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Cancer or the big ‘C’ can affect any part of the body including the female reproductive system. These types of cancer are known as gynaecological cancers. Gynaecological cancers occur when normal cells start growing in an uncontrolled manner. There are many different types of gynaecological cancers which are named as per the organs in which they first develop. These include:
- Ovarian cancer: Cancer that affects the ovaries and ova
- Uterine cancer: Cancer that begins inside the uterus
- Cervical cancer: Cancer that begins in the cervix or the section of the reproductive tract between the uterus and vagina
- Vaginal cancer: Cancer that begins in the vagina
- Vulval cancer: Cancer that originates in the opening of the vagina, labia minora or labia majora, clitoris or mons pubis
- Fallopian tube cancer: Cancer that affects the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus
- Placenta cancer: Pregnancy related cancer
Gynaecological cancers are more commonly diagnosed in cases where the woman has a family history of cancer or has mutated genes. Advancing in age, exposure to hormones, and diethylstilbestrol can also increase the risk of suffering from such cancers. Additionally, viral infections such as human papilloma virus, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking have also been identified as risk factors for cancer.
However, a woman may suffer from these types of cancer even if she does not fall into any of the above risk factor categories. Hence, it becomes important to focus on the symptoms. The symptoms of gynaecological cancers depend on the organ from where the tumour originated, the size of the tumour and it’s rate of growth.
Some of the symptoms which may be noticed are:
- Abnormal bleeding from the vagina
- Bleeding after intercourse
- Unusual discharge from the vagina
- Pain or discomfort in the abdominal area
- Swelling of the abdomen
- Painful intercourse
- Itching or burning sensations in the genital area
- Lumps, warts or sores in the genital area
- Unusual bladder and bowel habits
Gynaecological cancers can be treated by using chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapies or surgery depending on the stage of the cancer and the type of cancer. Hence, the earlier it is diagnosed, the better it is. Keeping the risk factors in mind, if the above symptoms are noticed, the doctor may ask for a number of tests to diagnose gynaecological cancers.
These tests include:
- A pap smear
- Pelvic examination
- Blood tests
- CT scan, ultrasound, MRI or any other form of imaging tests
- Biopsy scan
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
My father is suffering from prostate problem, his prostate size is 48 cc, is it curable with medicine? Some body advised to do turp/hole surgery. To do this surgery urine culture should be sterile? Pls suggest me.
My mother was diagnosed with breast cancer 3 years ago, with stage1 (2.2cm). Her nodes were clean. After complete breast surgery she was given chemo. Now at the same time, there was a lump of 5 mm on lower left lung which has now grown to 1.1cm. Doctor has taken that out now. Now the histopathology of the tissue is concluded at metastatic breast cancer. My question if the old tumor was removed at a stage 1, how come it had spread to lung? Metastatic takes place in stage3 /4. Is it possible the biopsy is wrong? What should we do here?
On my left breast i am having itching problem because of it, black scar is also developed on the lower region of breast . I want to know the cause & treatment regarding it. Plz help i am scared.
I'm 39years old and have a big lump on my left breast. It is not painful at all. Please let me know if I have to get any surgery done.
I am of age 37 female. Mera Breast me funci Hona gatt hona nippal ka size barra hona gadha hona jhurli parna, Kya ya cancer ki nichani hai?
Hi I want to know the symptoms of the cancer please let me know quickly please. Am suffering from cogh from 3 months. Hey please let me know what the problem.
A breast lump is a restricted swelling, projection, lump or knot in the breast that doesn't feel like a breast tissue. There are diverse reasons why breast lumps occur.
Not all lumps are cancer. These can also be breast conditions that are not harmful and which can be easily curable.Knots that feel harder or are not the same as the rest of the breast need to be checked. This kind of irregularity might be an indication of breast cancer.
A self-examination should be your starting point. This is how you can detect a lump on your own:
Step 1: Begin by taking a look at your breast in the mirror. Keep your shoulders straight and your arms on your hips.
