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What is the main reason of ovary egg not rupture Follicular study 12 Th day size is 20x19 20x18 mm endo size 6.9 14 day size is 24x25 24x26 mm endo size 9.8 Ovary size increase but not rupture it becomes a cyst Please reply.
Only men have prostate gland, and it surrounds that part of the tube which carries urine out of the body from the bladder. When cells in this gland start growing without any control and get clumped with each other, they form tumors. It is then the chances of prostate cancer arise in the men's body. These tumors can be malignant, and they can kill the healthy tissues of your body and spread to other body parts.
Chances of getting prostate cancer
The chances of getting prostate cancer are among men who are over 65 years of age. The ratio of getting prostate cancer is one among six men. It is more common in black men compared to white men, Hispanic men and Asian men. Moreover, when there is history of prostate cancer in your family, the chances of having prostate cancer increases. Now, let's find out the symptoms that will let you know that you may have prostate cancer.
Symptoms of prostate cancer
There are different stages of prostate cancer and depending upon the stage you can get to know various symptoms. However, the problem is that in the early stages there are no specific symptoms of prostate cancer. Certain urinary symptoms may suggest that you are suffering from prostate cancer. Such symptoms are
- Frequent urination
- Difficulty with starting urine flow
- Urination that burns
- Blood in the urine
- Weak flow, or 'dribbling'
These symptoms always do not mean that you are suffering from prostate cancer, as these symptoms may be there when your prostate gland gets enlarged. Another symptom associated with prostate cancer is pain in different parts of the body. When the cancerous cells spread they cause pain around the prostate gland. There can be pain in the hips, pelvis, and lower back or upper thighs.
Prostate gland also plays a major role in the male reproductive system. Thus, if there is any sexual dysfunction, there are chances that it may be due to prostate cancer. If you are having a problem in getting an erection or maintaining it also becomes difficult, one problem can be prostate cancer. Sometimes you may experience painful ejaculation, which also points towards chances of having prostate cancer.
Thus, if you experience any of the above mentioned symptoms, its right time to get to your physician. Remember that as there are no early symptoms, the moment you find any of these symptoms, you should consult to a doctor.
Colon cancer as indicative of the name is cancer primarily affecting the colon or the large intestine. While colon cancer is considered the third most common type of cancer affecting people worldwide, it is also one of the most preventable types of cancer, if diagnosed and treated on time.
Colon cancer does not suddenly turn malignant and life-threatening. In quite a few cases, the tumor appears benign, also known as Adenomatous Polyps. With the passage of time, the adenomatous polyps (some, if not all) progress into colon cancer. In this article, I will emphasize upon the causes and proper management of colon cancer.
What acts as the trigger for colon cancer?
Like most of the other cancer forms, the exact cause of colon cancer is hard to decipher. However, in many cases, gene mutations have been found to play a pivotal role resulting in cancer formation in the colon. The mutations, as expected, is often an inheritable trait that can be passed on to subsequent generations. The following inheritable mutations make a person as well as their immediate family more susceptible to developing colon cancer.
1. FAP or Familial Adenomatous Polyposis is characterized by the formation of many polyps within the lining of the rectum and the large intestine. These polyps though start off as a noncancerous mass of cells have the potential to develop into cancerous cells over a time period. Thus, the condition should be treated at the earliest as people (FAP left unattended) stand a near 100% risk of suffering from colon cancer before reaching 40.
2. Lynch syndrome is another inheritable medical disorder that results from the mutation in the gene that is responsible for DNA mismatch repair. With the gene unavailable for the repair, the DNA undergoes damage with deleterious consequences. Also known as Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the condition often plays a significant role in the development of colon cancer, especially in people below 50 years.
3. Further, an unhealthy diet comprising primarily of high fat and low fiber foods can wreak havoc, with colon cancer being one of the possible consequence. Increased consumption of red meat, processed meat as well as alcohol can also act as a catalyst triggering colon cancer.
4. Obese as well as diabetic patients also stand a higher risk of suffering from colon cancer.
Management and Proper Care
As per reports, colon cancer is one of the least prevented types of cancer worldwide. There can be a myriad of factors responsible for the late detection and treatment. Proper care and management can go a long way to reduce the incidence of colon cancer.
2. People above 40 years and those with a family history of colon cancer should undergo regular health checkups and screenings.
3. Keep a check on your body weight. Drinking and smoking, if at all, should be within limits.
4. Take care of the diet. Avoid eating fatty foods on a regular basis. Consume more dietary fiber.
5. Lead an active and healthy lifestyle. Be involved in any active exercise/sports or at the minimal walking.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common digestive tract problem where symptoms are produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus or beyond, into the oral cavity (including larynx). Normally a band muscle fiber at the lower end of the esophagus (Lower esophageal sphincter) prevents contents of the stomach to enter into the esophagus. If the sphincter relaxes abnormally then gastric contents easily flow back into esophagus producing symptoms.
