothes

  • Identifies colors

  • Uses most speech sounds, but may distort some of the more difficult sounds, such as l, r, s, sh, ch, y, v, z, th. These sounds may not be fully mastered until age 7 or 8.

  • Uses consonants in the beginning, middle, and ends of words. Some of the more difficult consonants may be distorted, but attempts to say them

  • Strangers are able to understand much of what is said

  • Able to describe the use of objects, such as "fork" or "car"

  • Has fun with language; enjoys poems and recognizes language absurdities, such as, "Is that an elephant on your head?"

  • Expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about the world around him or her

  • Uses verbs that end in "ing," such as "walking" or "talking"

  • Answers simple questions, such as "What do you do when you are hungry?"

  • Repeats sentences

4 to 5 years

  • Understands spatial concepts, such as "behind" or "next to"

  • Understands complex questions

  • Speech is understandable, but makes mistakes pronouncing long, difficult, or complex words, such as "hippopotamus"

  • Uses some irregular past tense verbs, such as "ran" or "fell"

  • Describes how to do things, such as painting a picture

  • Lists items that belong in a category, such as animals or vehicles

  • Answers "why" questions

5 years

  • Understands time sequences (for example, what happened first, second, or third)

  • Carries out a series of 3 directions

  • Understands rhyming

  • Engages in conversation

  • Sentences can be 8 or more words in length

  • Uses compound and complex sentences

  • Describes objects

  • Uses imagination to create stories

Know More About Gout!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know More About Gout!

What is gout?

Gout is characterized by inflamed, painful joints due to the formation of crystal deposits at the joints. It also known as the disease of kings and the king of diseases because it was associated with overindulgence of rich foods and wine. In truth, anyone can get gout. Gout affects more men than women and is often associated with obesity, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high levels of lipids in the blood), and diabetes.

This condition is a form of inflammatory arthritis that results in painful attacks in the joints. It can cause swelling and redness, and in some cases, it can lead to lumpy deposits that can be seen under the skin. It can also lead to the development of kidney stones.

What causes gout?

Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposits in the joints, due to an excess of uric acid in the body. The excess of uric acid may be caused by an increase in production by the body, underelimination of the uric acid by the kidneys, or increased intake of certain foods that metabolize into uric acid in the body. Foods that are high in purines (the component of the food that metabolizes into uric acid) include certain meats, such as game meats, kidney, brains, and liver; seafood, such as anchovies, herring, scallops, sardines, and mackerel; dried beans, and dried peas. Alcoholic beverages and sugary drinks high in fructose may also increase levels of uric acid in the body. Gout attacks may be triggered by any or all of the following:

  • Consumption of alcohol

  • Consumption of protein-rich foods

  • Fatigue

  • Emotional stress

  • Minor surgery

  • Illness

What are the symptoms of gout?

 

Anatomy of the foot

 

 

Gout is characterized by sudden, recurrent attacks that often occur without warning. Severe, chronic gout may lead to deformity. The following are the most common symptoms of gout. However each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Severe, sudden pain in one or more joints (most often the joint in the big toe)

  • Swollen joint(s)

  • Red or purplish, tight, shiny skin over joint

  • Warmth in joint area

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • General feeling of illness

  • Hard lumps of urate crystal deposits under the skin (called tophi)

The symptoms of gout may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

How is gout diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and a physical examination, a diagnosis of gout may be confirmed with the examination of a fluid sample from the joint for the presence of urate crystals.

Treatment for gout

Specific treatment for gout will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies

  • Expectation for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to relieve pain and inflammation

  • Colchicine, an oral or intravenous medication to relieve pain and inflammation; may cause diarrhea and other side effects

  • Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation

  • Increasing fluid intake while avoiding alcoholic beverages

  • Reducing the intake of protein-rich foods

  • Reducing weight (if obesity is a factor)

  • Medication to lower the uric acid level in the blood

  • Medication to block production of uric acid in the body

  • Surgery to remove extremely large tophi

2 people found this helpful

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Gout

 

 

What is gout?

Gout is characterized by inflamed, painful joints due to the formation of crystal deposits at the joints. It also known as the disease of kings and the king of diseases because it was associated with overindulgence of rich foods and wine. In truth, anyone can get gout. Gout affects more men than women and is often associated with obesity, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high levels of lipids in the blood), and diabetes.

