Lybrate.com has top trusted Gynaecologists from across India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 42 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Gurgaon and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
Book Clinic Appointment
Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Submit a review for Dr. Urvashi RatheeYour feedback matters!
I am 48 yrs old and having heavy menstrual period. Having thick layer inside the ovary and fabroids and cyst in ovaries daughter suggested for surgary.
Hello doctor, 1 month before I got family planning surgery and now i'm alright. But I want some suggestions and precautions about this surgery. So please give some tips.
How double marker, triple marker test results are calculated? If age risk mentioned in the report is 1: 326 and the risk of the patient who is undergoing these tests during pregnancy is, say, 1: 500, this figure of 500 is calculated purely on the basis of patient's blood or on the bases of both, patient's blood as well as her age?
How to maintain hemoglobin level naturally, after having heavy flow during periods. And how to maintain calcium intake after 30's for strong bones.
I had ultrasound yesterday at 7 weeks 4 days but there is empty sac with no fetal pole. And usg age was 6 weeks 4 days. Impression was missed miscarriage. Is there any hope? Dr. Told me to wait for more 10 days.
Sir, Me and my wife want to sex with another person is it safe for her to do as she was very curious to know about..
There are women who feel their looks are spoilt because of the presence of excessive body hair. While hair on women's body is common, excessive body hair isn't a normal condition and must be taken seriously. Women are generally unaware that the condition is known as Hirsutism.
What is Hirsutism?
Hirsutism can be defined as growth of excessive facial and body hair in women. With the world obsessed with flawless skin, such changes from feminine hair pattern (soft, fine, vellus hair) to masculine hair pattern (hard, dark, terminal hair) in a woman is generally unwelcoming and, hence, very distressing for the woman.
Why do some women develop Hirsutism?
In order to understand the reasons for such excessive growth in some women, it is important to understand the differences in the physiology of men and women. The male or female appearance of one's body is dependent on a delicate balance between male and female sex hormones. There is a predominance of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body, whereas androgens (testosterone) are the predominant sex hormones among men. However, some amount of androgens is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands (located next to kidneys) in women also. But, an excessive production of these hormones results in Hirsutism. Hormonal imbalance is by far the most common cause of Hirsutism.
Causes of Hirsutism
The common causes of hirsutism include:
1. Endocrine causes
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS is a condition of hormonal imbalance in the body, which can result in an irregular menstrual cycle, enlarged ovaries with a cystic appearance on USG, infertility, obesity and hirsutism. For more information on the causes and management of PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome).
- Cushing's syndrome - Excessive production of hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands can lead to symptoms such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, skin discoloration, muscle weakness, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism etc. This syndrome is known as Cushing's syndrome.
- Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a condition of excessive production of hormones Androgens and Cortisol by the adrenal glands and generally manifests in childhood in the form of virilization. In such cases, CAH can present with symptoms such as ambiguous genitals, obesity, hypertension etc. However, sometimes the manifestation of CAH is deferred to early adulthood and results in milder symptoms, hirsutism being one of them.
2. Tumors - Tumors in ovary or adrenal glands can again cause hirsutism due to excessive production of androgens
- Long term steroid consumption (commonly used for immunosuppression, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis)
- Performance enhancing drugs (often used by athletes)
4. Idiopathic - The woman may be having hirsutism despite normal hormone levels
There are essentially two lines of treatment for hirsutism - one is medical management and the other is a cosmetic treatment.
Medical treatments for hirsutism -
1. Birth control pills - It's possible to reduce the severity and intensity of hair growth using birth control pills- the most commonly prescribed medical intervention! The birth control pills help by decreasing the production of androgens by ovaries. Besides this, estrogen present in the pills also helps the liver to produce more of sex hormone binding protein- these proteins bind to circulating androgens, thereby reducing their action on the body. Both these actions help in reducing the growth of hair on the body.
2. Anti-androgen medications - There are three categories of anti-androgen medications, which are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism.
- Spironolactone - Spironolactone is a diuretic medicine, which blocks the effects of androgens on the hair follicles, thus controlling hair growth.
- Finasteride - Finasteride works by blocking the conversion of body testosterone into its more potent chemical entity, thereby limiting the effect of testosterone on hair growth.
- Flutamide - Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen, which blocks the actions of androgens and helps in controlling the hair growth.
However, we have to ensure that the woman is not pregnant when taking any of these three medications. These medicines are often combined with oral contraceptives, which also have a synergistic effect in reducing the severity of hirsutism. One should also seek an expert opinion before starting these medications as there can be serious side effects, especially on liver.
3. Steroids - Low dose dexamethasone can be used to control the overactive adrenal glands when used carefully. However, long-term steroid therapy has got its own side effects and this therapy should only be considered under expert care and guidance.
4. Insulin sensitizing medicines - Medicines such as Metformin and Pioglitazone (Basically these are anti-diabetic medications) help in reducing insulin resistance in the body, which, in turn, helps in controlling the effects of excessive circulating androgens.
