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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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My delivery was on 13th august. I have swelling in muscles of legs in my pregnancy period. I have still such pain in my legs. Is this curable? How can reduce it?
Hello mam am name is vinkey.I am 32years old girl.i have been getting not regular periods .I got my after 2 month and 3month. I hope it normally and i am not full bleeding yet.so plz can help me .dr
How many days does withdrawal bleeding happens after taking emergency contraceptive. If more than 10 days then what is cure? And is it safe to get intimate during that with protection?
Spinal Stenosis is basically the narrowing of the spaces in the spine that further causes pressure on the spinal cord as well as nerves. It has been observed that nearly 75% of cases, mainly occur in the low back that requires lumbar spine treatment. The type of spinal stenosis treatments received for this problem may vary, as it totally depends on the location of the stenosis and the severity of your signs as well as symptoms.
Here are some treatments offered by a spine specialist:
Sometimes, medications are prescribed by spine physicians to control the pain associated with spinal stenosis. Some of the common medicines prescribed are mentioned below.
• NSAIDs (Onsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that help to ease the pain and reduce the inflammation. These mainly include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen (Aleve), that are easily available without prescription.
• Muscle relaxants help to calm the muscle spasms that occasionally occur and these medicines includes cyclobenzaprine (Amrix, Fexmid).
• Antidepressants like amitriptyline are recommended to be given as tricyclic nightly doses to ease chronic the pain.
• Anti-seizure drugs are commonly used to reduce pain caused by damaged nerves and these medicines include names like gabapentin (Neurontin, Gralise, Horizant) and pregabalin (Lyrica).
People suffering from stenosis tend to become less active to reduce the pain caused by physical activities. This further leads to weakness in the muscles that is even more painful. Therefore a physiotherapist teaches some exercises to build up the strength, maintain stability as well as flexibility in the spine and improvement in maintaining balance.
3. Steroid injections
Because of this ailment nerve roots become a little irritated the spots that are pinched gets swollen. Thus injecting corticosteroid around that constriction that reduces the inflammation and gives relief to the pressure. Theses injections sometimes don't work for everyone and if they are repetitive, they can cause weakness in the nearby bones as well as the connective tissue. Therefore, only a few injections per year are suggested.
Surgery is considered, only if the other treatments don't work or a patient is disabled by its symptoms. The main aim of a surgery is to relieve the pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots which is done by creating more space within the spinal canal. The main examples of surgeries suggested includes Laminectomy, Laminotomy and Laminoplasty.
In most cases, these space-creating operations help in the reduction of the symptoms of spinal stenosis. But sometimes the symptoms do not fully disappear or even get worse after surgery. Surgery even includes some risks like infections, blood clot in a leg vein, neurological deterioration or even a tear in the membrane that covers the spinal cord.
We had unprotected sex on 25th march afternoon. I'm not sure that I ejaculate into her vagina or not but for the safety purposes she had taken ipill after 8-10 hours of intercourse. Now its 5th day after taking ipill she still fells weakness n little bit of stomach pain again and again after an interval of time. What to do now?
I am 50 years and have unbearable pain in vagina during sex with my husband. What is problem. I am not getting periods from last one year.
Halitosis, commonly known as bad breath, is an embarrassing health condition that affects approximately 30% of people around the world. Additional medical terms for this condition include stomatodysodia, fetor oris, and ozostomia. Regardless of the term used, this is the presence of a foul-smelling odor that seems to come from the mouth cavity. According to the Academy of General Dentistry, in more than 90% of cases, the odor originates in the mouth, throat, and tonsils. Although this is something everyone experiences at one time or another, if your case does not improve after brushing, flossing, and rinsing the mouth with an alcohol free mouthwash, it may be chronic.
