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Patient Review Highlights
My mother has been diagnosed with interstitial lung disease, she is having difficulty in breathing, coughs a lot and sometimes vomits due to constant coughing, her doctor has advised her with some oral medications, budamate neb 1 mg two times daily, oxygen intake once daily for half an hour, kindly advise me suitably, thanks.
Tuberculosis is a lung related disease that is caused by bacteria known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis spreads through the air and is a highly contagious disease that can be transmitted through coughing, sneezing and spitting. The symptoms of this condition include coughing, blood discharge while coughing, fever, extreme weight loss, and chills. Against general myths, this disease can be treated and is curable too. Effective, timely diagnosis and treatment with the correct methods and medication are required. Let us find out the various means for effective treatment of tuberculosis.
Diagnosis: Let us first look at the diagnosis method that will help in detecting the presence of the bacteria in the body. The doctor will take a blood sample and conduct a series of lab tests in order to diagnose the condition. Also, the doctor will check the medical history of the patient so as to understand what kind of complications the person may be prone to. For this, the doctor will also find out if the patient is suffering from diseases like diabetes, malnutrition and other conditions arising out of tobacco abuse. Diagnosis of Pulmonary TB is by sputum for AFB examination and some blood test may also be required.
Medication: Usually, the best way to treat this condition is with the help of a six month long course of antibiotics that may also last 12 months, depending on the prognosis. The patient will be put in quarantine as well, so that he or she does not end up spreading this disease to anyone else. A voluntary medical practitioner or trained health worker will help in care giving and medicine administration under the instructions of the doctor. The medication will usually consist of four antimicrobial drugs or antibiotics, which will stop the release of nutrition and oxygen to the bacteria so that it cannot develop and grow. This will also ensure that the bacteria gets killed eventually.
Control of Infection: The spread of the infection is such that a single sneeze or cough can infect up to ten to fifteen people who are near the patient without proper masks and other gear to prevent the transmission. Therefore, it is the job of the hospital to ensure that proper infection control takes place by using ultraviolet light to sterilise the air around the area where the TB patients have been admitted.
One thing that the patient must remember about the treatment is that immediate and timely treatment with medication must be taken so that the patient is able to get cured. If the patient skips medicines or does not get treated on time, then the infection will come back again and again. And after a point, the patient's body and the bacteria will not be able to react to the medicines.
I am 22 years old ,i have cold and cough from 1 year and I consult to many doctors but nothing happen .so what can I do for this. Doctors say I am suffering from dust allergy but what should I do for this.
No cough, wheezing or any breathing problem. Only a bit of chest tightness occasionally. Cardiology report are OK. Pft is showing mild obstructive diseases. What is the reason? I am not a smoker.
Mai last 4 years se allergy ki problem se preshaan hu. Generally mei anti allergy tab Leta hu aur 4-5 din tak kuch bhi nahi hota. 4-5 din ke baad phir se body me pit jaisi halt ban jaati. Khujli start ho jaata hei aur body per laal spot ban jaate hei aur phir se ek citrazine or any other anti allergy tab phir 4-5 din tak aaraam. Bahut doctor ko dhikhyaya kuch fayada nahi hua. Please help me. Help help.
One of the best and easiest ways to manage the symptoms of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is through a healthy and nutrient dense diet. This would not only help you to not only keep the severity of the symptoms in check but also to maintain a healthy weight.
Tips to keep in mind when choosing a diet
- Managing Weight: It is essential for patients with COPD to manage their weight. The symptom of breathlessness could be more severe if you are overweight. You might feel fatigued and tired if you are underweight. Therefore it is crucial to monitor your calorie intake and therefore also your weight as recommended by the American Lung Association.
- Balanced Diet: It is essential for patients with COPD to eat a healthy, nutritious and balanced diet. One that is varied and rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean meats or proteins according to a study published in the August 2014 issue of the International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A well-balanced diet will ensure that you get all the necessary vitamins such as C, E, and D that are necessary to help you cope with this condition.
