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Endometrial Ablation Procedure
Treatment of Treatment of Breast Cancer
Management of Abortion
Hormonal Replacement Therapy Treatment
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
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The biological basis of mental illness
Mental illness is, in part, an illness of the brain. Learning about the brain can:
? give information from a biological and medical perspective (and some idea of its complexity)
? help you understand and support treatment
? assist you in dealing with the stigmas of mental illness
? support the realisation that no one is to blame for the onset of mental illness.
About brain research
A lot of what the community commonly thinks and knows about mental illness is based on previous experience and social stigma. It is often information that is out of date and leaves us with an impression of hopelessness. In fact:
? Over half of what we know about the brain in relation to mental illness we have learnt in the last 10 years. As a consequence, medications and treatments have improved significantly and people who are now being diagnosed with mental illness have a better prognosis than people diagnosed before that time.
? New imaging technology allows the brain to be examined while the person is experiencing mental illness, whereas before we relied on autopsy information.
? Research indicates that physical changes commonly occur within the brain in
? The brain pathways responsible for ?higher? mental functioning (feeling emotions, interpreting information) are affected.
? The linking of an illness to particular changes in the brain is extremely difficult. (Brain scanning techniques are used alongside assessment of behaviour and symptoms.)
? Brain research has already achieved much, and has further capacity to improve medications and other physical treatments.
What changes in the brain when mental illness is present?
Like other body parts, the brain is susceptible to injury and change.
Both the chemical messaging system and the physical structures of the brain can be
altered in mental illness.
The chemical, or neurotransmission system in the brain Neurons.The brain is made up of billions of cells called neurons. Each neuron is a link in a chain and can have thousands of connections to other neurons. These connections of neurons form chains through which messages are relayed in the brain.
The synapse is the meeting point of two neurons. A signal must be transmitted from one neuron across the synapse to the other neuron. These events occur within
? Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that conduct the messages across the
? When a signal arrives at the end of a neuron, the neurotransmitter spills into the gap and crosses the gap.
? Scientists have identified over 50 neurotransmitters that are messengers communicating information from one part of the brain to another, and to all
parts of the body.
? From this simple system, complicated brains are built. And this system seems
affected in many mental illnesses.
Neurotransmitter malfunctions can occur because there is:
? not enough neurotransmitter
? too much neurotransmitter
? malabsorption of the neurotransmitter.
Some important neurotransmitters and their roles are:
? dopamine: activation level, mood, movement Understanding the Brain and
Mental Illness continued.
? norepinephrine: mood, activation level
? serotonin: mood, sleep, appetite, aggression
? acetylcholine: mood, autonomic nervous system.
Malfunction in these neurotransmitters is found in many forms of mental illness. It is possible that, in biologically vulnerable individuals, high stress levels ?trigger? malfunctioning in neurotransmitters (e.G. Production of neurotransmitters cannot
keep up with the body?s demands or the neurotransmitters are
not effectively removed from the system).
There is evidence to strongly suggest that some brain structures are altered or damaged in mental illness. It is clear, however, that many parts of the brain are affected by mental illness, including the following:
The main purpose of the frontal lobe is control of movement
It is also thought to be responsible for behaviour, character, emotional state, short-term memory and planning.
Think of the behaviours that are often displayed when someone is psychotic. They often have poor concentration, they can be emotional or lack emotion and display odd behaviours.
Movement can also be random and disjointed.
The parietal lobe is involved in:
? long-term memory
? obtaining and retaining accurate knowledge of objects
? sensory speech (responsible for perceiving the spoken word).
When a person develops certain mental illnesses, these pathways/speech may be affected. Hence someone with schizophrenia, when psychotic, may develop a language of their own or words of their own, called neologisms. Often people?s
ability to retain information is limited.
Roles of the temporal lobe include:
? auditory (hearing), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the inner ear
? olfactory (smell), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the nose
? taste, the area that interprets nerve impulses from the tongue.
The cells in this area receive and interpret impulses from the various parts of the body, i.E. Nose, taste buds and ear. When someone is psychotic they may be hearing voices, but the parts of the ear usually involved in hearing (the anvil hammer, etc.)
are not physically moving from sound waves. However, the impulses in the brain are working and sending messages, as if the person is hearing. This also occurs in relation to smell and taste ? people may think the food is being poisoned because it
Message Occipital lobe
The occipital lobe receives impulses from the eye and interprets them as visual impressions. The eyes do not actually do the seeing ? it is the brain that receives the impulses from the eyes and interprets them. When someone experiences visual
hallucinations, the occipital lobe is seen to be very active ? impulses are interpreted and processed ? thus the person sees objects that may not be present.
