Doctor in Lakhotia Medical Centre
Treatment of Thyroid Disorders
Treatment of Hypertension
Treatment of Blood Pressure Changes
Treatment of Hyperthyroidism
Management of Obesity and related Disorders
Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment
Treatment of Cushing Syndrome
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
Treatment of Multiple Endocrine Adenomas
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Patient Review Highlights
If you are experiencing pain in the muscles and joints, an enhanced craving for salt, symptoms of low glucose in the blood or low blood pressure, you could be suffering from adrenal insufficiency (AI). The outer layer or cortex of our adrenal gland produces three forms of steroid hormones. In adrenal insufficiency, the cortex fails to produce enough steroid hormones. Some people do not know that they have been affected with adrenal insufficiency until they experience a sudden worsening of symptoms. This is called an adrenal crisis.
The different types of adrenal insufficiencies occur because of different reasons. Primary AI is commonly caused by autoimmune diseases in which our body’s defence system destroys the body’s tissues. Bleeding in glands, genetic diseases and infections are other likely causes.
Secondary AI occurs because of problems with the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland produces a hormone named adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) because of which the adrenal glands produce cortisol. In the case of secondary AI, the pituitary glands stop sending ACTH to the adrenal glands, and cortisol is hence not produced. This may occur by taking certain prescribed medicines.
A patients’s medical symptoms and medical history are observed. The blood levels of cortisol, sodium, potassium and glucose are checked for the detection of AI. The adrenal glands and the pituitary gland are observed by imaging tests. X-rays, ultrasound, and CT and MRI scans may be required.
The treatment of adrenal insufficiency aims at ensuring proper levels of hormones in the body. You may require regular replacement of hormones for life. You have to take glucocorticoids for replacing the cortisol which your body does not provide anymore. Mineralocorticoids should be taken when the body does not produce aldosterone. Extra glucocorticoids may be required during times of intense stress such as a surgery or serious health conditions.
- Glucocorticoid helps the body in coping with stress, injury and illness. It helps in the regulation of blood glucose levels and blood pressure levels. It performs the function of cortisol.
- Mineralocorticoid helps in maintaining a proper balance of water and salt in our body. This is actually carried out by aldosterone.
- Adrenal androgens, which are weak male sex hormones, present in both men and women, help in the regulation of pubic and armpit hair growth in women.
If you experience any symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, it is recommended that you visit a doctor immediately. Early diagnosis will enable early treatment, which is beneficial for you.
Diabulimia is a type of eating disorder in which patients of Type 1 diabetes intake less amount of insulin purposely, in order to lose weight. This disorder, however, is not a formal diagnosis. The disorder may be defined as disturbed eating behavior.
Our body requires insulin for moving glucose from the blood to the cells. In type 1 diabetes patients, the pancreas stop producing insulin and glucose gets stored in our bloodstream. This causes extra stress on the kidney in getting rid of excess of sugar. The body gets devoid of glucose and the calories associated with it and a rapid loss in weight occurs. Patients develop binge eating, with more emphasis on sugar and carbohydrate enriched foods. The excess sugar gets out of the body by urinating.
The symptoms of this disease are:
- Occurrence of hyperglycemia
- Developing a habit of eating more, but still experiencing weight loss
- The shift in weight may be dramatic
- The energy level is low
- Eating patterns turn unusual
- Binge eating
- Developing an obsession for food
- Enhanced awareness about body image
- Feeling anxious about the weight
- A delay occurs in sexual maturity or attaining puberty
- Occurrence of stress
- Hospitalization is required frequently for diabetic patients
- Exercising amount increases
- The patient tends to hide food
- There is a smell of ketones from the breath and urine of the patient
- Frequency of urination gets enhanced
- Malnutrition occurs signalled by hair loss or drying of skin
- Diabulimia can cause a great amount of permanent effects on the body, irrespective of age.
- Patients with diabulimia have a risk of getting early comorbidities.