This is what you need to search for:
- Breasts that are their typical size, shape, and shading
- Breasts that are uniformly formed without distortion or swelling
In the event that you see any of the changes mentioned below, convey them to your doctor:
- Dimpling, puckering, or protruding of the skin
- A nipple that is not in its initial position
- Redness, rash or swelling
Step 2: Now, raise your arms and look for the changes mentioned above.
Step 3: While you're in front of the mirror, search for any indications of liquid or blood discharge from the nipples.
Step 4: Next, examine your breasts while resting.Use Your right hand to feel your left breast and use your left hand to feel your right breast. Cover the whole breast from your collarbone to the highest point of your mid-region, and from your armpit to your cleavage to search for any lumps.
Step 5:Examine your breasts while either standing or sitting. Many women find that the easiest approach to examine their breasts is when their skin is wet, so this step could be done while taking a bath as well.
- Mammogram: Mammography is a technique using X-rays to diagnose and locate tumours of the breasts.
- Breast ultrasound: Breast ultrasound utilises sound waves to create pictures of the breasts from the inside.
- Breast MRI:This involves using an effective and attractive field, and radio frequency pulses to create photos of the insides of the breasts.
- Ultrasound-guided biopsy: During this sort of biopsy, utilising ultrasound imaging to discover the bump, a radiologist will give you anesthesia and afterward insert a needle into the lump to evacuate some tissue for assessment under a magnifying lens. Stereotactic biopsy and an X-ray-guided biopsy may also be used.
- In case the knot turns out to be cancerous, surgery is typically performed.
- You may have a few discussions with different doctors for additional treatment, including radiation treatment and chemotherapy or hormone treatment.
Those who inherit damaged copy of bra 1 from parent have a greater chance of developing breast n ovarian cancer. As a faculty bra1can not repair damage DNA
Prostate Cancer is a form of cancer that affects men. The prostate is basically a small gland that sits in the male pelvic cavity and is responsible for producing seminal fluid or semen, from its position under the bladder, surrounding the urethra. The testosterone hormone controls this gland.
Prostate cancer refers to the growth of a malignant mass of cells which can also be called a tumour. More about this cancer:
- Risk Factors: The various risk factors involved in this kind of cancer are many. Advanced age, a family history of the same disease, obesity as well as genetic changes can lead to the development of this kind of tumour.
- Types: There are basically two types of prostate cancer, including fast growing or aggressive, and slow growing or non-aggressive. Yet, it is also important to remember that not every abnormal growth in this gland can be termed as a tumour, or is a sign of prostate cancer. A malignant growth signifies prostate cancer. This tumour can grow at a fast pace for aggressive prostate cancer, while it can grow and spread slowly for the non-aggressive type.
- Symptoms: It is possible to not have any kind of obvious symptoms when suffering from this kind of cancer. The symptoms usually begin to show up when the cancer has reached a more advanced stage. These include urinary problems, most significantly. The patient may go through pain and difficulty when it comes to urinating. This pain may also occur during ejaculation. The patient may also find blood discharge in the semen upon ejaculation and suffer from sexual dysfunction as well. Pain in the chest, pelvic area and back are also common symptoms of prostate cancer, which may gradually turn into numbness in the said areas as well.
- Diagnosis: The diagnosis of the issue will be done by a specialist from the urology department. After a physical examination where a diagnosis of the symptoms and other check ups will happen, the doctor may conduct lab tests to check the blood, urine and other samples. Further, imaging tests like MRI and CT scans will also be conducted. A digital rectal exam and prostate biopsy will also help in effective diagnosis.
- Treatment: The treatment of this kind of cancer usually depends on the severity of the symptoms and the spread of the tumour. Besides active observation, the doctor may also recommend radiation, chemotherapy and surgery based on the age and health condition of the patient. If you happen to find even subtle symptoms which could point towards this disease, do not hesitate to get in touch with the doctor.
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