Thought to influence muscle tone ? if control is inadequate, movements are uncoordinated.
Receives impulses from the body?s sensory nerves associated with pain, temperature, pressure and touch. Here crude, uncritical sensations reach consciousness (e.G. Awareness of pain but not the ability to identify the body part involved). People with schizophrenia may wear lots of clothes on hot days because
this part of their brain is affected by the illness.
Involved in the pituitary gland?s orchestration of hormone release and in the autonomic nervous system (hunger, thirst, body temperature, heart and blood vessels, and defensive reactions such as fear and rage).
? Controls and co-ordinates the movements of various muscle groups to ensure smooth, even and precise actions.
? Maintains balance and equilibrium of the body.
? Jerky, unco-ordinated movements indicate the involvement of the cerebellum in mental illness.
The limbic system
? Is more a functional than an anatomical entity.
? Involves parts of the brain essential for organising emotional responses and processing information.
? Is involved in schizophrenia, which affects the emotions of the person and their ability to process information.
Applying the knowledge ? theories about what happens in the brain relating to
schizophrenia, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder
Current research indicates the following theories about what is happening in the brain in relation to schizophrenia:
There is an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is involved in regulating thoughts and feelings, both of which are disturbed in schizophrenia. It is also thought that high dopamine levels make someone more sensitive to stress.
Research indicates that some people with schizophrenia appear to have larger ventricles. Research also indicates that some people experiencing schizophrenia seem to have a loss of tissue in the anterior hippocampus, which may account for memory problems and irrationality. Recent research carried out in Melbourne seems
to indicate some people have this tissue reduction before the onset of psychosis, which leads to the hope that results of
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used as a predictor
In depression, not enough neurotransmitter appears to be released into the gap between neurons, or too much of it is removed before it has completed its function.
When antidepressants are used, there is more neurotransmitter is available in the gap between neurons, which eases a depressed mood.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Researchers think obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may be linked to parts of the basal ganglia involved in fixed patterns of behaviour resulting in an imbalance among a variety of neurotransmitters.
One hypothesis is that the brain signals for a contaminant (like dirty hands) cause the cortex to send signals to preprogrammed cells in an area of the basal ganglia that produce the neurotransmitter serotonin, with other neurotransmitters also involved.
In short, we provide this basic information about the brain and mental illness for the following reasons:
To increase your familiarity with the terms so that when they are described by people in the treating profession, you might recognise them and be able to engage in a discussion that is fruitful for you.
For you to understand more about some of the behaviours associated with mental illness and their origins.
Because our experience is that many families when they first come into contact with mental illness believe that it is due solely to a negative psychological experience early in life (that the family may have caused). More information about the biological origins of mental illness gives you an opportunity to revisit these ideas. Mental Illness Fellowship Victoria - for people with mental illness, their families and friends
Hello, my wife is not interested in sex after marriage. My wife is reluctant to have oral sex with me.
Me and my wife had unprotected sex before 23 days. Her last monthly period was on 3rd of month april, now she had missed her period and we have found that she is pregnant in pregnancy detection kit. We no need children for about 2 years and my wife is shy to visit hospital. So please suggest me any good oral pill to vanish pregnancy.
Air purifiers DO NOT reduce the exposure to secondhand smoke. Best is not to allow smoking in your vicinity on the occasion of World No Tobacco Day.
Various devices are available for air cleaning, ranging from systems that are incorporated into the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to simple table top devices and "smokeless ashtrays.
But cleaning air of second hand smoke poses a technical challenge because of the tobacco smoke as well as gases and particles that are included in second hand smoke.
Air cleaning devices typically include filters or electrostatic precipitators to remove particles. Some devices, also include a sorbent, such as activated charcoal, to remove gases. For second hand smoke both elements are needed.
For any air cleaning device to be effective, it must be able to clean a sufficient volume of air in relation to the total volume of the space where it is operating. Few devices are able to clean sufficient volumes of air to be effective in managing smoking indoors.
Small devices, like smokeless ashtrays and many table-top units, offer completely inadequate cleaning capacity.
