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Dr. Mukti Sethi  - Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad

Dr. Mukti Sethi

MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery

Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad

22 Years Experience  ·  500 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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Dr. Mukti Sethi MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
22 Years Experience  ·  500 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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Miscarriage: Causes and Treatment for Early Pregnancy Loss<br/><br/>Hello friends, I'm Dr. Mukti ...

Miscarriage: Causes and Treatment for Early Pregnancy Loss

Hello friends, I'm Dr. Mukti Sethi. I'm a Consultant Gyenic specializing in life expectancy and infertility. I've done my graduation from GSV Medical COllege Kanpur, and my post graduation from Aligarh Muslim University. Today, on this session I'm going to talk on the subject which is a great cause of stress and anxiety among patients who are expecting pregnancy or area pregnant, that is early pregnancy loss. So early pregnancy loss, what exactly do we mean by early pregnancy loss. Early pregnancy loss is a loss of pregnancy during the first thirteen weeks of pregnancy, that is, the first trimester of pregnancy. It is commonly mentioned as miscarriage or spontaneous abortion.

So how many pregnancies lands into a pregnancy loss or what is the incidence of pregnancy loss? Around one in every five pregnancy, which is, unfortunately, a very high incidence rate, lands in a non-developmental form or loss of a pregnancy or a miscarriage. So what are the causes of this pregnancy loss? The most common cause, around 60% of the pregnancy loss, is due to are due to random chromosomal defects are seen during the process of fertilization. What is the process of fertilization? Fertilization is when the female's ova or egg combines with the sperm to form a fetus or a zygote. During the process, the mismatch of the chromosomes results in an abnormal chromosomal formula of the fetus. So these pregnancies won't be able to grow further and nature has its own process to curtail these pregnancies or abnormal pregnancies from growing. So these pregnancies are going to land in an abortion or miscarriage or missed abortion or blighted abortion that we generally see. So a big number, that is 60% is because of these chromosomal defects which we do not have any control over.

So coming over other causes, it might be a defect in the reproductive system of the female like a defect in uterus, fibroid or septa. Then coming over to infections, yes there are a set of infections that can be a cause of these pregnancy losses or abortion, like torch infections or tuberculosis. Then coming onto the hormonal causes, we have seen so many patients coming who have a thyroid problem or are diabetic. Again coming onto patients who are suffering from PCOD. So they have high chances of having an abnormal pregnancy or unhealthy pregnancy which might result in abortion. Then there are certain medical conditions or toxins, environmental conditions which might land a patient into a pregnancy loss. Now, what can an individual or a girl who is planning to get pregnant do to reduce the risk of having an abortion? First of all, you need to maintain a healthy lifestyle and then prelating, that is before getting pregnant always see a gynecologist or a consultant. There is a set of investigations that you people should go through- your blood group, your CBC, your diabolic sugars. You should go through these tests before planning a pregnancy. Next is a healthy lifestyle, certain vitamins like folic acid are extremely important. Taking them for 3-4 months before getting pregnant might reduce the risk of getting abnormal pregnancies like deformities seen in the fetus is considerably reduced. Then yes, coming over to the lifestyle that we see today, females planning to get pregnant should stop smoking, alcohol intake should be reduced or stopped if possible.

Then there are some general questions patients do ask me that should we stop coffee. Yes, you can take coffee but try to restrict it to two cups a day. Then any food or anything which can cause abortion is more of a myth. Generally, all foods like vegetables, fruits which god has created for us is quite healthy and generally do not result in any injury to the fetus. But still certain foods like Chinese or Ajinomoto, we do ask the patient to reduce the intake for the first trimester of pregnancy. Then there can be certain girls or females that are working in an environment which can be hazardous for the growing fetus like many of our staff that are woking with X-rays or chemical setups or factories which are there, also around fumes. So you need to be a little cautious about the environment where you are working so that there is no harm in the early fetus. So yes you can take certain steps to have a healthy pregnancy.

Now how can your doctor or your gynecologist help to reduce the risks? Very thorough check up with the doctor so that she would be able to diagnose any hormonal problems or any defects in the uterus, something which she can do about and that way she will surely be able to help you out. But again coming back to the point, the majority of pregnancy loss is due to chromosomal abnormality during the process of fertilization which are not in control of the doctor or the patient. So you need to be somewhat relaxed, nature has its way , and if there is something or some abnormality in the foetus then nature will not allow it to grow. But yes there are other causes in which you can or your doctor can help you out so that you have a healthy pregnancy. Now, how to know that you might be heading towards a pregnancy loss or towards an abortion. The main symptoms that the patient will complain about are spotting or bleeding or cramps. Patients come to us with a history of missing periods and there is an episode of bleeding. Now here I would like to say that all patients who have bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy are not going to land in an abortion. But yes you need to be extra cautious, you need to see your doctor, your doctor would like to help with certain hormones or support with the hormones or pregnancy with the vitamins which might avert the abortion.

