Asked for male, 23 years old from Mumbai
Four Common Bad Breath Causes
There are many underlying causes of halitosis, but four of them are very common.
Dry mouth: Xerostomia, the medical term for dry mouth, provides a perfect environment for anaerobic bacteria reproduction. Long periods of speaking, smoking, drinking alcohol, and snoring are a few common underlying causes. Most people experience foul breath in the morning due to lack of saliva production while they sleep. For healthy individuals, food odors are temporary and normal salivary flow will eliminate them within several minutes. However, those who suffer from dry mouth and lack of saliva find that even minor food odors may lead to long-term issues.
Foods: Halitosis can be exacerbated by certain foods such as onions and garlic because they contain smelly sulfur compounds, while dairy, meat, and fish contain dense proteins which are used as a food source by the anaerobic, sulfur-producing bacteria. Refined and processed sugars also provide a food source for bacteria. Coffee and juices can contribute to this problem because they are acidic and provide these bacteria with an ideal breeding environment.
Poor dental hygiene: Inadequate oral care causes bacterial buildup on the teeth and gums. Teeth cannot shed their surfaces the way skin can, so microorganisms can easily attach to the teeth and remain there for extended periods. If they are not continuously removed by adequate brushing, these bacteria develop into something called biofilm, commonly known as dental plaque. When plaque is allowed to accumulate near the gumline, it will harden and begin destroying teeth and gum tissues due to intense bacterial activity. This leads to gum disease such as gingivitis and periodontitis, which enable proteins from bleeding gums and diseased oral tissue to fuel odor-causing bacteria. Tooth decay and poorly fitting or dirty dentures can also contribute to this problem.
Illness and disease: According to studies, an estimated 10% of all halitosis cases are caused by certain illnesses. Individuals who suffer from diabetes, lung disease, kidney disease, cancer, liver disease, respiratory tract infections, or metabolic disorders often experience chronic foul breath due to dry mouth. Sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, postnasal drip, and polyps affect the airways and may also contribute to the problem. Other common illnesses associated with bad breath include nasal odor and tonsil stones, yeast infections of the mouth, and gum disease. Certain drugs such as antidepressants, high blood pressure medications, and antihistamines can factor into dry mouth because they reduce saliva production.
For more than a century, pharmaceutical companies attempted to alleviate halitosis by using mouthwash that contained alcohol. This is the exact opposite of what should be done because alcohol is a drying agent. Clinicians have learned a good deal in the ensuing years, and in most cases, this condition can be successfully treated. Like the symptoms, treatment depends on the underlying cause.
It is important to keep in mind that you cannot eliminate the bacteria from the tongue that cause bad breath. Consequently, scraping or brushing the tongue is a temporary remedy at best, and is typically frustrating for those who believe tongue scraping or tongue brushing is a permanent solution. The bacteria that cause this are part of your normal oral flora and are essential to breaking down proteins, a key step in normal digestion.
A much simpler and clinically-proven method to treat bad breath is to interrupt the bacteria's chemical production of odors by introducing oxygenating compounds to your oral environment. Oxygen is the natural enemy of the bacteria that cause this problem because they are anaerobes and cannot function in the presence of oxygen.
In general, a dentist will recommend mouthwashes and toothpastes that contain oxygenating agents such as chlorine dioxide or sodium chlorite to neutralize volatile sulfur compounds and help control odor causing bacteria found in the mouth.
If you are experiencing mouth dryness, your dentist will recommend a saliva substitute to moisten the mouth throughout the day. Some effective, natural ingredients to look for in oral care products are zinc gluconate, aloe vera, green tea, tea tree oil, xylitol, CoQ10, glycyrrhizic acid and oral probiotics like K12 and M18.
Six Bad Breath Home Remedies
The practice of a few, simple, self-care techniques can help to minimize halitosis. There are several things you can do at home.
Advanced oral care products: Use oral care products such as mouthwashes and toothpastes that have been shown to be effective in fighting bad breath.
Proper oral care: Brush and floss your teeth at least twice a day. Be sure to get a toothbrush with soft bristles (as to not damage tooth enamel or gums) and also use fluoride toothpaste. Brushing and flossing helps to remove any food and plaque which can be used as a fuel source by the anaerobic, sulfur-producing bacteria that are at the root of this problem.
Stimulate your salivary flow: Prevent dry mouth with chewing gum, lozenges, or mints that are sugar free. Look for Xylitol, a non-sucrose sweetener, which in recent years has been shown to have anti-cavity properties.
Eat fibrous fruits and vegetables: One of the best ways to remove bacteria in the mouth is to eat an apple a day. It helps moisten the mouth, too.
Take a dietary supplement: Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin B are effective at helping your body eliminate excess mucus and toxins naturally.
Brush your teeth occasionally with baking soda: The bacteria that cause bad breath thrive in an acidic oral environment. Brushing your teeth with baking soda helps neutralize excess acids found in the oral cavity.
12 Easy Ways to Prevent Bad Breath
Please remember, preventing halitosis is always easier than treating it. By developing the right habits, you can effectively help prevent it.
Eat foods rich in fiber: High fiber foods help prevent halitosis. Avoid eating heavily processed foods that contain refined carbohydrates such as cookies, cakes, sweets and ice cream.
Use mouthwash: Some mouthwashes or oral rinses are effective at preventing bad breath. However, you should never use alcohol based mouthwashes because the alcohol makes the mouth very dry, which will actually make the problem worse.
Drink green and black teas: They contain polyphenols that help eliminate sulfur compounds and reduce oral bacteria.
Avoid drying medication: Try not to take antidepressants, diuretics, pain relievers, and antihistamines unless it is absolutely medically necessary. These drugs inhibit saliva flow and can cause chronic dry mouth.
Avoid products with sodium lauryl sulfate or alcohol: Do not use any oral hygiene products that contain sodium lauryl sulfate or alcohol because the alcohol makes the mouth very dry, one of the most common causes of bad breath.
Clean your mouth after eating meat, fish or dairy products: Practicing consistent and thorough oral hygiene is an effective prevention tool.
Stop smoking: Studies have shown that smokers are at higher risk of developing periodontal disease and dry mouth. Furthermore, people who smoke may also engage in other habits that promote this condition such as dieting, drinking alcohol, and suffering from chronic anxiety conditions that require exacerbating prescription medications.
Breathe through your nose instead of your mouth: Try to address any snoring or sleep apnea issues that could be affecting your breath and causing dry mouth.
Drink water: Keep your mouth moist by drinking plenty of water.
Clean your dentures at least once a day: Practice the same, proper oral care that you would with your original teeth.
Eliminate dairy products from your diet: Lactose intolerance can be an underlying cause of halitosis.
Use an oral probiotic like S. Salivarius K12 and M18: Use probiotics to balance the oral cavity and prevent an overgrowth of the odor-causing bacteria involved in halitosis.