5 great tips for getting rid of winter phlegm
We all hate having snotty noses, sore throats, and winter bugs that inevitably get into our systems, as the weather turns colder, but have you ever considered that there might be easy ways to clear up all the phlegm that’s obstructing your airways and making life uncomfortable? worry no more – here are five solutions for you to get rid of any offending mucus build-up in your airways as soon as possible:
1. Spice up your diet
Adding spices to your diet doesn’t only boost your immune system – it also helps your body with clearing out all the nasty stuff, not least any congestion in your nasal passages in your lungs. Add small amounts of garlic, oregano, turmeric, onions, and ginger, to your regular diet. Seeing as christmas is just around the corner, you can also try spicing some apple sauce with cloves, nutmeg or cinnamon.
All the foods i’ve just mentioned contain strong antibacterial properties, which help keep the winter bugs well away. If you have children, you might want to consider temporarily cutting out dairy from their diet and giving them multivitamins or immune boosters for a few days until the phlegm clears up.
2. Sleep well
Note that a blocked nose is always much worse at night-time, making it difficult to breathe and causing you to snore. Consider a saline spray and/or nose aspirators in order to keep your airways clear of phlegm. Another soothing way of clearing your airways is to inhale steam from a bowl of boiling water. You could even add a warm bath at the end of the day to your routine if you find that you’re consistently congested.
3. Get loads of fresh air
The colder air of the winter months tends to make all of us spend a lot more time indoors, but the reality is that for the sake of our health, we still need to ensure we get enough fresh air. Regardless of how cold it is outside, you’ll be fine if you wrap up in suitably warm clothing. In fact, taking a brisk walk is one of the best ways of drying out mucus and phlegm.
Fresh air opens up your lungs and increases blood flow, and this means that any bugs lurking in your system can be flushed out much more quickly than if you were to spend nine hours a day indoors.
4. Keep your bowels moving!
Many people don’t actually realize this, but constipation can hinder your immune function, thus leaving you more susceptible to illness. The usual cause of a sluggish digestive system is food stagnating in the intestines, which in turn can lead to toxic build-up, poor elimination and increased mucus formation.
These symptoms can be alleviated by drinking more water and eating foods which contain plenty of natural fiber, such as seasonal greens and fresh fruit.
5. Make your own phlegm-busting cordial
1. Place a few sprigs of thyme in a teapot.
2. Add a pint of boiling water.
3. Throw in a few sticks of cinnamon bark and several slices of freshly-chopped ginger.
4. Leave to infuse for about 10-15 minutes.
5. Once the water has cooled, strain and mix with a jar of good-quality honey.
6. Add roughly half a bag of brown sugar.
7. Heat the mixture in a saucepan until it begins to thicken.
8. Leave the resulting syrup to cool and store in the refrigerator.
Take a teaspoon of this syrup every morning, or add it to warm water infused with lemon juice for a delicious bedtime drink.
Infertility is a medical condition in which the patient fails to conceive after one year of having unprotected sex. It is advisable that women who are above 35 years of age and often experience irregular menstrual cycles should consult a doctor on being unable to conceive within six months.
Is infertility a common issue?
Infertility has become a common problem for the new age women. Sedentary lifestyle and stress are believed to hamper the fertility of women nowadays. According to a report, about 6 percent women in US in the age group 15-44 years are infertile.
Infertility: It’s not just a woman’s problem
Infertility is not an issue with only women. Both, men and women can be infertile or are responsible for the condition. The process of reproduction requires mutual co-operation from both sexes. Therefore, they can together contribute towards infertility as well. It is wrong to blame the woman only. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth data, it has been found that about 7.5 % men in the age group of 18-45 years (who have has sexual exposure) visited infertility clinics at least once in their lifetime. Of these men, about 18% were affected with male-related infertility issues.