Cosmetic treatment for hirsutism -
One very important aspect of cosmetic management of hirsutism is self-care. This can include shaving, waxing, use of depilators and bleaching creams. All these measures help to reduce the amount of visible hair in undesired parts of the body. But, this needs to be done very frequently for a sustained visible effect.
Permanent hair removal is also possible using electrolysis or LASER treatment. In electrolysis treatment, electric current is passed into the hair follicle using a needle, which damages the root of the hair permanently. Similarly, LASER treatment uses LASER to destroy the hair follicle. Both these are effective methods to get rid of the undesired hair. However, we do not yet know if there are any long-term complications or side effects of these methods and these methods are not yet approved by the US FDA. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
Did you know that you spend 1/3rd of your life sleeping? Sleep allows your body to repair and detoxify itself after a hard day’s work. When you’re sleeping, a plethora of activities take place in your body, which are essential for your physical, emotional and mental well-being. Read on to find out what happens to your different body parts after you’ve drifted off…
Even though activity in the brain’s cortex (the outer part of the brain) falls by about 40% in the first few stages of sleep, your brain still continues to remain extremely active; especially in the final stage. During the REM phase your brain activity increases with your blood flow rising considerably in those areas of the brain that are responsible for processing emotional experiences and memories.
Like the brain, even the eyes are active when you’re asleep and the movement of your eyes is indicative of the different stages of sleep. REM (rapid eye movement) sleep denotes deep sleep and occurs in the first 90 minutes of falling asleep (which is dreamless sleep). On the other hand, NREM sleep (non-rapid eye movement) is when you’re dreaming and your sleep quality is rather poor in comparison. This takes place during the later part of your sleep.
Your immune system is also hard at work during sleep. It increases the production of certain kinds of proteins that help the body to fight against infections. Poor sleep can cause the body’s immune system to weaken, making you vulnerable to chronic infections.
During sleep, your body’s temperature goes down as there’s a slowing down of the body’s metabolic rate, leading to burning of fewer calories. Additionally, a low body temperature is essential for allowing your body to rest and repair.
During the day, your skin experiences sun damage and is in the continuous process of shedding away dead skin cells. To repair the damage caused by external factors as well as loss through shedding, is why the metabolic rate of your skin is at its peak when you’re sleeping. It is at this time when your cells witness increased production and a reduced breakdown of protein, which helps in repairing your skin and keeping it young and healthy.
The mouth is also a place of decreased activity when you sleep. When you sleep, your saliva production sees a drop, leading to the common morning condition of a dry mouth. During the day this is not so as saliva is constantly produced to keep your mouth hydrated.
During sleep your body changes its position about 35 times, but despite the changes, the muscles of the body are always in a relaxed state. This enables the tissues to restore and repair themselves.
Since your body’s requirement for energy is low during sleep time, the pace of activity in the digestive system notices a slowdown. The body’s inactive state prevents stomach acids and enzymes from turning the food into energy.
While hormone levels of corticosteroids (stress hormone) and adrenaline fall during sleep, there’s an increase in your body’s production of the growth hormone (which promotes the maintenance, growth and repair of your bones and muscles). The hormone melatonin, which is responsible for the sleep-wake cycle, rises during sleep as well. Additionally, sex, fertility and hair follicle stimulating hormones are secreted more during sleep.
Your heart rate decreases by 10 to 30 beats per minute when you’re asleep, which causes a decline in your blood pressure as well. Your blood is responsible for the disposal of toxins from your body. During rest, there’s a decrease in the breakdown of tissues and cells, which allows the body to repair them. Furthermore, during the state of sleep, your blood tends to flow from the brain causing your arteries to expand and your limbs to become bigger.
I have PCOD problem from last 15 yrs. Started from delay period in the age of 20. My doc suggest glycomet in liquid form as some symptom of PCOS seen in my ultrasound report. At age of 22 my first baby girl born and after 2 years my second baby boy born. All going perfectly after marriage without any medicine. But from past 7 years PCOS became PCOD. N I have put weight from 62 (constant) to 78 now. I have taken homeopathy medicine, 5 time took 6 month medicine pills also. But all in vein. After stopping medicine. Problem again happen. Now issue is what is the reason behind dis problem? How it can be cure without medicine. Is my weight will come down after taking its medicine regularly? Is glycomet safe if regular takes.
Hie, so I am really embarrassed but since I do not have anyone else to discuss this with, I trust you with your opinion. Is it possible for a girl to get pregnant if her partner was rubbing his genital to hers with an underwear separating them? There's a chance that he came in his underwear, since it was wet. Please help me find out. Also, if I am pregnant, should I use I pill?
Vagina is one of the most delicate organs of your body. While you tend to the hygiene of other body parts, caring for the vagina either doesn’t strike you or it is too taboo a thing to be discussed about. Vaginal rashes are prevalent among many women and in most cases, they are not aware of ways to approach the problem. Rashes can lead to extreme uneasiness and if neglected, could even cause complicate health disorders. Thus vaginal rashes should be treated with proper medical assistance and watchful sanitation.
