Doctor in Khushansh Clinic
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Gunjan Goyal to be very helpful. Thank u doctor.. I will if again it is negative then what should I do? On 19 April it will be 1 week then I can do right.
Doctor was very experienced and helpful. It was a very pleasant experience for us
Got the best treatment
C-section or Caesarean section is a surgery performed to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out from the abdomen through an incision in the abdominal wall. This surgery is performed when there is some sort of physical difficulty in natural childbirth through the vagina. Other reasons for performing a C-section are when the mother is carrying more than one baby, or the health of the baby is in danger. It could also be because of an undesirable fetal position, or when the mother is physically unable to push the baby out of the uterus.
Procedure followed in C- Section
The procedure is most often done when the mother is in her senses and awake. However, epidural or spinal anaesthesia is provided to numb the body from chest to the feet, before the surgery is performed.
An incision is made on the lower abdomen, above the pubic area. A cut is made through the uterus and amniotic sac. The baby is pulled out from this opening. The umbilical cord is cut and cleaned. The fluids are cleaned from the baby’s mouth and nose. The infant’s breathing rate, heart rate and other vitals are kept under observation.
Recovery from a C-section can take several weeks. The stitch wounds need to heal, including the recovery of pelvic muscles. It is important to walk around and do some very light exercises to boost the healing procedure. Doctors may prescribe painkillers in some cases and advice on effective post-operative care. Though the surgical procedure is quite safe now, with the use of highly advanced technology, there are risks that cannot be entirely ignored.
Risks associated with C-section
Infections: Any surgery has some risk of infection associated to it. In the case of a C-section, an infection can occur around the site of incision that may rapidly spread in the uterine wall and other internal pelvic organs.
Haemorrhage: Blood refuses to clot and dangerously high quantity of blood is lost in the process. In such a case, it requires immediate transfusion and intensive care.
Injuries: The mother or the baby, both have a risk of getting injured during the surgery. Although these are rare, but the infant may suffer nicks and cuts while being manually pulled out from the womb. Other organs of the mother located near the pelvis may suffer minor or major wounds.
After the C-section, the mother and child will be retained in the hospital for 2 to 3 days, under intense care and constant monitoring. It is important to exercise and take the medications as advised by the physician to prevent any complication. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Surgery on the spine is typically performed as an open surgery. This implies that the surgery is performed by making a large incision that allows the surgeon to do the surgery while seeing the spine. However, advancements in medicine have helped surgeons operate on the spine through minimally invasive surgical techniques. This type of surgery involves making a few small incisions instead of a large incision through which the surgeon inserts specially designed instruments to operate on the spine.
Minimally invasive surgery has a number of benefits. Primary amongst these benefits is shortened recovery time. Faster healing is also associated with lesser pain. It also causes less muscle damage. Since the incisions are smaller than normal, they heal faster than a large incision. Smaller incisions also reduce the risk of infections.
There are many different types of minimally invasive surgical techniques. A minimally invasive surgery may be used to treat issues such as spinal fusion and lumbar decompression. These are typically performed only when medication and other forms of non-invasive therapy such as physical therapy have been unsuccessful. Surgery is also advised only when the surgeon can pinpoint the exact cause of the issue.
Like open surgery, minimally invasive procedures on the spine are also performed while the patient is under general anesthesia. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure involves the use of a tubular retractor. This creates a tunnel from the incision site to the part of the spine to be operated on by pushing the muscles around instead of cutting them. The surgeon can then use the retractor to access the spine with the use of special instruments. Any bone shrapnel or disk material that must be removed can also be taken out through the retractor. Similarly, any rods or screws that need to be inserted into the spine can also be transported through the retractor. Surgeons may also use an endoscope to access the problem area in the spine.
As with any other surgical procedure, there are a few risks associated with minimally invasive surgery. Some patients may experience slight bleeding after the procedure and pain at the bone graft site. The surgery may also cause an infection which can be treated with antibiotics. Blood clots are a rare complication associated with such surgeries. If they travel up to the lungs, it could be significantly dangerous. In rare cases, the blood vessels or nerves around the surgery site can also be damaged during the surgery. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
After carrying the baby for nine months and delivering it, the next big step for the mother is to learn to breastfeed. For a woman who has had her first delivery, this could be a thing that can scare her and put her at discomfort. In addition, some mothers can also experience physical pain, which is even more worrisome.
In the initial stages of breastfeeding, it is normal to have pain as the baby and the mother have not yet identified the correct method i.e. the mother in terms of holding the baby, while the baby in terms of latch correctly to get milk. However, in most cases, the mother detaches and repositions the baby. This often helps in relieving the pain and after some repetition of this exercise, both the mother and the baby would know the correct position.
Let down reflex, also called milk ejection reflex, is set off by hormone oxitocin which is released whenever your baby feeds, it stimulates muscle cells in your breast to squeeze milk and may cause pain. Oral thrush, which is a yeast infection, in baby's mouth, can cause sore nipples and pain. The baby’s oral features like a short mouth, short tongue, small chin, high palate, etc., can lead to improper suction and cause pain. However, this pain from suctioning will disappear within a couple of days. Another cause for breast pain could be engorgement. When the breasts are engorged, due to feeding after a long break, there is too much milk, which can cause pain as soon as the baby latches on. Pressing out some milk before the baby latches on can help reduce the pain. lmproper size of bra, too tight or too loose, can be a cause of breast pain.
