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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Clotting of blood is important for us in case of an injury or wound. It prevents the blood to ooze out of the body from any opening. Our blood releases cells called blood platelets, which initiate the process of clotting. However, the clotting of blood inside the veins is not a good thing to happen. This condition is called thrombosis. Moreover, clotting during pregnancy is a serious condition that poses threat to the health of both the mother and the child. In case of pregnant women, clotting of blood starts in the deep veins. These veins are usually the ones in the legs or the pelvic region. This condition is termed as deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
Why there is a clot during pregnancy?
Blood can clot during pregnancy due to multiple reasons. Clotting occurs to prevent too much loss of blood at the time of labour.
How will you know that it’s DVT?
DVT comes along with certain symptoms. Some of these have been listed below:
- The pregnant woman may notice tenderness or swelling in one of her legs. She might feel the pain in one of the legs.
- The skin colour of the woman starts reflecting changes. The skin might turn a little reddish.
- The patient’s skin will be warmer at the site of clot.
- The veins in the affected region might look dilated or larger in size.
What are the dangers linked to this clotting?
Whatever may be the reason, clotting during pregnancy is always attached to some dangerous consequences. If the blood clot is left unattended and untreated for long, it may have some serious consequence. The clot may start shifting from your legs to one or both of your lungs. This condition is called pulmonary embolism (PE). It is acute condition that can cause death of the patient as well. The symptoms of PE are as follows:
- The patient suffers from sudden breathlessness.
- The patient may feel that there is some tightness around the chest.
- The patient may find blood in her cough.
- The patient may show signs of collapse.
Clotting of blood can also prove detrimental to the baby’s health and growth. The blood is supplied through placenta to the baby and a clot in the mother’s vein can decrease the amount of blood supplied to the baby. Sometimes, the blood supply to placenta might be entirely snapped, leading to the death of the child inside the womb. However, blood clotting at the time of pregnancy happens to only a few women. It has been found that one or two in thousand die due to clotting of blood during pregnancy.
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Ovarian cancer takes place when the cells in either of your ovaries have an abnormal growth. The ovaries are two small organs, situated on either side of your uterus. They deliver female sex hormones and store and discharge eggs (ova) that help a woman reproduce. Ovarian cancer is a serious disease that emerges from various sorts of cells and growths inside the ovary.
Specialists do not know precisely what causes ovarian cancer. Hereditary qualities, for example and other DNA changes, are a danger element for few ladies. Around 10 out of 100 ovarian cancers are thought to be brought about by quality transformations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Women who go through changes due to these carrier genes are more at risk of contracting ovarian cancer.
The earliest symptoms of ovarian cancer are as follows
- Frequent bloating in the uterus or stomach area.
- Pain in your pelvis or belly.
- Inconvenience while eating, or feeling full quickly.
- Urinary issues, for example, a critical need to urinate or urinating more frequently than expected.
Treatment options for ovarian cancer
The decision of treatment and the long-term result for ladies who have ovarian cancer relies upon the sort and phase of cancer they are in. Your age, general wellbeing, personal satisfaction, and wish to get pregnant should be considered. The primary treatment methods for ovarian cancer are:
- Surgery to see whether you have cancer or not and to treat it. This may include taking an ultrasound and biopsies to check for the spread of cancer.
- Chemotherapy, which uses medications to kill the cancerous cells. It is suggested after surgery for most phases of ovarian cancer.
- Women who are in a more progressive stage of ovarian cancer may have a portion of their chemotherapy before surgery and whatever is left of it after surgery. This can make the surgery more secure for these women.
- Radiation treatment might be utilized to pulverize the cancer cells with the help of high-measurement X-ray beams or other high-vitality beams.
Side Effects of Treatment Methods:
Most medications for ovarian cancer cause reactions. They may vary, depending upon the kind of treatment, your age and general well-being. Reactions of surgery rely on the degree of your surgery and spread of the disease. In case your specialist removes your ovaries, you lose the capacity to bear children or get pregnant. Furthermore, in case you were all the while bleeding before your surgery, you will begin with your menopause.