Factors that can cause vaginal rashes:
1. Warts in and around a person’s genital: Warts are infections that can have a painful and disturbing effect on your health. Genital warts are the result of sexually transmitted infections. The diverse kinds of human papillomavirus are known to trigger the formation of vaginal rashes.
2. Infections caused due to the predominance of viruses: Vaginal rashes may exhibit themselves in the form of aching blisters. This symptom could be indicative of Genital Herpes that further needs medical expertise to be dealt with.
3. Folliculitis could cause suffering: The base of a hair shaft is indeed a sensitive area. Any infection pertaining to hair shafts surfacing usually in the form of a red lump can worsen to cause rashes in your genitalia.
4. A cyst in the Bartholin gland could be the reason: A Bartholin gland is one of the two glands positioned at the opening of a person’s vagina. A cyst might happen to develop in any one of these glands due to accumulation of fluids produced by the glands itself. Secondary symptoms of such a condition could be red, itchy rashes.
Symptoms that help a doctor identify the prevalence of rashes in your vagina:
1. Redness of the skin in and around one’s vagina is a characteristic feature of an underlying problem.
2. Your vagina could itch persistently preventing you from free movement. Constant itching can also hamper your otherwise smoothly functioning sex life.
3. The skin around your vagina can become excessively dry and peel off as a result.
4. Tenderness and soreness are common symptoms that make sitting or lying down troublesome.
5. Vaginal rashes may or may not be accompanied by a stinging, throbbing pain. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
I have undergone cervix stitch which was 2.2 cms total 3.0 internal Os opened funneling seen last 6 days back when I was 22 week 4 days pregnant please help me out as how shall I sit stand sleep will my pregnancy will be full term r what I'm really scared please help me out. Im completely on bed rest please me out left side belly pain near pelvic bone and vagina sharp pain.
swelling of Semen have any side effect or not. During oral sex amount of Semen goes to digestion system. Does it have side effect if using Oran sex for prolong period?
PCOS or polycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder in women, in which the female hormones, progesterone and estrogen, are imbalanced. This imbalance leads to the formation of cysts (benign masses) in the ovaries. PCOS tends to affect your heart functions, fertility, menstrual cycle and appearance.
PCOS is a complex condition because it is not entirely clear why some women have such high androgen levels. What is clear is that many women with PCOS also have issues relating to obesity, insulin resistance (a condition where insulin is not effective in lowering blood sugars) and diabetes.
The complexity of PCOS is compounded by the fact that some women with PCOS do not have visible cysts on their ovaries, and some women with cysts in their ovaries do necessarily have PCOS.
How Does PCOS Affect Fertility?
If you’re living with PCOS, the excessive male hormones that your body is creating can interfere with the production of the female hormones that your body needs in order to ovulate. Because your body is not ovulating, progesterone (the hormone that causes the lining of the uterus to thicken) is not being produced. This results in an absence of periods or irregular menstruation. When there is a lack of ovulation and menstruation, conception just isn’t possible.
There are certain symptoms, which can be indicative of PCOS; these symptoms tend to begin as a woman's menstrual cycle starts. In certain cases, however, PCOS may also affect a woman in her mid age. PCOS can also cause excessive hair growth in unwanted places like above the upper lip, chin, arms and chest like a male.
The symptoms are:
- Increase in the production of male hormone, leads to development of male characteristics
- The size of the breasts may reduce
- The tone and the texture of the voice may change and become similar to a man's voice
- Hair may start to fall
- You may suffer from acne and pimple breakouts on your face
- It can lead to sudden weight gain
- It may affect a woman's fertility
- It may lead to pain in the pelvis
Other symptoms: Apart from these symptoms, a woman may also experience other health complications such as high levels of bad cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes.
Causes: The causes of PCOS are not well known, however, the likely causes are genetics and hormonal complications. If someone in the family has PCOS, then the risk of being affected by PCOS rises significantly. The other likely cause is the overproduction of the male hormone androgen in the female body. Although androgen is a male hormone, the female body also produces it in trace amounts. However, in some cases, when it is overproduced, it might impair the ovulation process.
Diagnosis and Treatment: Once the condition is diagnosed, there are certain treatments, which are recommended for the patient. The condition in itself does not have a cure, but the symptoms can only be controlled.
There are a number of options available, depending on the main issue you are experiencing.
- Weight loss can be more difficult because of the higher levels of testosterone, but it has a very beneficial effect on balancing hormones and restoring regular periods in obese women. So exercise and a change of diet could have a significant impact.
- Insulin sensitizers, such as Metformin, reduce the impact of insulin resistance and can also assist in weight loss.
- Ovulation-inducing drugs such as Clomiphene (Serophene or Clomid) can stimulate the ovaries.
- If you do not respond to Clomiphene, injectable drugs (FSH) can be used, but these require specialist facilities and close monitoring of the response to avoid severe side effects and multiple pregnancies.
- IVF treatment may be necessary for very difficult situations.