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There are four types of protein contact dermatitis: animal, proteolytic enzymes, plant, and flour. The risk factors for this include protein allergens, atopy, and chronic dermatitis. There have been several theories proposed for protein contact dermatitis. Many Scientists are of the view that this occurs due to type 1 hypersensitivity.
Some are of the view that this results from type 1 and type 4 hypersensitivity reactions. Many also believe that this results due to a mediated immunoglobulin E hypersensitivity reaction. All the above three theories have been backed by enough proofs to support the model. No particular sexual or racial predilection is known for this infection. People can get affected with protein contact dermatitis at any age.
Proteins responsible for protein contact dermatitis:
There are four segments of proteins that can result in protein contact dermatitis.
- The first segment involves spices, fruits, plants, and vegetables. This is most commonly found in food vendors, gardeners, caterers etc. The source of protein comes from mugwort, asparagus, carrot, soy, peach, bean, apple and peanut.
- The second segment belongs to animal proteins and the possible victims are butchers, farmers, cooks and veterinarians. People who come in contact with the intestine of animals are more likely to get this disease. The source of protein comes from cow dander, blood, squid, worms, egg yolk, maggots, worms and meats.
- The third segment of protein contact dermatitis is very common among bakers. A form of dermatitis is observed. This being flour-associated proteins, the common culprits are rye and wheat. It is necessary to stay from the latter in order to avoid it.
- The fourth segment results from protein associated with a proteolytic enzyme. This form of protein contact dermatitis is mostly visible among workers of an enzyme factory, bakers, workers of a pharmaceutical company, soap factory workers etc. Patients mostly suffer from respiratory symptoms in this segment. Certain enzymes that are responsible for this segment of protein contact dermatitis include lactase, amylase, and glucoamylase.
Symptoms and diagnosis:
Protein contact dermatitis shows symptoms such as lichenification, erythematous papules, and dermatitis affecting the forearms. At times the fingertips get affected too. A doctor might prescribe a patch test followed by prick and scratch test. Other tests involve a fungal test, open application testing, radioallergosorbent testing, image studies, and biopsy.
The key to avoiding protein contact dermatitis is to stay away from the protein causing the disease. For short-term reliefs, a doctor can prescribe corticosteroids and antihistamines. A patient might have to get admitted to a hospital if the severity level of the disease is so much that the patient is suffering from gastrointestinal distress and angioedema. Medication involves oral dosage of antihistamines and clobetasol propionate.
In general, you lose about 50-100 strands of hair each day, but the loss is not visible as new hair grow in their place. However, if you lose more than a 100 strands in a day and more than 200 strands on the day you shampoo, you may be suffering from what is known as excessive hair fall.
Certain factors or reasons may cause you to lose hair at an alarming rate, which are,
1. Thyroid problems
Your thyroid is responsible for your body?s overall functioning. The hormones (primarily T4 and T3), which it produces help in regulating metabolic activities. Problems with your thyroid gland can cause your hormone levels to rise or fall to unhealthy levels, which can result in hair fall. You can improve the functioning of your thyroid gland through a diet rich in calcium, iodine, magnesium, protein and Vitamins A, B and C.
2. Scalp infections
Infections of the scalp can also be one of the factors that may cause your hair to fall at an alarming rate. Of the different scalp infections, the ringworm scalp infection is the most common. Although this fungal infection can occur in any part of your body, when it develops on your scalp, you end up losing clumps of hair. Alongside the use of anti-fungal medications, even anti-fungal shampoos and creams can provide you with respite from the problem.
3. Poor diet
Gorging on unhealthy foods or going on a crash diet can result in the lack of essential nutrients in your body, which are required to maintain healthy hair. Furthermore, since hair is made of protein, having a balanced diet consisting of proteins and vitamin- rich foods is a must.
Stress gives rise to certain conditions such as alopecia areata, telogen effluvium (hair loss caused post-pregnancy or surgery) and trichotillomania (an impulsive need to pull your hair out), which can cause you to lose significant amount of hair. To avert a hair loss crisis caused by stress, make it a point to do some simple stress-reducing exercises, such as meditation or breathing exercises.