 

This condition is a form of inflammatory arthritis that results in painful attacks in the joints. It can cause swelling and redness, and in some cases, it can lead to lumpy deposits that can be seen under the skin. It can also lead to the development of kidney stones.

What causes gout?

Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposits in the joints, due to an excess of uric acid in the body. The excess of uric acid may be caused by an increase in production by the body, underelimination of the uric acid by the kidneys, or increased intake of certain foods that metabolize into uric acid in the body. Foods that are high in purines (the component of the food that metabolizes into uric acid) include certain meats, such as game meats, kidney, brains, and liver; seafood, such as anchovies, herring, scallops, sardines, and mackerel; dried beans, and dried peas. Alcoholic beverages and sugary drinks high in fructose may also increase levels of uric acid in the body. Gout attacks may be triggered by any or all of the following:

What are the symptoms of gout?

 


Gout is characterized by sudden, recurrent attacks that often occur without warning. Severe, chronic gout may lead to deformity. The following are the most common symptoms of gout. However each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Severe, sudden pain in one or more joints (most often the joint in the big toe)

  • Swollen joint(s)

  • Red or purplish, tight, shiny skin over joint

  • Warmth in joint area

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • General feeling of illness

  • Hard lumps of urate crystal deposits under the skin (called tophi)

The symptoms of gout may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

How is gout diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and a physical examination, a diagnosis of gout may be confirmed with the examination of a fluid sample from the joint for the presence of urate crystals.

Treatment for gout

Specific treatment for gout will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the condition

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies

  • Expectation for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to relieve pain and inflammation

  • Colchicine, an oral or intravenous medication to relieve pain and inflammation; may cause diarrhea and other side effects

  • Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation

  • Increasing fluid intake while avoiding alcoholic beverages

  • Reducing the intake of protein-rich foods

  • Reducing weight (if obesity is a factor)

  • Medication to lower the uric acid level in the blood

  • Medication to block production of uric acid in the body

  • Surgery to remove extremely large tophi

Know More About Hair Loss!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Know More About Hair Loss!

Facts about normal hair growth

About 90% of hair on the scalp grows continually. In fact, each hair grows for about 2 to 6 years. The other 10% of scalp hair is in a resting phase that lasts 2 to 3 months. At the end of the resting stage, this hair is shed.

Most people have around 100,000 hairs on their head, and shed 50 to 100 hairs a day. This is normal. When a hair is shed, it is replaced by a new hair from the same follicle and the growing cycle starts again. Scalp hair grows about half an inch a month.

As people age, the rate of hair growth slows.

What causes hair loss?

Hair loss is believed to be primarily caused by a combination of the following:

  • Aging

  • Change in hormones

  • Illness

  • Family history of baldness

  • Burns

  • Injury

  • Untreated ringworm of the scalp

  • Vitamin A excess

  • Protein or iron deficiency

  • Rapid weight loss

  • Certain autoimmune diseases

  • Certain cancer treatments

  • Hair pulling due to trichotillomania

However, hair loss is not caused by the following:

  • Poor circulation to the scalp

  • Dandruff

  • Excessive hat-wearing

  • Vitamin deficiencies

7 people found this helpful

Temper Tantrums

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

 

Close-up image a boy with a pouty face.

What are temper tantrums?

Temper tantrums are a way a young child lets out strong emotions before he or she is able to express them in socially acceptable ways. Although a child may seem totally out of control, these fits of rage, stomping, screaming, and throwing himself or herself to the floor are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often happen only with a parent. They are a way a child communicates his or her feelings. Parents can learn from their child by understanding the situation that caused the temper tantrum to erupt.

Temper tantrums often begin at about 1 year of age and continue until age 2 to 3. They begin to diminish as a child becomes more able to communicate his or her wants and needs.

What causes temper tantrums?