Infertility in men: Men can suffer from infertility due to various factors. The infertility can be detected by analysis of the semen. A doctor can evaluate the concentration of the semen or determine the sperm count, the mobility of the sperm and its shape or morphology. These are important for fertility. Semen analysis can be hampered due to the following conditions:
1. Varioceles - The veins on the man’s testicles are unnaturally large and leads to overheating of the sperms
2. Diseases like diabetes, cystic fibrosis, trauma and infection.
3. Unhealthy lifestyle
4. Environmental toxins
Infertility in women: Women must have proper functioning of the reproductive organs to become fertile. The fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus must be physically and physiologically fit for getting pregnant. A woman may get infertile due to following reasons:
1. Irregular periods that suggests the woman is not ovulating properly.
2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
3. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) or excessive physical or emotional stress causing missed periods
4. Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) or inability of the ovary to produce sufficient eggs
5. Premature ovarian insufficiency: The ovary stops functioning properly before 40 years of age
6. Blocked, swollen or open fallopian tubes
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
I am 23 weeks and 4 days pregnant. My USG reports are all normal and baby measurements are also as per the time frame. Though I can't still distinguish the kicks, roll ups etc, I can feel the baby movement as well. However I don't have any baby bump. I'm still my normal self. How is that possible? When will I show up? Also, I have to travel almost 32 km each side to and from my office. The road conditions is not so good like rest of the part of Kolkata. Can this harmful movement everyday affect the baby? When would it be ideal to the break from office?
I am not having periods for the last two months please suggest me any medicine I am obese having hormonal problem and my age is 18.
Hi, I am 27 weeks pregnant just wanted to know if tetanus injections important during pregnancy, I haven't taken any yet.
I am 18 years old and from last 15 days my mensuration cycle going on I don't know what to do? please help.
21st june is my 1st day of my last periods date, on 25th june over my periods, then on 5th july I start intercourse with my partner then on 7th july ,9th july ,11th july 15th july .SO MY QUESTION IS THIS .IS I AM present. I AM PLANNING FOR BABY.
<br> <br> Hello everyone. I am worried if I am pregnant or not. Its something like this: Me and my boyfriend played with each other' s lower parts (8 days ago) I touched his penis and he touched and rubbed her clit. After a while, I think I made him ejaculate. He had a little splash of semen/precum on his finger and palm, but he wiped it off on his pants. He then went back to touching my clitoris with the same hand. Later on after around 10 mins he tried to put his finger inside me but I was not ready. So he did' t finger me on the inside though. As I am still a virgin, and I do not want my hymen to break. He only touched me on the outside. So, I was wondering, what are the chances of me getting pregnant? I am worried at this thought and I cannot sleep because of it. Please help me ease the worry and thank you.
My wife whan givens feed to my baby boy he is just 8 months old a lot of pain is come left breast ,pl sugest
Homeopathy is a slow form of treatment, but is has negligible side effects. This makes it safer to self medicate with light doses of homeopathy than an antibiotic. Homeopathy can be used for first aid, to fight common infections and as general constitutional remedies.
Here are a few common homeopathic medicines you should keep at home.
- Nux Vomica: Nux vomica can be safely used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, a loss of appetite, depression and migranes. The ideal dosage for nux vomica depends on the age of the patient, their overall health and several other conditions. Nux vomica can also be used to cure a hangover.
- Aconite: When taken at the onset of a cold, aconite can stop the virus from progressing further. Aconite can also be used for joint pain, gout, inflammations and to speed up the healing of wounds. Apart from the pill form, aconite can also be used as a cream.
- Arnica: If you have kids at home, arnica is a must have. It is the most common homeopathic remedy for bruising, accidents, injuries and shocks. It can also be used to treat arthritis and the pain that follows dental work and jet lag. Arnica can also be used to promote hair growth. Depending on its use, arnica can be used in the form of pills, cream or oils.
- Cantharis: Cantharis is an ointment that should be kept in every kitchen. It is the most effective anti inflammatory cream to treat burns of any kind. When a burn is treated with cantharis, it leaves minimal scars. It can also be used to treat urinary tract infections. Cantharis is usually used as a cream.
- Magnesia phosphoric: This is a must have for women. It can be used to treat any form of cramps including menstrual cramps. It can also be used to treat tiredness, headaches, nerve pain, insomnia and to help a person relax. Magnesia phosphoric is usually prescribed in the form of homeopathic pills.
- Rhus tox: Rhus tox is a common homeopathic remedy for muscle sprains and bruising. It is also beneficial for people suffering from back aches, arthritis, sciatica and body aches associated with the flu. Rhus tox is usually found in the form of homeopathic pills.
One should not do any type of self medication, however, you should check with your homeopathic practitioner about the dosage and frequency of consumption. Do not take it for granted that homeopathy has no side effects and take a more intense dose than required. Also store these medicines properly. Ideally, homeopathic medicine should be stored in a cool place without direct exposure to sunlight or extreme heat or cold.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a specilized homeopathy and ask a free question.