5. Hair styling products
Using hair styling products like hair colours and straighteners can cause you to experience hair fall problems. Your hair not only becomes dull and dry due to their use, but also becomes weak and brittle, leading to a gradual loss of hair. Regular oiling and use of homemade hair masks are some of the ways you can try to counter the negative effects of these hair styling products.
6. Cancer treatment
The drugs that are used in the treatment of cancer not only destroy the fast-growing cancer cells, but also the healthy blood cells in your body. For this reason, consuming foods that possess cancer-fighting properties (like oatmeal, tomato, almonds, garlic etc) is a sure-shot way of fighting the disease as well as averting any side-effects that may arise because of the treatment.
7. Alopecia areata
Lastly, hair fall can also be caused by alopecia areata, which is a kind of hair loss that takes place when your body?s immune system erroneously attacks your hair follicles, and prevents growth of new hair.
The origin of your severe hair fall or baldness can be traced back to your ancestors. So, your genes can be a factor behind your hair fall problem. If this is the cause, your body then becomes unable to produce new hair.
Apart from the changes that you can make in your lifestyle to address the causes of your hair fall, there are also techniques out there that you can employ to permanently treat your problem, such as platelet rich plasma, mesotherapy, stem cell therapy, ozone activated platelet rich plasma & hair transplant. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
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Obesity is a serious complex medical condition in which the body acquires an excess amount of body fat due to lifestyle choices or dietary preferences. Besides being a cosmetic concern, obesity poses serious health complications like coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. Read on more to find all about the symptoms, causes, risk factors, prevention and cure of obesity.
A person is generally considered to be obese if their BMI (Body Mass Index) is above 30. A person whose BMI is between the range of 30 to 35 is said to be type I obese. People under the range from 35 to 39 falls under the category of type II obesity. If the BMI of a person is above 40 they are generally considered to be extremely obese. BMI is usually a reliable method to find out if a person is obese, but in certain instances like that of a professional bodybuilders BMI could prove to be inaccurate.
Obesity generally occurs if the person consumes more calories than he or she burns through various activities throughout the day. Obesity can also be as a result of certain medical conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and other diseases. Hormonal disorders, genetics and such factors may also contribute to obesity. Besides these conditions, obesity also occur due to certain lifestyle choices such as high inactivity and consuming an excess amount of fast food such as high calorie beverages.
Risk Factors and Complications-
Obesity can lead to a number of very critical medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, cancer, infertility, gallbladder disease and erectile dysfunction to name a few. Obesity also impacts the overall quality of life. Depression, lower physical fitness, exhaustion and lower work achievement can occur due to obesity.
If the BMI of the person falls in the obese category, medical professionals will study the person's medical history, conduct certain physical exams and tests, based on which they will recommend a suitable course to undertake from that point onwards. In most cases this includes imposing certain dietary restrictions, exercising on a daily basis, taking certain weight loss medications and in extreme cases undergoing weight loss surgery. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.
Sweet's syndrome is when you suffer from fever as well as painful skin lesions. These skin lesions usually appear on your head, arms and neck. The cause of Sweet's syndrome is still not known. However, it is known that certain medications, illnesses and infections are a possible trigger for Sweet's syndrome. Sweet's syndrome is such a condition that the symptoms usually go away in a few days but it may come back later on. To know exactly what causes Sweet's syndrome and what the symptoms of it are, read on.
Causes and Risk Factors:
As mentioned earlier, the exact cause of Sweet's syndrome is not known. However, there are certain factors which put you more at risk of getting it than others. Here they are:
- Gender: It has been proven that women are much more likely to get Sweet's syndrome than men.
- Age: The young and the elderly are at a risk of getting Sweet's syndrome. However, if you are in between 30 and 60 years of age you are especially at risk.
- Illnesses: If you have an upper respiratory infection or inflammatory bowel disease then you are more likely to get Sweet's syndrome compared to others. Flu-like symptoms also put you more at a risk of getting Sweet's syndrome compared to others.