As a young child learns more and becomes more independent, he or she wants to do more than he or she can physically and emotionally manage. This is frustrating to the child and the frustrations are expressed in a variety of ways. Temper tantrums are worse and happen more often when a child is hungry, tired, or sick. Some reasons children have temper tantrums include the following:

  • Want to be on their own, and get upset when they can't do what they want

  • Are in a transition (such as from day care to home)

  • Are trying to get attention to test the rules

  • Have something taken away from them

  • Have not learned all the words to tell you what they are feeling or want and this upsets them

  • Do not understand what you want them to do

  • Are tired or hungry

  • Are worried or upset

  • Feel stress in the home

How to prevent temper tantrums

Although temper tantrums sometimes happen without warning, parents can often tell when a child is becoming upset. Knowing the situations when your child is more likely to have a tantrum and thinking ahead may help. An example is not letting your child become overtired or hungry. Some suggestions for preventing or minimizing temper tantrums include the following:

  • Stick to routines for meals and sleep times. Avoid long outings, delayed meals, and naps.

  • Distract your child with a toy he or she is allowed to have.

  • Be reasonable about what to expect from your child, and do not expect your child to be perfect.

  • Help your child to avoid frustration. Prepare your child for changes or events by talking about them before they happen.

  • Let your child know your rules and stick to them.

How to respond during a temper tantrum

The following are helpful hints regarding the most appropriate ways to respond during your child's temper tantrum:

  • Stay calm.

  • Ignore the child until he or she is calmer. Keep doing whatever you were doing before the tantrum happens.

  • Do not hit or spank your child.

  • Do not give in to the tantrum. When parents give in, children learn to use inappropriate behavior to get their way.

  • Do not bribe your child to stop the tantrum. The child then learns to act inappropriately to get a reward.

  • Remove potentially dangerous objects from your child or your child's path.

  • Use time-out for a short period to allow the child to get back in control.

What else should parents know about temper tantrums?

Temper tantrums generally happen less often as children get older. Children should play and act normally between tantrums. However, talk with your child's healthcare provider if any of the following happen:

  • Temper tantrums are severe, last long, or happen very often.

  • Your child has a lot of trouble talking and cannot let you know what he or she needs.

  • Temper tantrums continue or get worse after 3 to 4 years of age.

  • Your child has signs of illness along with temper tantrums or holds his or her breath to cause fainting.

  • Your child harms himself or herself or others during tantrums.

1 person found this helpful

Household Safety Checklist!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Household Safety Checklist!

In order to protect you and your family, a thorough safety check of every room in your home should be conducted on a regular basis. Unintentional accidents, injuries, and nontraumatic emergencies may be prevented and your family will be healthier and safer when you practice a little prevention.

The following checklist may be printed so it can be used for the inspection of your home.

Adult's bedroom:

___ Do not leave medicines, toiletries, or other household products in drawers or on night stands.

___ To avoid accidental injuries or choking, keep penknives, nail files, scissors, and pocket change out of reach.

___ Install a smoke detector in the hallway outside of the bedrooms on all levels of your home. Test monthly and replace every 10 years.

___ Make certain drapery cords and/or blind cords are well out of reach of children.

Child's bedroom:

___ Make certain the crib mattress fits snugly.

___ Crib slats should be placed no wider than 2 3/8 inches apart.

___ Make certain the crib has been put together properly and is not missing screws or bolts to prevent it from collapsing.

___ Make certain there is a carpet or rug beneath the crib or changing table to soften the impact if an infant falls.

___ Drop-side cribs, in which one or both sides drop down, are not recommended.

___ Make certain that children's toys and furniture have not been recalled. You can check at www.cpsc.gov.

___ Furniture should be attached to the walls. Then if a child climbs on it, it shouldn't fall on the child.

___ Make certain drapery cords and/or blind cords are well out of reach of children and cribs.

___ Remove all crib gyms, hanging toys, and decorations form a crib by the time a baby can raise up on hands and knees.

___ Make sure there is a safety belt on the infant changing table, and that it is used consistently and properly.

___ Make sure baby powder and lotions are out of a baby or child's reach. But, within your reach, so you do not have to leave the infant to reach these items.

___ If your child can climb out of the crib, consider a youth bed with guard rails, or place the crib mattress on the floor.

___ Never leave small parts or pieces of a toy in a child's room.

___ Make certain a night light is not near or touching drapes or the bedspread.

___ Never place a crib, playpen, or bed near a window.

___ Make certain window screens are securely in place, or that window guards are present to prevent a child from falling from a window.