- Protein: Lean proteins such as eggs, meat, poultry, nuts, beans, and fish especially oily fish such as mackerel and sardines, should be incorporated into your meal plan. These proteins are necessary for patients with COPD especially if they are managing their condition through exercise.
- Carbohydrates and food high in fibre such as lentils, oats, and beans will improve the functioning of the digestive system.
- Potassium: Fruits and vegetables such as beets, potatoes, bananas are especially beneficial in preventing water retention in patients
Foods To Limit Or Avoid
People react differently to foods, there are some foods that patients with COPD should limit or avoid but if they do not seem to have an impact on your symptoms you can make them a part of your meal plan.
- Limiting salt intake irrespective of whether you are a COPD patient or not is always a good step to take. But if you are a COPD patient excessive salt in your diet could cause fluid retention which could worsen your shortness of breath.
- Dairy products such as milk and cheese can irritate the respiratory pathways making phlegm thicker.
- Certain fruits and vegetables such as apples, cabbage, stone fruits such as peaches and soybeans can cause gas and bloating.
- Caffeine in coffee and chocolate could interfere with certain medications that you have been prescribed. Confirm with your doctor if you can still include them in your diet. Patients with COPD need to drink plenty of fluids and it might be beneficial to opt for non-caffeinated beverages.
- Fried, greasy and spicy food can cause gas and indigestion which can affect breathing.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Emphysema is a breathing disorder that has no cure and worsens with time. The symptoms of emphysema - a feeling of tightness in the chest, persistent cough, wheezing and breathlessness – are caused due to destroyed or impaired functioning of lung tissue.
A thorough physical examination which would include weight and blood pressure checks would be performed. The doctor would also listen to the heartbeat to determine if it sounds strange or different.
In addition to checking for the signs and symptoms of emphysema, a physical examination would also help the doctor in determining the following:
- Whether the fingertips are rounded. This condition is also known as “clubbing”.
- Whether you have a rounded or “barrel chest” which is caused by lungs that are larger than normal.
- If the lips have a blue tinge also known as cyanosis, which is a sign of low levels of oxygen in the blood.
- Signs of malnutrition as in advanced cases of emphysema the muscles slowly waste away.
Tests For Emphysema
A doctor would recommend additional tests to confirm his diagnosis of this lung condition. Some of the tests are:
- Pulmonary Function Tests or PFTs and spirometry tests would be advised to measure the volume and capacity of the lungs.
- A chest X-ray is useful to diagnose advanced emphysema as the lungs appear larger than normal in patients with this condition.
- A CT scan of the chest will show the air sacs or alveoli have been destroyed.
- The blood test report of patients with emphysema would show a high amount of red blood cells. The production of red blood cells in the body increases due to the reduced levels of oxygen.
- A pulse oximetry test also known as an oxygen saturation test could be done to measure the amount of oxygen in the blood. A monitor would be attached to the patient’s forehead, finger or earlobe to carry out this test.
- An arterial blood gas test is usually performed on patients as their condition worsens. It measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
- An electrocardiogram or ECG might be advised to rule out condition such as heart disease as a cause of shortness of breath.
Management and Treatment
There is no known cure for emphysema and the condition can worsen with time. Treatment will slow the speed of decline and will depend on the severity of the condition when diagnosed. Some treatment options are:
- Quit smoking to protect your lungs.
- Bronchodilator medications used to treat asthma are useful in relaxing the muscles around the airways.
- Anti-inflammatory medications reduce inflammation around the airways.
- Oxygen therapy is recommended to patients when they are not able to breathe enough oxygen from the air.
- In some severe cases, lung volume reduction surgery might be advised to relieve pressure on the muscles required for breathing and to improve the elasticity of the lungs.
Keeping your home clean and free of dust and pollutants will help to prevent respiratory infections and disorders such as emphysema.