Symptoms of GERD
Heartburn (classic symptom)
Dysphagia (In long-standing disease)
Following factors can increase risk of GERD
Presence of a hiatus hernia
Spicy and fatty food
Irregular timings and large amount of meals
Factors causing delayed gastric emptying
Associated conditions that can increase GERD
Empirical trial of acid suppression
24 Hour Esophageal pH monitoring
Lifestyle modification like weight reduction, discontinue smoking & alcohol intake, dietary changes, etc.
Pharmacological therapy – acid-suppressing medications, prokinetic drugs
Endoscopic therapy – anti-reflux mucosectomy (ARMS procedure), Stretta procedure
Surgical therapy – Fundoplication
In case you have any concern or query, you can always consult an expert and get answers to you questions.
My friend is suffering from boils like wounds in her genital place. What is the reason? She underwent some operations like gall bladder removing 3 years back, ankle fracture one year back and her leg fracture 9 months back and she had been inserted rod in her leg and recently she underwent Spinal cord surgery and she had been discharged on 19/9/16. She was having the above mentioned problem since some years and she had some medications also for that but no use. Suggest her any remedy.
A laparoscopic cholecystectomy may sound like a very complex medical procedure. Well, that should not come as a surprise because that is pretty much what it is. In any case, however, would it not be more than a little interesting to get to know more about this complex sounding procedure?
The cholecystectomy is required when there is a need to remove the gallbladder. When it comes to the surgery itself, there are two options from which a person can choose, in consultation with the doctor. There is the traditional sort and there is the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The traditional way of performing the surgery requires that there is a cut made along the right side of the person’s body, from which the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
When a person goes for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is no need for a long cut of the body or anything of that sort! In its stead, there are a few very small incisions which are made of the abdomen of the patient and even a video camera is inserted through one of these incisions!
The use that is served by the camera is that it provides the surgeon with the view required inside the abdomen to perform the surgery without having to cut open much of the abdomen. Using the tools at his or her disposal, the surgeon can perform the same operation. Now, does that sound seem to be a lot better?
One of the great advantages about the laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to an open cholecystectomy is the fact that the recovery time is so much shorter! While the open surgery takes about an hour or two for the procedure itself and generally two to three whole days after it to recover, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy means that the patient can generally go home the same day, after spending about just ten hours at the hospital! That being said, in some cases, the doctors recommend that a night is spent at the hospital so that everything is stable.
Taking this into consideration, the time it takes for a person to get back to normal and do anything and everything that he or she wants is a lot less when the surgery was of the laparoscopic variety. Care needs to be taken though, but within a week to ten days, everything should be just fine.
Pain in the gallbladder, unfortunately, affects some people, but laparoscopic is the way to go! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Surgeon.
The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.
Causes of Bladder Tumors
In most cases, the bladder tumor develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.
1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
4. Smoking: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.
Types of Bladder Tumor
Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:
1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)
The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumor bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.
From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:
1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumor.
Once the tumor is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumor. For both invasive and noninvasive tumors, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.
Hernia may be defined as the protrusion of an organ into an adjacent connective tissue or muscle. The protrusion usually occurs through a tear or a weakened area in the muscle (Fascia). The hernia may be Inguinal Hernia, Umbilical Hernia, Hiatal Hernia or Femoral Hernia. The hernia can also originate from an incision (Incisional Hernia). The Inguinal Hernia is commonly observed in males. Here, the intestine squeezes through a tear in the abdominal wall into the groin (inguinal canal). At times, the small intestine bulges through the abdominal wall (weak spot) near the bellybutton. This results in Umbilical Hernia. In Hiatal Hernia, the upper part of the stomach passes into the chest through the diaphragm. Of all the hernia types, the Inguinal Hernia is the most common.
Severe strain and muscle tear or weakness can result in hernia. Obesity, chronic constipation, chronic coughing and sneezing, ageing, damage caused by injury, medical conditions like Cystic Fibrosis, contribute to increased incidences of hernia. In case of hernia, the affected area tends to protrude or bulge out. If left untreated; hernia can prove to be detrimental. One needs to consult a physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. Physical examination can help in the diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia. An ultrasound is needed to diagnose Umbilical Hernia. A Barium X -ray or endoscopy can be of great help in the diagnosis of Hiatal Hernia.
The severity of the hernia depends upon its size. In case the hernia is rapidly increasing in size, a surgery is needed for the repair. The surgery performed can be Open or Laparoscopic. In open surgery, hernia is identified through an incision. Once located, the hernia is removed from the adjacent tissues. In Laparoscopic Repair, small incisions are made in the affected region. Through these incisions, specialized instruments are inserted. It is through these instruments that the surgeon visualizes and performs the surgery. In such repair, a mesh, held in place by sutures is used as a scaffold. This facilitates the growth of new tissues in the affected person. This technique significantly lowers the chances of a recurrence.
Certain factors needs to be well addressed before performing hernia operation:
- Hernia operations, Laparoscopic in particular, should be performed by experienced surgeons. Inexperienced surgeons will do you more harm than good.
- Laparoscopic hernia operation should be avoided in case a patient has adhesions from previous surgery.
- Extreme care should be taken while performing a hernia operation in infants and children.
- In some cases, hernia surgery might affect or injure the vas deferens in men. This in turn can affect fertility in men. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Surgeon.