___ Make certain there are plug protectors in the unused electrical outlets.

___ If there is a lid on the toy box, it should not be heavy, hinged, or lockable. Children may crawl inside and become trapped.

Bathroom:

___ Put a nonskid bathmat on the floor and a nonskid mat or decals in the bathtub.

___ Protect all electrical outlets with ground fault circuit interrupters.

___ Store medicines, cosmetics, toiletries, and cleansers well out of reach of children.

___ When children are present, put child-resistant safety latches on all cabinets storing potentially harmful substances.

___ Store electrical appliances, such as hair dryers and curling irons, out of reach.

___ Always unplug such an appliance before leaving it unattended, no matter how briefly.

___ To avoid accidental scalding, make certain to set the water heater no higher than 120°F (49°C).

___ Never leave a child or disabled person unattended in a bathtub, or in a bathroom where there is a tub, sink, or bucket containing water.

___ Keep toilet lids closed.

Kitchen:

___ Do not store vitamins (or medicines) on the kitchen table, counter top, or window sill.

___ Make certain knives, scissors, and other sharp utensils are out of reach.

___ Store dishwasher detergent and other cleaning supplies in their original containers and out of reach.

___ When children are present, install safety latches on cabinets and drawers within a child's reach.

___ Keep chairs and step stools away from counters and stoves.

___ Always turn pot handles inward when cooking on the stove. Use back burners whenever possible.

___ Keep the toaster out of the reach of toddlers.

___ Make certain appliance cords are not dangling, so they cannot be pulled from a counter.

___ Unplug appliance extension cords when not in use.

___ When children are present, use plug protectors for all unused wall outlets.

___ If a child is in a highchair, make sure it is sturdy and has a seat belt with a strap between the legs.

___ Keep a working fire extinguisher in your kitchen.

Living room:

___ Keep houseplants out of reach of children and pets. A number of plants are poisonous.

___ Make certain television sets and other heavy items are secure so they cannot be tipped over.

___ Remove unnecessary extension cords.

___ Put plug protectors in any unused electrical outlets when children are present.

___ Move tables and other objects with sharp edges away from the center of a room, especially if there are toddlers or disabled persons in the home.

___ Place protective material on sharp furniture edges.

___ Keep drapery and blind cords out of reach of children and/or disabled persons.

___ Secure area rugs to prevent falls and slips.

Outdoors:

___ Keep stairs and walkways clear of snow, wet leaves, or other debris.

___ Repair cracks or chips in cement sidewalks and stairs.

___ Make certain railings, gates, and fences are secure and in good repair.

___ Keep garbage cans covered.

___ There should be a fence with a locked gate between the house and the backyard swimming pool.

___ Garden tools and lawn equipment should be securely stored.

___ Play equipment, such as swing sets and garden furniture, should be properly anchored and assembled. Check regularly for rust, splintered wood, or cracks.

Miscellaneous:

___ If you have a fireplace, wood burning stove, or other heat source, place barriers around it to avoid accidental burns.

___ Inspect and clean chimneys and stovepipes regularly.

___ Make certain hazardous items, such as bug sprays, cleaners, auto care products, and weed killers, are secured and stored in their original containers in the garage, utility room, or basement.

___ Make certain plastic bags, broken pieces of toys, buttons, screws, and other choking or suffocation hazards are stored out of reach of children.

___ Post emergency telephone numbers near each telephone in your home.

___ When children are present, safety devices, such as gates, locks, and doorknob covers, should be in use at all stairways and exits in your home.

___ Make sure all indoor and outdoor stairways and entries are well-lighted and clear.

___ Make certain bathrooms and bedrooms can be unlocked from the outside.

___ Keep matches and lighters out of the reach of children and disabled persons.

___ A home should have two unobstructed exits, in case of fire or other emergency.

___ Check all electrical cords to make sure they are not cracked or frayed.

___ Make certain outlets or extension cords are not overloaded.

___ It is best not to use space heaters. If they are used, make sure they are in safe condition. Never plug them into an extension cord. Do not place them near drapes or furnishings.