Symptoms of chemotherapy may incorporate loss of appetite and weight, queasiness, fatigue, vomiting, nausea and hair loss. There is also a possibility of getting a very serious infection. One should get regular or annual check-ups done to see if there are anomalies in either parts of the bodies since natural symptoms of cancer are only visible after a certain stage. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
The inability to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex is known as infertility. It can also be referred to the biological incapability of a male to cause the conception or a woman being unable to carry the pregnancy for full term. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases while a majority of the other causes include sperm disorders.
Treatment of infertility depends on:
- Cause of Infertility
- Duration of Infertility
- Age of both partners
- Personal preferences
Causes of infertility in women include:
1. Ovulation disorders: This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to the following
- Premature ovarian failure
- PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)
- Poor egg quality
- Overactive or Underactive thyroid gland
- Chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.
2. Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus: Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to:
3. Medications: There is a possibility that treatment will cure infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy.
Treatment of infertility might involve a significant amount of psychological, physical, temporal and financial commitments.
In men, treatment is done to treat lack of healthy sperm or general sexual problems. The treatments include:
- Change in lifestyle
- Sperm retrieval
Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
- Stimulation of ovulation with fertility drugs
- Surgery to restore fertility
In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve pregnancy. It is a form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.
One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperms are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus. Some aspects involved in an IVF cycle are:
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
- Assisted hatching
- Donor eggs or sperm
- Gestational carrier
Some complications that may occur during the treatment of infertility are:
- Multiple pregnancy
- Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
During the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, 20 to 30% of women have vaginal bleeding. In about half of these women, the pregnancy ends in a miscarriage. If miscarriage does not occur immediately, problems later in the pregnancy are more likely. For example, the baby's birth weight may be low, or the baby may be born early (preterm birth), be born dead (stillbirth), or die during or shortly after birth. If bleeding is profuse, blood pressure may become dangerously low, resulting in shock.
The amount of bleeding can range from spots of blood to a massive amount. Passing large amounts of blood is always a concern, but spotting or mild bleeding may also indicate a serious disorder.
The most common cause is miscarriage. There are different degrees of miscarriage (also called spontaneous abortion). A miscarriage may be possible or certain to occur (inevitable abortion). All of the contents of the uterus may be expelled or not (incomplete abortion). The contents of the uterus may be infected before, during, or after the miscarriage (septic abortion). The fetus may die in the uterus and remain there (missed abortion). Any type of miscarriage can cause vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy.
The most dangerous cause of vaginal bleeding is rupture of an abnormally located (ectopic) pregnancy - one that is not in its usual place in the uterus. For example, one that is in a fallopian tube.
Another possibly dangerous but less common cause is rupture of a corpus luteum cyst. After an egg is released, the structure that released it (the corpus luteum) may fill with fluid or blood instead of breaking down and disappearing as it usually does. If an ectopic pregnancy or a corpus luteum cyst ruptures, bleeding may be profuse, leading to shock.
In pregnant women with vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, the following symptoms are cause for concern:
- Fainting, light-headedness, or a racing heart—symptoms that suggest very low blood pressure
- Loss of large amounts of blood or blood that contains tissue or large clots
- Severe abdominal pain that worsens when the woman moves or changes positions
- Fever, chills, and a vaginal discharge that contains pus mixed with the blood
When to see a doctor: Women with warning signs should see a doctor immediately. Women without warning signs should see a doctor within 48 to 72 hours. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition where the foetus is smaller than it should be according to its age because it is not growing at a normal rate inside the uterus. This puts the baby at risk for several dangerous conditions during pregnancy, delivery and post-birth. Some of these are low weight at birth, caesarian delivery, decreased oxygen levels, low blood sugar, low resistance power, breathing problems and low body temperature. IUGR can lead to stillbirth in extreme conditions and to long-term growth problems too. This is the main reason why prenatal birth monitoring is very important.