The foul oral odor is usually caused by a group of anaerobic, sulfur-producing bacteria that breed beneath the surface of the tongue and often in the throat and tonsil area. The term "anaerobic" literally means living without oxygen, and in fact, these bacteria do not require oxygen to live. They occur naturally in the oral environment and are essential because they assist in digestion by breaking down proteins into amino acids. Proteins are commonly found in food, mucus or phlegm, blood, and in diseased oral tissue.
As these bacteria feast on proteins in your mouth, sulfur compounds are released from the back of your tongue and throat. The bacteria excrete waste as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and other odorous and bad tasting compounds known as volatile sulfur compounds. As long as the anaerobic bacteria feed on proteins and excrete volatile sulfur compounds unchecked, your breath will become worse and worse.
Four Common Bad Breath Causes
There are many underlying causes of halitosis, but four of them are very common.
1. Dry mouth: Xerostomia, the medical term for dry mouth, provides a perfect environment for anaerobic bacteria reproduction. Long periods of speaking, smoking, drinking alcohol, and snoring are a few common underlying causes. Most people experience foul breath in the morning due to lack of saliva production while they sleep. For healthy individuals, food odors are temporary and normal salivary flow will eliminate them within several minutes. However, those who suffer from dry mouth and lack of saliva find that even minor food odors may lead to long-term issues.
2. Foods: Halitosis can be exacerbated by certain foods such as onions and garlic because they contain smelly sulfur compounds, while dairy, meat, and fish contain dense proteins which are used as a food source by the anaerobic, sulfur-producing bacteria. Refined and processed sugars also provide a food source for bacteria. Coffee and juices can contribute to this problem because they are acidic and provide these bacteria with an ideal breeding environment.
3. Poor dental hygiene: Inadequate oral care causes bacterial buildup on the teeth and gums. Teeth cannot shed their surfaces the way skin can, so microorganisms can easily attach to the teeth and remain there for extended periods. If they are not continuously removed by adequate brushing, these bacteria develop into something called biofilm, commonly known as dental plaque. When plaque is allowed to accumulate near the gumline, it will harden and begin destroying teeth and gum tissues due to intense bacterial activity. This leads to gum disease such as gingivitis and periodontitis, which enable proteins from bleeding gums and diseased oral tissue to fuel odor-causing bacteria. Tooth decay and poorly fitting or dirty dentures can also contribute to this problem.
4. Illness and disease: According to studies, an estimated 10% of all halitosis cases are caused by certain illnesses. Individuals who suffer from diabetes, lung disease, kidney disease, cancer, liver disease, respiratory tract infections, or metabolic disorders often experience chronic foul breath due to dry mouth. Sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, postnasal drip, and polyps affect the airways and may also contribute to the problem. Other common illnesses associated with bad breath include nasal odor and tonsil stones, yeast infections of the mouth, and gum disease. Certain drugs such as antidepressants, high blood pressure medications, and antihistamines can factor into dry mouth because they reduce saliva production.
Please Note: Halitosis is rarely associated with life-threatening diseases. However, it is important that you consult your doctor or dentist as soon as you notice consistent white spots on the tonsils and sores in the mouth with or without a fever. Sometimes bad breath is triggered by severe health conditions such as throat or mouth cancers, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, digestive system disorders, or diabetes – and further, can indicate dehydration or zinc deficiency. Taking proper care of your teeth and visiting the dentist at least twice a year are the easiest ways to avoid these issues.
Offensive breath tells us that something is out of balance. In fact, anthropologists have reported that once humans started to kiss each other, the ability to smell one another's breath became a very important way to test a partner's compatibility. If the other person didn't pass the smell test, they were not able to get to the next step towards securing a mate.
Halitosis is a medical condition that lowers self-esteem and affects everyday life and personal relationships. People with chronic or recurring bad breath often lose their self-confidence. It can be difficult to know if you have this problem, because it is often challenging to pick up on one's own scent. Furthermore, family members and colleagues may not feel comfortable telling you. One of the best ways to find out if you have foul breath is to lick the inside of your wrist, wait five seconds, and then take a whiff.