___ Paint or wallpaper should not be chipping or peeling.

___ Keep purses, backpacks, and other portable storage bags out of a child's reach. They may contain medicines, penknives, hard candies, and other items that may harm children.

1 person found this helpful

Short Stature!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is short stature?

Short stature is a general term used to describe a condition in which a child or a teen's height is well below the average height of his or her peers. Short stature typically means that a person's height is below that of the shortest 3 percent to 5 percent of children of the same age and sex. Short stature could be idiopathic (with no known cause), an inherited trait or a symptom of one of a number of underlying disorders. Many disorders can cause short stature, including achondroplasia, hormone deficiency, delayed puberty, Cushing’s disease, malnutrition, malabsorption disorders, such as celiac disease, and others. A child must be examined by a health care provider if short stature is suspected or present. 

Symptoms

Short stature does not cause any symptoms other than the obvious finding of short height. If there is an underlying disorder present, there may be symptoms related to that condition. 

Diagnosis

A physical exam followed by measurement of height, weight, arm and leg length are the first steps to diagnosis. These will be followed by questions about family history, which will give clues to whether the short stature could be the result of an inherited condition. The child’s medical and physical history will be detailed as well. X-rays and blood tests are typically ordered to determine whether the short stature is caused by mere growth delay or a more complex condition.

Treatment

Treatment of short stature depends on the underlying cause. For example, if the cause is a chronic disease, such as diabetes or sickle cell anemia, these conditions should be treated first.

 

Know More About Scabies!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is scabies?

Scabies is an infestation of mites (tiny insects) characterized by small, red bumps and intense itching. This highly contagious infection often spreads from person to person while they are sleeping together in the same bed, or during close, personal contact. The itching is caused by the mites burrowing into the skin where they lay eggs that hatch a few days later. Scabies can affect people of all ages and social classes. It is common all over the world. Scabies happens mostly in children and young adults.

What are the symptoms of scabies?

It may take between 4 to 6 weeks for a person to develop symptoms of scabies after coming in contact with an infected person.

In children younger than 2 years of age, the lesions caused by the mites tend to happen on the head, neck, palms, and soles. In older children and adults, the lesions are usually on the hands, between the fingers, wrists, belt line, thighs, belly button, in the groin area, around the breasts, and in the armpits. The following are the most common symptoms of scabies. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Itching, usually severe

  • Rash, with small pimples or red bumps

  • Scaly or crusty skin (with advanced conditions)

The symptoms of scabies may resemble other skin conditions. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is scabies diagnosed?

In diagnosing scabies, the skin and skin crevices are examined by your healthcare provider. A sample of skin, obtained by scraping the skin, may be examined under a microscope to confirm the presence of mites.

Treatment for scabies

Specific treatment for scabies will be determined by your healthcare provider based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the infestation

  • Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the infestation

  • Your opinion or preference

Scabies is treatable and usually all members in a family are treated at the same time. Treatment may include:

  • Applications of prescription creams and lotions, such as permethrin and lindane solutions

  • An oral medicine called ivermectin may be used for severe cases 

  • Oral antihistamine medicine (to help relieve itching)

  • In some cases, other topical ointments are recommended

In addition, it is important to wash all clothes and bedding in hot water and dry in a hot dryer. Clothing and other objects that cannot be washed (for example, pillows, stuffed animals) should be placed in a plastic bag for at least 1 week. This will kill any mites on or in these objects. The itching may continue for many weeks after the initial treatment of the scabies.

Thumb Sucking

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Thumb sucking is one of the most common habits of children. The habit starts early in life, with 90% of newborns showing some form of hand sucking by 2 hours of age.

Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children and should cause no permanent problems if it is not continued past the age of 5. Likewise, it is generally harmless for infants to use pacifiers.

The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry states that most children stop thumb sucking on their own between the ages of 2 and 4. The Academy states there is no reason to be concerned until the front teeth start erupting. At this point, some problems may occur, including bite problems, or protruding front teeth. The intensity of the thumb sucking is a factor in determining if problems might develop. If your child is an aggressive thumb sucker and damage is being done to the primary (baby) teeth, see your dentist. Other problems that may occur with thumb sucking are sore thumbs, infections, and calluses on the thumb.

It is thought that pacifier use may actually be better than thumb sucking for the following reasons:

  • Pacifiers are softer and cause less damage to the teeth.