So the first symptom is pain and bleeding. Now all patients of bleeding will not land in an abortion but yes when you are having it you need to undergo certain investigations so that there is a diagnosis to know the problem. So how would your doctor diagnose that yes it is a case of abortion or missed abortion or a blighted one? A physical examination by the doctor, the general upper vaginal examination will guide the doctor towards the cause of bleeding. Doctor will ask or recommend a certain set of investigations like ultrasound and even beta HCG that is a blood test which will help to diagnose, and sometimes you know these tests need to be repeated, and at that moment of time patients tend to get very anxious that why the doctor is not able to answer my questions that it is a healthy pregnancy or not. Because sometimes the pregnancy needs to be of a certain duration to assess that yes it is going at par or not. So we have to repeat the investigations like ultrasound needs to be done after an interval of a week or ten days to see the difference in growth, has the baby grown in ten days or not, or to say with confidence that it is a growing pregnancy. Once the diagnosis of missed abortion or abortion has been made, now what is the treatment or what would be the next step. Sometimes a patient comes to us that it is a very early pregnancy, very small sac or she is bleeding, having a heavy flow like a periods flow. Then we would just ask the patient to wait and watch. Let her clear off with the periods and sometimes the pregnancy will be washed on its own and doctor would decide not to interfere with the natural process, and at times it is sufficient. But yes if the sac is a little larger in size or the bleeding is not that much in flow, or period is not there, the doctor might give some medicines to you so that there is proper flow and pregnancy is washed off.

But there might be certain cases which would require intervention by the doctor that is a surgical procedure or such an evaluation or dilation and then by the patient to remove whatever products of conception still remain. Even after medicines, sometimes you know all the products of conception won't be washed out then after a period of two weeks the doctor might advise you to go for another ultrasound to confirm that everything is clear and if still there are some fragments then surgical procedure might be advised to you. Generally, the next question is will it in any way harm the next pregnancy. No, it is not like that. Generally, these are safe procedures and very necessary at that period, therefore, you people are advised about it and they are not related to any long term consequences. So here we have discussed the treatment of early pregnancy loss. Generally, these people do quite well, have good chances of having a healthy pregnancy the next time they become pregnant. So my advice to you all doesn't get anxious, look for support from your doctor, from your family, with your partner. Decide well in advance before your next pregnancy.

If any of you need to consult me about this you are most welcome. You can get in touch with me through or if you want to see me in your clinic I'm available at Indirapuram at Ghaziabad NCR. You can fix an appointment and see me personally and I hope this talk was useful for you.

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Personal Statement

I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family....more
I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family.
More about Dr. Mukti Sethi
Dr. Mukti Sethi is a renowned gynaecologist from Ghaziabad. She has an experience in this field for 18 years. She completed her MBBS from GSVM Medical College in Kanpur in the year 1997. She did DGO from Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College in Aligarh in the year 2002. Dr. Mukti Sethi completed her Certification in Minimal Invasive Surgery from AIIMS in the year 2007. Dr. Mukti Sethi is a dedicated professional who is geared to providing optimal health care, and her patients have a 100% satisfaction and trust in her services. Presently she specializes in infertility treatment, semen lab for IUI, maternal care, and checkup, high-risk pregnancy care, recurrent pregnancy loss, cervical cerclage, In-Vitro Fertilization or IVF, Intrauterine Insemination or IUI, Mirena, caesarean section or C-section, hysterectomy, ovarian ablation, laparoscopic surgery, hysteroscopy and medical abortion. She is a member of the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India or FOGSI and Indian Medical Association or IMA. If you are facing any of the problems mentioned above and looking for a gynecologist care, book an appointment with her online.


MBBS - GSVM medical college Kanpur - 1997
DGO - Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh - 2002
Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery - AIIMS - 2007
Languages spoken
Professional Memberships
Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI)


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My wife is suffering from vaginal itching and part of vagina gets red. After having intercourse with my wife she got this vaginal itching problem. What should she do.

MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
She is having vaginal infection. She should see a gynaecologist and get her self examined. She needs to take medication.

I am married since 9th April 2018, and I visited gynaecologist 3 days before and I undergone an ultrasound, there is lesion and cyst found in my ovary I am having pelvic pain and lower abdominal pain Where should I go for treatment, allopathic or homeopathic? Please suggest as it should be cure very early.

MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
I am married since 9th April 2018, and I visited gynaecologist 3 days before and I undergone an ultrasound, there is ...
You should visit a gynaecologist with your ultrasound reports. All cyst are not alarming. Gynaecologist would be the best person to advise.
1 person found this helpful

Hi. We are a couple and we had a intercourse a month back (unprotected) just once and my partner had her period on 6th of this month but she is not well and vomiting and fever and weakness and her body is changing a bit yet we didn't perform PT still. Is there any other form to get it confirm? As it's just a year of our marriage we are not ready for a baby yet so please help over this.

MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
We are a couple and we had a intercourse a month back (unprotected) just once and my partner had her period on 6t...
Hello lybrate-user. Pregnancy test can be done to be sure that there is no pregnancy. Though there are rare chances of her being pregnant. Fever can be because of many causes. Better rule out pregnancy and visit a physician for fever.
2 people found this helpful

I am suffering from ovarian cyst and had cystectomy for endometrioma and m under medication oxygen d3 for last two months .when my periods will resume and when I can conceive?

MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
I am suffering from ovarian cyst and had cystectomy for endometrioma and m under medication oxygen d3 for last two mo...
Hello lybrate-user. For endometriosis surgery is usually followed by medication to suppress reformation of endometriosis. Periods will resume once you stop medication. You should try to conceive early. Discuss with your doctor. If you are married take help from doctor for conceive good early as there are always chances reformation of endometrioma and cyst.
2 people found this helpful

Male Infertility - 4 Possible Reasons Behind It!

MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
Male Infertility - 4 Possible Reasons Behind It!

More than 15 percent of couples are infertile which means that they are unable to conceive even after repeated trials for a long span of time. In about half of these couples, male infertility plays a significant role. Male infertility is primarily caused by inadequate production of sperms, blockages leading to prevention of sperm delivery, and abnormal sperm function. And no single factor is responsible for this were injuries, illnesses, medications and also lifestyle choices play an important role in bringing about male infertility.

What are the causes of male infertility?
Male infertility is a complex procedure which can stem from some variables including:

  • A varicocele happens when the veins that drain the testicle become swollen. This is one of the commonest causes of infertility among men and can be reversed with ease. Treating the condition can improve the number of sperms and their function while potentially boosting the chances to reproduce.
  • Some infections may also interfere with a man’s ability to produce sperms and can also lead to scarring which blocks the way of the sperm. Even though severe infections can lead to permanent damage to the testicles, some of them can still be dealt with if diagnosed in time.
  • Retrograde ejaculation is yet another cause of male infertility which takes place when semen mistakenly enters the bladder at the time orgasm. There are numerous causes behind this including prostate or urethra surgery, spinal injuries and high blood sugar. Some men with spinal cord injuries fail to ejaculate altogether even though there is an optimal production of sperm.
  • Tumors and cancerous fibroids can directly affect the male reproductive system through various ways. In some instances, radiation, surgeries, and chemotherapy can affect male fertility as well.

What are the signs and symptoms of male infertility?
The main sign of male infertility is the inability on the part of the female to conceive. Besides this, there is no other symptom. But even though this is the generalized picture, other men may experience male infertility signs such as difficulty in ejaculating, meagre amounts of fluid ejaculation, reduction in sexual desire and inability to maintain an erection which is commonly known as erectile dysfunction. Other symptoms include pain and swelling in the testicle area, inability to smell, and respiratory infections. Some men also have abnormal breast growth, decrease in hair in the face and body and hormonal inability.

How is male infertility diagnosed and treated?
Infertility diagnosis is one of the most difficult challenges that a man can face. In most cases, medicines, surgeries, and alternative treatments can help in reducing the problem. In most cases, the main goal of the treatment is to help a woman conceive, and the treatment entirely depends on the cause of infertility. However, the treatment entirely depends on the cause of infertility. If diagnosed in time, most infertility issues in men can be solved. All one needs to do is visit a specialist and seek help to lead a healthy life.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2824 people found this helpful

PCOS - How To Live It It?

MBBS, DGO, Ceritification in Minimal Invasive Surgery
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
PCOS - How To Live It It?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition related to a woman?s endocrine system. Symptoms of PCOS include acne, irregular menstrual cycle and depression to name a few. The causes of PCOS have not been accurately identified so far, but researchers suggest that the following factors might contribute to the onset of the condition.

  1. Increased amount of insulin secretion: Women suffering from insulin resistance may get PCOS as their body is not able to effectively use this insulin, which results in increased insulin secretion by the pancreas. This, in turn, triggers more androgen (male sex hormone) production in the ovaries, making it difficult for the ovaries to ovulate.
  2. Lower inflammation levels: The white blood cells present in your body form resistance against infections through a response termed as inflammation. Women with lower inflammation levels are likelier to get PCOS as the decreased levels stimulate polycystic ovaries, thereby producing more androgens.
  3. Genetic factor: If you have a family history of PCOS, it?s highly probable that you may also get it as the disease is linked with your genes.

How To  Live with PCOS

PCOS comes with numerous side effects like acne, obesity, infertility, excessive facial or body hair among others. There are certain lifestyle changes, which you may consider to manage PCOS and minimise its side effects.

  1. Change your dietOpt for a low carbohydrate, low sugar diet to keep your insulin levels in control, as insulin is responsible for increasing the severity of PCOS symptoms. 
  2. Try to maintain an ideal body weight: Obesity is known for worsening insulin resistance, and you can prevent this by regularly keeping your weight in check. You can practice some easy at-home exercise to reduce weight besides having a balanced diet.
  3. Get yourself checked regularly: Visit a doctor and get yourself checked regularly for potential health risks as PCOS is often associated with increased chances of diabetes, heart diseases, certain forms of cancer, hypertension, and high LDL (bad) cholesterol levels. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
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