Most symptoms of halitosis depend on the underlying cause. The most common symptoms include postnasal drip, a bitter metallic taste, a white coating on the tongue, and thick saliva. Many individuals who have foul breath associated with dry mouth can experience difficulty speaking or swallowing, a burning sensation in the mouth, or dry eyes. Fever, sore throat, persistent cough, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck indicate respiratory tract infections, which can also be a contributing factor.
Getting a Proper Diagnosis
The best way to truly identify the source of chronic halitosis is to visit a dentist or doctor for a professional diagnosis. When you are ready to tackle this situation, be sure to be open and honest with the healthcare professional performing the examination. It is important for him or her to understand all the health problems you are experiencing in order to determine the underlying cause and recommend appropriate treatment.
The Halimeter (also known as a portable sulfide gas monitor) is the most commonly used clinical diagnostic instrument utilized in this field. It measures the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in parts per billion (ppb) in mouth air. The Halimeter uses a patented electrochemical voltammetric sensor, which has provided reproducible results to clinicians for the past 20 years.
Getting Proper Treatment
For more than a century, pharmaceutical companies attempted to alleviate halitosis by using mouthwash that contained alcohol. This is the exact opposite of what should be done because alcohol is a drying agent. Clinicians have learned a good deal in the ensuing years, and in most cases, this condition can be successfully treated. Like the symptoms, treatment depends on the underlying cause.
It is important to keep in mind that you cannot eliminate the bacteria from the tongue that cause bad breath. Consequently, scraping or brushing the tongue is a temporary remedy at best, and is typically frustrating for those who believe tongue scraping or tongue brushing is a permanent solution. The bacteria that cause this are part of your normal oral flora and are essential to breaking down proteins, a key step in normal digestion.
A much simpler and clinically-proven method to treat bad breath is to interrupt the bacteria's chemical production of odors by introducing oxygenating compounds to your oral environment. Oxygen is the natural enemy of the bacteria that cause this problem because they are anaerobes and cannot function in the presence of oxygen.
In general, a dentist will recommend mouthwashes and toothpastes that contain oxygenating agents such as chlorine dioxide or sodium chlorite to neutralize volatile sulfur compounds and help control odor causing bacteria found in the mouth.
If you are experiencing mouth dryness, your dentist will recommend a saliva substitute to moisten the mouth throughout the day. Some effective, natural ingredients to look for in oral care products are zinc gluconate, aloe vera, green tea, tea tree oil, xylitol, CoQ10, glycyrrhizic acid and oral probiotics like K12 and M18.
Six Bad Breath Home Remedies
The practice of a few, simple, self-care techniques can help to minimize halitosis. There are several things you can do at home.
- Advanced oral care products: Use oral care products such as mouthwashes and toothpastes that have been shown to be effective in fighting bad breath.
- Proper oral care: Brush and floss your teeth at least twice a day. Be sure to get a toothbrush with soft bristles (as to not damage tooth enamel or gums) and also use fluoride toothpaste. Brushing and flossing helps to remove any food and plaque which can be used as a fuel source by the anaerobic, sulfur-producing bacteria that are at the root of this problem.
- Stimulate your salivary flow: Prevent dry mouth with chewing gum, lozenges, or mints that are sugar free. Look for Xylitol, a non-sucrose sweetener, which in recent years has been shown to have anti-cavity properties.
- Eat fibrous fruits and vegetables: One of the best ways to remove bacteria in the mouth is to eat an apple a day. It helps moisten the mouth, too.
- Take a dietary supplement: Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin B are effective at helping your body eliminate excess mucus and toxins naturally.
- Brush your teeth occasionally with baking soda: The bacteria that cause bad breath thrive in an acidic oral environment. Brushing your teeth with baking soda helps neutralize excess acids found in the oral cavity.