  • The plastic rim on the pacifier provides some relief of the tension placed on the teeth.

  • Pacifiers can be cleaned.

Talk to your child's healthcare provider or dentist if you are concerned with your child's thumb sucking.

Food Allergies in Children!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is food allergy in children?

A food allergy is when your child’s body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food. This is different from a food intolerance which does not affect the immune system. This is true even though some of the same signs may be present.

What causes food allergy in a child?

Your child's immune system fights off infections and other dangers to keep him or her healthy. When your child's immune system senses that a food or something in a food is  a "danger" to your child's health, your child has a food allergy reaction. Your child's immune system sends out immunoglobulin E or IgE antibodies. These react to the food or substance in the food. Histamines are released. This can cause hives, asthma, itching in the mouth, trouble breathing, stomach pains, vomiting, or diarrhea. It does not take much of the food to cause a severe reaction in highly allergic children.

Most food allergies are caused by these foods:

  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Wheat
  • Soy
  • Tree nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Fish
  • Shellfish

Eggs, milk, and peanuts are the most common causes of food allergies in children. Although most children “outgrow” their allergies, some food allergies may be life long.

Discuss your child's food allergies with his or her allergy healthcare provider.

What are the symptoms of food allergy in a child?

Allergic symptoms may begin within minutes to an hour after eating the food. Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:

Allergies to milk and soy are usually seen in infants and young children. These symptoms often are not like the symptoms of other allergies. Instead they may include:

  • Colic or fussy behavior
  • Blood in your child’s stool
  • Poor growth

It does not take much of the food to cause a very bad reaction in highly allergic children. In fact, a tiny piece of a peanut can cause a reaction in a child that is highly allergic.

The symptoms of a food, milk, or soy allergy may look like other health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Severe symptoms of a food allergy

Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction. It is life-threatening. Symptoms can include:

  • Trouble breathing, shortness of breath, or wheezing
  • Feeling as if the throat is closing
  • Hoarseness or difficulty talking
  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
  • Cool, moist, or pale blue skin
  • Feeling faint, lightheaded, or confused
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Fast and weak heartbeat
  • Feeling dizzy, with a sudden drop in blood pressure
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Seizure

Key points about food allergy in children

  • A food allergy is when your child’s body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food.

  • Most allergies are caused by milk, eggs, wheat, soy, tree nuts, peanuts, fish, and shellfish.
  • Symptoms of food allergies may include vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, hives, swelling, eczema, itching, difficulty breathing, wheezing, and lowered blood pressure.
  • Symptoms of milk or soy allergies may include colic, blood in your child’s stool, and poor growth.
  • The goal of treatment is for your child to avoid the foods that cause the symptoms.
2 people found this helpful

Failure to Thrive!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Failure to Thrive!

What is failure to thrive?

Children are diagnosed with failure to thrive when their weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below that of other children of similar age and sex. Infants or children that fail to thrive seem to be dramatically smaller or shorter than other children the same age. Teenagers may have short stature or appear to lack the usual changes that occur at puberty. However, there is a wide variation in what is considered normal growth and development.

Symptoms

In general, the rate of change in weight and height may be more important than the actual measurements.

Infants or children who fail to thrive have a height, weight and head circumference that do not match standard growth charts. The person's weight falls lower than the third percentile (as outlined in standard growth charts) or 20 percent below the ideal weight for their height. Growing may have slowed or stopped after a previously established growth curve.

The following are delayed or slow to develop:

  • Physical skills, such as rolling over, sitting, standing and walking
  • Mental and social skills
  • Secondary sexual characteristics (delayed in adolescents)

Diagnosis

  • It is important to determine whether failure to thrive results from medical problems or factors in the environment, such as abuse or neglect.
  • There are multiple medical causes of failure to thrive. These include:
  • Chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome

Defects in major organ systems

  • Problems with the endocrine system, such as thyroid hormone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency or other hormone deficiencies
  • Damage to the brain or central nervous system, which may cause feeding difficulties in an infant
  • Heart or lung problems, which can affect how oxygen and nutrients move through the body
  • Anemia or other blood disorders
  • Gastrointestinal problems that result in malabsorption or a lack of digestive enzymes
  • Long-term gastroenteritis and gastroesophageal reflux (usually temporary)
  • Cerebral palsy

Long-term (chronic) infections

  • Metabolic disorders
  • Complications of pregnancy and low birth weight
  • Other factors that may lead to failure to thrive:
  • Emotional deprivation as a result of parental withdrawal, rejection or hostility
  • Economic problems that affect nutrition, living conditions and parental attitudes
  • Exposure to infections, parasites or toxins
  • Poor eating habits, such as eating in front of the television and not having formal meal times
  • Many times the cause cannot be determined.