Nipple pain, when exposed to cold weather, is another condition. This occurs due to constricted blood vessels and is known as Raynaud’s phenomenon. If required, pain medication can be taken, but this type of pain usually subsides.
Allergies such as poison ivy and eczema can also lead to nipple soreness. Even topical issues like use of creams, soaps and deodorants can cause soreness. These require no intervention and minute changes would usually suffice. It is important to remember that any medication taken can reach the baby during the breastfeeding and unless absolutely essential, it is best to avoid any medication for the mother. If a baby is being fed well after the 6th month of life, teething begins and this can be a cause for pain during breastfeeding.
In most cases, proper breastfeeding techniques usually take care of the issue. However, if there are other issues, for instance, the child’s oral features, they may require correction as they not only need to be addressed because of this problem, but also otherwise.
Using warm moist compresses is useful in soothing the pain. Empty the breast properly after feeding the baby. Try to avoid chemicals like Linolin, hydrogel, as far as possible, if applied to cracked nipples, clean it properly before feeding the baby. Applying freshly squeezed milk from the breast is another wonderful option, given its antibacterial properties. The warmth of wet tea bags may also give a soothing effect. Remember to avoid chemicals like lanolin or hydrogel, as this pain is a temporary issue and usually disappears over a period of time. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
While some couples conceive with ease, conceiving a child can be extremely difficult for others. In cases where a woman is not able to get pregnant despite having regular intercourse in tune with her biological cycle, infertility tests may be suggested to investigate the reason behind this. In most cases, these tests are suggested if a year has gone by without intercourse resulting in a pregnancy. Women may also be said to be infertile, if they cannot carry a foetus to full term.
Infertility can affect both men and women and can be triggered by a number of different reasons. In some cases, it is treatable while in others, alternative ways of having a family may need to be discussed. Hence, it is very important to understand the different types and triggers for infertility and to undergo complete infertility investigations. Some of the common types of infertility investigations are as given below.
- Blood tests: A blood test of both partners is used to assess the general health of the couple and to identify any health factors that may be impeding fertility.
- Tests for women:
- Hysterosalpingogram: This is an X ray that can identify if a blockage or any other issue in the fallopian tubes are the cause for infertility.
- Pelvic ultrasound: This is used to have a look at the anatomy of the female reproductive system and to check for fibroids.
- Laparoscopy / hysteroscopy: This is used to get a clearer picture of the ovaries, uterus and other parts of the reproductive system.
- Tracking cycle: Ovulation and the thickness of the uterus lining may also affect infertility, This can be diagnosed by tracking and assessing the menstrual cycle.
- Tests for men
- Semen analysis:This test is used to get an idea of sperm concentration, motility and the appearance of sperm in a man’s semen. In some cases, the semen may not include any sperm cells. In such cases, a follow up investigation may be required to assess if sperm cells are being created in the testicles. This is known as testicular sperm aspiration or a testicular biopsy.
- Sperm DNA: The DNA in sperm also plays an important role in fertility. This test is used to assess the sperm DNA integrity and to see how it may affect embryo development and chances of an on-going pregnancy.
Infertility treatment depends on the cause identified by the above tests and hence it is important for both partners to undergo complete testing. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Arthritis is a common musculoskeletal condition that affects elderly men and women. Joint pain, stiffness and inflammation are the most common symptoms of this condition. This pain can get so bad as to affect your movement and leave you unable to do simple things like walking up stairs or even simply turning a doorknob.
Arthritis cannot be reversed but with medication and a few lifestyle changes, your quality of life can be improved.
- Exercise and weight loss: Though it is difficult to do, losing weight can help relieve the pain of arthritis. This takes the pressure off your joints and increases the range of possible motions. Though exercising may be the last thing you want to do, it can help increase your flexibility and help strengthen your muscles. Aerobics, stretching and strength training are ideal for arthritic patients.
- Assistive devices: Arthritis can make a person knock kneed or bow legged. Wearing unloading braces, shoe inserts or walking with a cane or shoe inserts can help redistribute your weight and take the pressure of your joints. It can also help relieve pain and prevent arthritis from worsening.
- Eating right: Some types of food can worsen arthritic symptoms. This includes processed foods like white flour and sugar, yeast, chemical additives, gluten, hydrogenated and trans fats, milk products, caffeine, alcohol and tobacco. Hence, avoid consuming these foods and instead have a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grain. You could also try alkaline foods like green leafy vegetables, wheatgrass and aloe vera.
- Massage therapy: A massage not only de-stresses the body, but can also relieve muscle and joint pain by improving blood circulation. Massages also help break up muscular waste deposits and increase the amount of oxygen circulated in the body. This helps transport nutrients to tissues and carries toxins away. Ideally, an arthritic patient should have a massage 2-3 times a week in the beginning and at least twice a month once the condition has stabilised.
- Supplements: Along with eating healthy, including a few supplements in your daily diet can also help alleviate arthritic symptoms. When it comes to rheumatic arthritis; the anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin C help fight arthritis by promoting bone and cartilage growth and reducing infection. Fish oil is rich in Omega-3 fatty acids that help reduce inflammation, Vitamin D is another supplement that helps relieve arthritic pain by helping the bones absorb calcium faster and preventing further loss of cartilage.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!