- Health issues similar to issues arising from diabetes are observed, but are more adverse in nature.
- Dehydration happens along with excess urination.
- The patient experiences fatigue and the level of concentration falls down.
- An electrolyte disbalance is caused.
- There may be risk of heart attack, stroke, retinopathy, neuropathy, gastroparesis.
- Vascular disorders, gum infections and infertility in women may also occur.
- In the most extreme cases, death occurs.
It has been proven by research that almost 30% of type 1 diabetes patients are the ones who abstain from or avoid using insulin in order to lose weight. This habit leads to the risk of many other fatal diseases which may be permanent in nature. Dibulimia is more common among teenage girls who suffer from type 1 diabetes and are generally obsessed with body image. Diabulimia is an eating disorder which leaves a patient at risk of acquiring many other severe diseases. It is advised not to neglect your insulin.
Cushing’s syndrome occurs due to abnormally high levels of the hormone cortisol. This can happen for a variety of reasons. The most common cause is overuse of corticosteroid medications.
Your adrenal glands produce cortisol. It helps with a number of your body’s functions, including:
regulating blood pressure and the cardiovascular system
reducing the immune system’s inflammatory response
converting carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy
balancing the effects of insulin
responding to stress
Your body may produce high levels of cortisol for a variety of reasons, including:
The most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome is the use of corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, in high doses for a long period. High doses of injectable steroids for treatment of back pain can also cause this syndrome.
Other causes include:
a pituitary gland tumor in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is also known as Cushing’s disease
an adrenal gland abnormality or tumor
Symptoms of Cushing’s Syndrome:
- weight gain
- fatty deposits, especially in the midsection, the face and between the shoulders and the upper back (causing a buffalo hump)
- purple stretch marks on the breasts, arms, abdomen, and thighs
- thinning skin that bruises easily
- skin injuries that are slow to heal
- muscle weakness
- increased thirst
- increased urination
- bone loss
- an increased incidence of infections
Women may also notice extra facial and body hair, as well as absent or irregular menstruation.
Men may also have:
Children with this condition are generally obese and have a slower rate of growth.
The first and the most important thing to be cleared is what exactly insulin is. Now we all are well accustomed with the fact that we get the energy to do what we do by eating the food we eat. So how exactly is all this energy generated? That is exactly what is going to be explained in the briefest way possible.
Most carbohydrates contain a type of sugar known as glucose. After we finish eating, the carbohydrates break down into smaller sugar molecules called glucose inside the digestive tract. Pancreas is a gland, which is located somewhere behind the stomach and is the source of all the endocrine functioning. This gland produces a hormone named Insulin. When the glucose molecules are released into our bloodstream, this insulin helps the cells throughout our body to soak up these simple sugar molecules and use them for providing the body with energy. Now that our base is clear, let’s move on to the importance of insulin in our body.
Insulin helps our body to absorb glucose and provides the body with all the energy to do what it does. Another really important task that insulin does is balance the glucose levels in our blood. As soon as there is extra glucose in our blood-stream, insulin gives a signal in which the excess glucose is stored in the liver for future use, i.e, in situations when blood sugar drops and the body needs an extra energy boost.
Occurrence of diabetes
In a certain turn of events, when the body refuses to use the insulin properly or in worse cases, the body fails to produce enough insulin, diabetes mellitus occurs. Diabetes can be of two kinds:
Type 1 - In this case, the immune system destroys all the insulin producing cells, thereby, ceasing the production of insulin. As such, insulin injections are mandatory to maintain blood sugar levels.
Type 2 - In this case, the body does not respond well to the instructions of insulin and the sugar level in the body is not regulated. The body in turn produces a lot of insulin in a desperate attempt to improve blood sugar levels. The patients can turn the situation over by changing their food habits and lifestyle and taking certain medications.
For people taking insulin treatment, it is good to note that insulin can be of rapid acting type, short-acting type, long-acting type and intermediate-acting type.