IUGR can occur in expecting mothers who have a problem with the placenta. We already know that placenta is the cord of life that joins the mother with the foetus. It provides oxygen and food to the developing baby inside the womb. Apart from this, IUGR can occur if the mother has:
- Heart disease
- Rubella or syphilis infections
- Kidney or lung disease
- Malnutrition or anaemia
- Twins and triplets also increase the risk for IUGR
The main symptom of IUGR is a small baby for its age in the womb. It may look small and sickly and the placenta is dry and shrivelled.
Dealing with IUGR depends on many factors. Usually, doctors go for a slew of tests to see how the infant is doing. A detailed sonogram is usually performed to look for foetal anomalies. Tests like a urine sample, ultrasound, platelet count and liver function test are also administered to the mother. The mother is put on bed rest to improve blood flow to the foetus and antenatal steroids are prescribed to promote foetal lung maturity. General management also includes treatment of maternal disease like high BP and cessation of substance abuse or alcohol.
For management of IUGR, daily blood pressure measurements, foetal movement profiles, serial ultrasound examinations are important to determine the severity and progression of IUGR. If the situation becomes critical, labour is induced and the baby is delivered by caesarian section.
IUGR can’t be cured and can only be managed so it’s best to prevent it in the first place by keeping all of your prenatal appointments. You must be aware of your baby's movements. If your baby is not moving much or stops suddenly, you should rush to your doctor. You must also not take any medicine without consulting your doctor during pregnancy. Eat healthy and rest fully to have a risk free birth and last, but not the least, stay away from drugs, alcohol and smoke, even second hand, for the health of your baby. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
The placenta is a link between you and your baby during pregnancy. It helps your baby to grow normally by providing it with food and oxygen. When the placenta is not able to do its work properly, the condition is called placental insufficiency or dysfunction.
Placental insufficiency is a serious complication of pregnancy and can happen when the placenta does not develop properly or is damaged. If this condition develops, the baby doesn’t get the nutrition and oxygen it needs to grow and can develop complications like low birth weight, premature birth, and birth defects. The mother can also develop dangerous complications if it’s left undiagnosed. Thus placental insufficiency must be diagnosed as early into the pregnancy to avoid these complications.
Causes of placental insufficiency
Actually, placental insufficiency is a blood flow disorder which happens due to a reduction in the mother’s blood supply. It can be triggered by vascular disorders, medications, lifestyle and the following:
- Chronic hypertension
- Blood clotting disorders
- Serious anemia
- Blood thinners
- Drug abuse
Other causes of placental insufficiency are cases where the placenta doesn’t attach properly to the uterine wall or if the placenta breaks away from it.
Unfortunately, there are no symptoms of this dangerous condition in the mother except that she may notice that the size of her uterus is smaller than in previous pregnancies. She may also notice that the fetus is moving less than before. As far as symptoms of placental abruption or disruption go, there may be vaginal bleeding or pre-term labour contractions. In case placental insufficiency is not diagnosed, the mother can experience a serious fatal condition called Preeclampsia, which means high BP and protein in the urine as well as disruption of the placenta and pre-term birth. The picture for the baby is pretty dim too. The earlier placental insufficiency happens, the more grave the risk for the baby. The baby can suffer from:
- Cerebral palsy and learning disabilities
- Low body temperature
- Low blood sugar
- Premature birth
- Cesarean delivery
Placental insufficiency can’t be cured, but it can be managed. Once diagnosed, it can be managed through proper prenatal care like treating maternal high blood pressure or diabetes, education on preeclampsia and ways to self-monitor for the disease, frequent doctor visits, bed rest to conserve energy for the baby and consultation with a specialist. These can improve the baby’s chances of normal growth.
Proper prenatal care of pregnant women is thus, very important as it can diagnose placental insufficiency early. A simple ultrasound can diagnose this dangerous condition by measuring the baby's size and growth, and assessing the size and placement of the placenta. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.