Treatment

  • The treatment depends on the cause of the delayed growth and development. Delayed growth due to nutritional factors can be resolved by educating the parents to provide a well-balanced diet.
  • If psychosocial factors are involved, treatment should include improving the family dynamics and living conditions. Parental attitudes and behavior may contribute to a child's problems and need to be examined. In many cases, a child may need to be hospitalized initially to focus on implementation of a comprehensive medical, behavioral and psychosocial treatment plan.
  • Do not give your child dietary supplements without consulting your physician first.

First Aid for Eyes!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
First Aid for Eyes!

To lessen the risk of permanent damage caused by eye injuries, it is important to treat eye injuries immediately. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.

First aid for cuts in or around the eye

Do's and don'ts include: 

  • Bandage the eye gently.

  • Do not rub the eye, do not rinse the eye, or apply any pressure.

  • Do not try to remove any particles.

  • Avoid taking aspirin, ibuprofen, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. They may increase bleeding.

  • Do not eat between the time of the injury and your evaluation with an eye care provider. This may delay surgical repair, if necessary. 

First aid when foreign particles enter the eye

Do's and don'ts include:

  • Pull the upper lid down onto lower lid and let lower eyelashes sweep away the particle by blinking repeatedly.

  • Let tears wash out the speck or particle.

  • Close your eye and seek medical attention immediately if the above procedure does not work.

  • Do not rub the eye.

First aid for chemical splashes

Here are suggestions of what to do: 

  • Use fingers to separates lids, then flush the eye with water from a faucet or clean container.

  • Seek medical attention immediately.

  • Cover the eye.

First aid for physical trauma to the eye

Here are suggestions of what to do: 

  • Gently apply small cold compresses without pressure immediately to reduce pain and swelling.

  • Contact your ophthalmologist, primary care healthcare provider, or emergency room immediately.

1 person found this helpful

Urinary Incontinence in Children!

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Urinary Incontinence in Children!

What is urinary incontinence (enuresis)?

Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control. In children under age 3, it’s normal to not have full bladder control. As children get older, they become more able to control their bladder. When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis. Enuresis can happen during the day or at night. Enuresis can be frustrating. But it’s important to be patient and remember that it’s not your child’s fault. A child does not have control over enuresis. And there are many ways to treat enuresis and help your child.

When is enuresis a problem?

Many children may have enuresis from time to time. It can take some children longer than others to learn to control their bladder. Girls often have bladder control before boys. Because of this, enuresis is diagnosed in girls earlier than in boys. Girls may be diagnosed as young as age 5. Boys are not diagnosed until at least age 6.

Types of enuresis

Doctors divide enuresis into 4 types. A child may have one or more of these types:

  • Diurnal (daytime) enuresis. This is wetting during the day.

  • Nocturnal (nighttime) enuresis. This means wetting during the night. It’s often called bedwetting. It’s the most common type of enuresis.

  • Primary enuresis. This occurs when a child has not fully mastered toilet training.

  • Secondary enuresis. This is when a child has a period of dryness, but then returns to having periods of wetting.

What causes enuresis?

Enuresis has many possible causes. The cause of nighttime enuresis often is not known. But some possible causes may include one or more of these factors:

  • Anxiety

  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  • Certain genes

  • Constipation that puts pressure on the bladder

  • Diabetes

  • Not enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body during sleep

  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

  • Overactive bladder

  • Slower physical development

  • Small bladder

  • Structural problems in the urinary tract

  • Trouble feeling that the bladder is full while asleep

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)

  • Very deep sleep

Daytime enuresis may be caused by:

  • Anxiety

  • Caffeine

  • Constipation that puts pressure on the bladder

  • Not going to the bathroom often enough

  • Not urinating enough when going

  • Overactive bladder

  • Small bladder

  • Structural problems in the urinary tract

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)

How is enuresis diagnosed?

