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Blood in urine, medically known as Hematuria is not usually a cause of concern, but it can translate into an adverse condition if left unevaluated. The kidneys and other structures in the urinary tracts such as urethra (tube connecting the bladder to the outer part of the body); bladder (that stores the urine) and ureters (tube joining the bladder to the kidney) are the sources of blood flow to the urine. Hematuria can be accompanied by symptoms such as discharge of tea-colored, brownish-red or pink colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells, traces of which can only be detected under the microscope.
Blood in urine should be taken lightly especially in elderly because the commonest cause of Hematuria after 60 years is urinary bladder cancer.
Underlying causes behind this disorder might be
- Urinary tract infections is where the bacteria enter the body through the urethra and begin to proliferate in the bladder.
- Kidney infections (pyelonephritis) is when bacteria infiltrate into the kidneys from the bloodstream or travel up from the uterus to the kidneys.
- A kidney or a bladder stone is marked by the minerals in the concentrated urine precipitating out and molding into crystals that deposit on the bladder or kidney walls.
- Enlarged prostate is a condition in which the prostate gland, that is situated just below the bladder surrounding the upper part of the urethra, starts growing as males head towards their middle age.
- Kidney disease such as glomerulonephritis causes swelling of the kidneys, thus disrupting the filtering system.
- Bladder, kidney and prostate cancer are also possible causes.
- Hereditary disorders such as sickle cell anemia (a hereditary disease of the red blood cells in the hemoglobin) can also pose as a cause behind this disorder.
- Kidney injury as a result of heavy blows, accidents or injuries sustained while playing a spot can also contribute to this condition.
- Medications such as penicillin or the anti-cancer drug ‘cyclophosphamide’
- Strenuous physical exercises like intense workout or running may also result in Hematuria.
There is no fixed cure for Hematuria; instead, the doctor would work on treating the repressed conditions behind the symptoms, such as prescribing antibiotics to heal the urinary tract infection or a medicine to shrink and normalize the enlarged prostate or administer a shock wave therapy to destroy the kidney or bladder stones. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.
Kidney stones form in the kidney. If they stay in the kidney, they typically do not cause pain. When they travel out of the body through the tubes of the urinary tract,(including the ureters, which connect the kidney to the bladder, or the urethra, which leads outside the body), their movement may cause:
- No symptoms, if the stone is small enough.
- Sudden, severe pain that gets worse in waves. Stones may cause intense pain in the back, side, abdomen, groin, or genitals. People who have had kidney stones, often describe the pain as 'the worst pain i've ever had'.
- Feeling sick to the stomach (nausea) and vomiting.
- Blood in the urine (hematuria), which can occur either with stones that stay in the kidney or with those that travel through the ureters.
- Frequent and painful urination, which may occur when the stone is in the ureter or after the stone has left the bladder and is in the urethra. Painful urination may occur when a urinary tract infection is also present.