- Pregnancy: It has been seen that pregnancy increases your risk of getting Sweet's syndrome.
- Drugs: As mentioned earlier, certain antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as azathioprine are all linked to Sweet's syndrome.
- Small Red Bumps: As mentioned earlier, the main symptom of Sweet's syndrome is that you will develop small red bumps on your neck, arms or head. The size of the bumps tend to increase quickly and then they spread into painful clusters.
- Fever: A fever is also very symptomatic of Sweet's syndrome. The small red bumps usually appear abruptly after you get a fever.
- Upper Respiratory Infection: The small red bumps also appear abruptly after you have got an upper respiratory Infection.
It should be noted that Sweet's syndrome is often associated with cancer and has commonly been linked to leukemia. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
Aging is a natural process and hair greying is one of the most common signs of it. The reason that your hair greys is because the pigment in your skin called melanin does not get produced in large enough quantities as you get older. In many cases however, it is noticed that hair greying happens in your 20s or 30s. This is most commonly due to a diet which is not well-balanced or a lack of nourishment. However, you can stop hair greying at a young age by using one or more of the following remedies:
- Curry Leaves: Curry leaves are one of the best cures for premature hair greying. It is the vitamin B present in the curry leaves, which is responsible for restoring the function of melanin in the hair follicles. This is not the only property it has which is good for the hair as curry leaves also repair damaged hair roots and supply crucial nutrients to the hair. It also stimulates hair growth and prevents hair fall due to the fact that it has beta-carotene. Curry leaves can be massaged into your hair by boiling them in coconut water and then rubbing them on your scalp.
- Almond Oil: Almond oil treats fine lines, wrinkles and age spots. This is due to the fact that it has a lot of vitamin E, which is an antioxidant. Vitamin E also stops split ends and helps the hair retain its elasticity. It is also used as a treatment for dandruff.
- Black Tea: Not only does black tea give a natural darker hue to the hair but it also helps the hair retain its strength and elasticity which prevents it from breaking or becoming brittle.
- Onion juice mixed with lemon juice: A shortage of the antioxidant catalase or an excess accumulation of hydrogen peroxide are the two main causes of hair greying prematurely. Onion juice will increase your levels of the antioxidant catalase while lemon juice gives a nice shine to your hair and also prevents your hair from becoming extremely oily.
For must of us managing frizzy hair is a nightmare, but with these simple home remedies you can maintain them with great ease (learn more To Maintain Good Hair Health).
- Hot Oil Massage: While relieving you of stress, it nourishes your hair and incites hair regeneration. Mix more than two kinds of oil and warm the mixture over indirect heat. Hot oil should be massaged gently into your scalp. Hot oil is easily absorbed into the pores of the scalp thus giving you strong and moisturized hair. People having curly hair are advised to use jojoba oil to repair damaged hair follicles.
- Add honey to lemon juice: Applying honey and lemon to your hair makes those locks very rich in minerals and vitamins. While honey rids you of dryness, lemon fights dandruff (lear more about dandruff problem). Let the pack remain for over an hour to experience desired results.
- Eggs are good: It is rather boring to use olive oil all by itself. Try out the wonderful effects of olive oil when used in combination with eggs. Eggs provide your scalp with protein. It has been an age-old home remedy for treating frizz. Eggs act as natural cleansers while enriching your scalp with healthy fats and nutrients. You may also use egg whites if your scalp suffers from any kind of bacterial infection.
- Coconut Milk: Coconut milk should be massaged on the hair roots and left overnight. It is important to heat coconut milk prior to its application. Cover your hair with a towel or a piece of cloth to retain the warmth throughout the night. If you wish to bid farewell to frizzy hair you must exploit the benefits of this remedy once every week.
- Rinse with carbonated water: Running water can be very harsh on your hair. It contains more impurities than you expect. To avert the harmful effects of iron present in plain water, you might use carbonated water as a rinse. Carbonated water treats frizz especially in humid weather conditions.