Your child’s health care provider will ask about your child’s medical history. Make sure to tell the health care provider:

  • If other members of the family have had enuresis

  • How often your child urinates during the day

  • How much your child drinks in the evening

  • If your child has symptoms such as pain or burning when urinating

  • If the urine is dark or cloudy or has blood in it

  • If your child is constipated

  • If your child has had recent stress in his or her life

The health care provider may give your child a physical exam. Your child may also need tests, such as urine tests or blood tests. These are done to look for a medical problem, such as an infection or diabetes.

How is enuresis treated?

In many cases, enuresis goes away over time and does not need to be treated. If treatment is needed, many methods can help. These include:

  • Changes in fluid intake. You may be told to give your child less fluids to drink at certain times of day, or in the evening.

  • Keeping caffeine out of your child’s dietCaffeine can be found in cola and many sodas. It is also found in black teas, coffee drinks, and chocolate.

  • Night waking on a schedule. This means waking your child in the night to go urinate.

  • Bladder training. This includes exercises and urinating on a schedule.

  • Using a moisture alarm. This uses a sensor that detects wetness and sounds an alarm. Your child then gets up to use the bathroom.

  • Medications. Medicines can boost ADH levels or calm bladder muscles.

  • Counseling. Working with a counselor can help your child cope with life changes or other stress.

Work with your child’s health care provider to find out the best choices that may help your child.

Tips for managing enuresis

  • Remember, your child can’t control the problem without help. Make sure not to scold or blame. Make sure your child is not teased by family or friends.

  • Keep in mind that many children outgrow enuresis.

  • Protect your child’s mattress bed with a fitted plastic sheet.

  • Have a change of clothes on hand while out and about.

Allergens: Pollen

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Allergens: Pollen

Allergens: Pollen

  • Pollen Allergies: What You Need to Know
  • Dandelion blowing in the breeze
  • Pollen is the most common cause of allergic rhinitis.
  • Pollen is microscopic in size.
  • Pollen from trees, grasses and weeds is easily windblown and known to cause allergies.

What is pollen?

Pollen refers to the tiny egg-shaped male cells of flowering plants, including trees, grasses and weeds. Pollen is microscopic in size. It is the most common cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, sometimes known as hay fever.

Which plants produce pollen that cause allergic reactions?

 

  • Plants that have powdery granules of pollen that are easily blown by the wind include:
  • Trees, such as oak, western red cedar, elm, birch, ash, hickory, poplar, sycamore, maple, cypress, walnut, catalpa, olive and pecan
  • Grasses, such as Timothy, Johnson, Bermuda, orchard, sweet vernal, red top and some blue grasses
  • Weeds, such as ragweed, sagebrush, pigweed, tumbleweed, Russian thistle and cockle weed
  • Most flowering plants, such as roses, have heavier, waxy pollens that are not as easily windblown.

When is pollen season?

Each plant has a pollen season. It usually starts in the spring but may begin as early as January in the southern areas of the United States. The season usually lasts until November.

Man sneezing

About 45 million Americans suffer from environmental allergies. Dr. Sandra Lin, a Johns Hopkins otolaryngologist (ENT) and allergy expert, answers some of the most commonly asked questions about treating environmental allergies.

Can allergic rhinitis in pollen season be prevented?

  • To lessen the effects of allergic rhinitis during pollen season, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology suggests the following:
  • Keep windows closed at night and use air conditioning, which cleans, cools and dries the air.
  • Minimize outdoor activities early in the morning (between 5 a.m. and 10 a.m.) when pollen is most prevalent.
  • Keep car windows closed when traveling.
  • Take a vacation to an area where pollen is not as prevalent, such as the ocean.
  • Take the medications prescribed by your doctor.
  • Don't spend much time outdoors when the pollen count is high.
  • Don't rake leaves during pollen season.
  • If you are allergic to grass, wear a mask or have someone else mow the lawn.
  • Don't hang bedding or clothing outside to dry.
1 person found this helpful
View All Feed