12 Easy Ways to Prevent Bad Breath
Please remember, preventing halitosis is always easier than treating it. By developing the right habits, you can effectively help prevent it.
- Eat foods rich in fiber: High fiber foods help prevent halitosis. Avoid eating heavily processed foods that contain refined carbohydrates such as cookies, cakes, sweets and ice cream.
- Use mouthwash: Some mouthwashes or oral rinses are effective at preventing bad breath. However, you should never use alcohol based mouthwashes because the alcohol makes the mouth very dry, which will actually make the problem worse.
- Drink green and black teas: They contain polyphenols that help eliminate sulfur compounds and reduce oral bacteria.
- Avoid drying medication: Try not to take antidepressants, diuretics, pain relievers, and antihistamines unless it is absolutely medically necessary. These drugs inhibit saliva flow and can cause chronic dry mouth.
- Avoid products with sodium lauryl sulfate or alcohol: Do not use any oral hygiene products that contain sodium lauryl sulfate or alcohol because the alcohol makes the mouth very dry, one of the most common causes of bad breath.
- Clean your mouth after eating meat, fish or dairy products: Practicing consistent and thorough oral hygiene is an effective prevention tool.
- Stop smoking: Studies have shown that smokers are at higher risk of developing periodontal disease and dry mouth. Furthermore, people who smoke may also engage in other habits that promote this condition such as dieting, drinking alcohol, and suffering from chronic anxiety conditions that require exacerbating prescription medications.
- Breathe through your nose instead of your mouth: Try to address any snoring or sleep apnea issues that could be affecting your breath and causing dry mouth.
- Drink water: Keep your mouth moist by drinking plenty of water.
- Clean your dentures at least once a day: Practice the same, proper oral care that you would with your original teeth.
- Eliminate dairy products from your diet: Lactose intolerance can be an underlying cause of halitosis.
- Use an oral probiotic like S. salivarius K12 and M18: Use probiotics to balance the oral cavity and prevent an overgrowth of the odor-causing bacteria involved in halitosis.
When cells of tissues that are usually found lining the inside cavity of the uterus, start growing outside the organ, for eg over the ovaries/ fallopian tubes/ urinary bladder etc. it is called endometriosis. Painful periods, pain during sex, pain while urinating or bowel movements, heavy bleeding, fatigue, infertility, diarrhea, bloating and nausea are some of the symptoms of endometriosis.
Treating endometriosis usually depends on the following factors
- Severity of symptoms
- Severity of the disease
- Future plans for children
Depending on these the doctor might opt for any of the following treatments
- Medication for Pain: If the symptoms are mild, then the doctor will prescribe some pain killers like Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy is effective, but once you stop them, your symptoms may come back. Some of the hormone therapies include:
- Hormonal Contraceptives: Birth control pills, vaginal rings and patches are useful in controlling the hormones that are responsible for tissue build-up outside the uterine cavity.
- Medroxyprogesterone: This drug stops menstruation, which in turn stops the tissue build-up and put an end to all the symptoms. But on the other hand, gaining weight, low bone production and depression are some of the common effects of this drug.
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) antagonists and agonists: Hormones that stimulate ovaries are blocked by these. They bring down oestrogen levels and hence prevent menstruation.
- Danazol: This drug prevents menstruation and symptoms of endometriosis by blocking the hormones that stimulate the ovaries. However, Danazol may not be a favourable option because of its side effects. The drug should be avoided during pregnancy.
- Conservative Surgery: If you are trying to get pregnant, but you already suffer from endometriosis, then removing endometriosis surgically is a viable solution. Your uterus and ovaries will be preserved, which might increase your chances of becoming pregnant. Even suffering from severe pain might find relief from conservative surgery.
- Hysterectomy: In extreme cases, the only way to deal with the symptoms is to completely remove the uterus, ovaries and cervix. Since a hysterectomy means you cannot have children, it is kept as the last option for women in their reproductive age. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.