- Make an avocado pack: An avocado pack is perhaps the best natural conditioner. After you wash your hair mash an avocado and mix it with a spoonful of olive oil. Leave the concoction on wet hair for around thirty minutes. The mix can now be washed off using any mild conditioner. Avocado can change the texture of your hair for the better.
- Mayonnaise adds luster: While enjoying that huge burger, you have always wanted some more mayonnaise to satisfy your gustatory desires. You surely never thought of it as a solution to frizzy hair. Mayonnaise when used along with almond oil can treat dullness. Mayonnaise controls hair damage and is also known to cure split ends.
- Virgin Coconut Oil: Every other person is aware of the gains of coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil provides nourishment to your rough hair. It lives up to its claims of purity. To better the results, a person might add coconut oil to vitamin E oil. Applying this mix thrice a week can solve your problems regarding frizzy hair.
Pityriasis lichenoides is referred to a rare type of rash which is characterized by tiny papules that voluntarily flatten and relapse within a period of weeks. This condition which can range from moderate to severe in nature can be either chronic or acute. In the severest cases, it may develop into reddish brown blisters and crusts.
Causes and Symptoms: This condition which is chiefly prevalent in teenagers and adults is slightly likelier to appear in males. This condition is extremely rare among infants and aged people. Although, the precise cause of the condition is unknown, yet three major hypotheses have been suggested as the reason for the condition. They are:
- Infectious agents which cause an inflammatory reaction
- A non-cancerous form of T-cell lymphoproliferative which causes a disorder
- An hypersensitive vasculitis
Some of the infectious agents which can cause this condition include:
- Toxoplasma gondii
- Staphylococcus aureus
The lesions of pityriasis lichenoides usually appear over the course of several weeks or sometimes months.
Common symptoms include:
- A tiny pink papule which turns reddish brown in color
- A fine scaly central spot which when peeled off exposes a lustrous, pinkish brown exterior
- The spot becomes level over a number of weeks, leaving a pinkish-brown mark, which may take several months to fade.
These spots which occur over the buttocks, arms and legs, more typically occur in the hands, feet and even the scalp. Although far from being painful or irritable, pityriasis lichenoides spots can render the skin unsightly.
Treatment: The condition though diagnosed by its history and appearance, is entirely confirmed through skin biopsy tests. In usual episodes, the skin heals on its own. But if the condition persists for long one may resort to various therapies such as topical steroids, sunburns and oral antibiotics.
Scabies is a type of a skin condition that is characterized by itching and rashes. This dermatological condition is caused by sarcoptes scabiei, a type of microscopic mite. A contagious condition, scabies spreads through physical contact. It usually transmits through clothes, towels, sexual contact and other such ways. An estimate shows that scabies infect over 300 million humans worldwide per year.
This eight-legged microscopic mite creates a tunnel in the human skin and lays eggs in it. These larvae move under the surface of the skin and spread across the whole body, once hatched. Dogs, cats and mice can also be affected by the disease. It usually takes 2-6 weeks for the symptoms to develop. Signs and symptoms of scabies involve itching, rashes, sores and thick crusts on the surface of the skin.
Some of the risk factors of scabies are:
- Scabies spreads through direct, prolonged skin-to-skin contact with a person who has mites.
- An infected person can easily pass scabies to his/her household or sexual partners. Scabies in adults is usually sexually acquired.
- The likelihood of scabies increases easily under crowded conditions which involves close body and skin contact. Nursing homes, prisons, and several types of care facilities are sites of scabies outbreaks.
- Immunocompromised, elderly and disabled people also suffer from an increased likelihood of contracting such.
Complications of scabies include:
- Persistent and vigorous scratching can break the surface of your skin which can lead to secondary bacterial infections. Impetigo, a superficial infection is quite a common occurrence in case of such.
- Crusted scabies is the most severe form of scabies which is common among certain groups. People suffering from diseases such as HIV or leukemia and severely ill people who have weakened immune systems are at a higher risk of contracting this condition. This condition, also known as Norwegian scabies is very contagious and also hard to cure.
Depending on the symptoms and severity of the condition, appropriate medications and creams are prescribed by medical professionals.
Related Tip: "Risks and Complications of Scabies"