Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 26 years of experience on Lybrate.com. We will help you find the best Gynaecologists online in Ghaziabad. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
Book Clinic Appointment with Dr. Bhavya Rathore
Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Treatment of No Periods
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Management of Pregnancy Query
Management of Abortion
Treatment of Painful Periods
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Birth Control Treatment
Treatment of Painful Sexual Intercourse
Treatment of Pregnancy Symptoms
Treatment of Heavy Periods
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Treatment of Breast Pain
Treatment of Vaginal Discharge
Treatment of Miscarriage
Treatment of Vaginal Itching
Treatment of Cervicitis
Submit a review for Dr. Bhavya RathoreYour feedback matters!
Very expert.... Detailed explanation of everything and was available at odd hours for delivery...
Very polite, normal delivery happen because of her and that too at odd hours of night
Very knowledgeable and dedicated Doctor.
Menstrual disorders are caused by a variety of factors and affect every woman in a different manner. In most cases, it manifests itself in the form of fluctuations in menstrual flow and irregularity in the monthly cycle. Certain disorders are not too severe and can be easily alleviated. Others are more complicated and require the immediate attention of a gynecologist.
As mentioned, there are different specific causes of different kinds of disorders resulting from a range of factors such as hormone levels, functioning of the central nervous system, health of the uterus, etc.
Some of the most common causes of menstrual disorders are as follows:
- Hormonal imbalance: Fluctuating hormone levels in the body have a direct impact on the menstrual cycle. These fluctuations can be caused by dysfunction in the pituitary gland, thyroid gland or adrenal gland. It can also be a result of malfunction in either or both ovaries and the secretion of hormones originating there.
- Anatomic problems: One fourth menstrual disorders are caused by problems of the anatomy. These include various gynecological issues like the presence of uterine fibroids and polyps, reduced uterine contractile strength, adenomyosis (intrusion of uterine tissue into the muscular wall of the uterus), a uterus with an excessively large surface area, and endometrial cancer.
- Clotting irregularities: Abnormality in clotting is a cause of heavy menstrual bleeding in women. It leads to exceeding blood loss from minor cuts and gashes and makes one easily prone to bruising. This may also include medical conditions such as thrombocytopenia (platelet dysfunction) and Von Willebrand disease.
- Medications and supplements: There is a wide range of medications and nutritional or hormonal supplements which often cause menstrual disorders in women and lead to fluctuations in the menstrual cycle. These include medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, estrogen pills, Vitamin E supplements etc.
- Miscellaneous factors: These are comparatively rare and require a greater degree of medical attention. It includes conditions such as cervical cancer, ovarian tumors, liver and kidney diseases, uterine infections, extreme psychological stress, obesity, etc. Incidents such as miscarriages and unsuspected pregnancies are also known to cause abnormal menstrual bleeding.
Recurrent miscarriage is a condition when there has been three or more successive pregnancy losses. It is different from infertility as, infertility is the inability to conceive. For many cases, the cause of a recurrent miscarriage has not always been found. A number of factors can cause recurrent miscarriages of which some are treatable.It may not always be possible to identify a cause for recurrent miscarriage in a couple, even after extensive research and treatment procedures. Some of the common causes of recurrent miscarriage are described below:
- Chromosomal abnormalities: Incompatible chromosomes can result into pregnancy losses. When an egg and a sperm meet, of which one of them is faulty, they can't line up properly resulting into chromosomal abnormality. Such conditions lead to miscarriages.
- Uterine abnormalities or Incompetent cervixes: Miscarriages occur if the uterus is abnormally shaped since the embryo is not properly implanted or even if it gets implanted, it may not get sufficient nourishment to survive. If the woman has a weak cervix, it cannot hold the developing embryo, leading to miscarriage.
- Immunologic disorders: Under rare cases, the embryo itself is not accepted by the body. Antiphospholipid antibodies are those, which attack self tissues, such as embryos and prevent them from building up. This leads to recurrent miscarriage.
- Untreated thyroid problems: Conditions such as thyroid or uncontrolled diabetes result in uterine conditions which make it tough for the embryos to survive.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome tend to have high levels of male hormones which, result in irregular menstruationand ovulation. This can prevent the lining of the endometrium from maturing that is required for holding the embryo.
- Bacterial infections: There may be presence of a number of microorganisms inside the reproductive tract that may be harmless for the person. But there may be certain bacteria lined up in the reproductive tract, which can prevent development of embryo, thus leading to miscarriages.
- Lifestyle: Smoking and drinking are harmful lifestyle habits, which may increase the chance of miscarriage to a great extent. It is always advised to avoid smoking or drinking when you wish to conceive. Other lifestyle conditions, such as working in certain environments like hospital environments, farms, laboratories, etc, may lead to miscarriages; however, the exact reason has not been identified yet.
Generally identified as a rare and uncommon phenomenon, vaginal cancer most often occurs in the cells present in the outer lining of the vagina, also called the birth canal. Although primary vaginal cancer is rare and unusual, there are various other types of vaginal cancer that originate elsewhere in the body, but have spread over to your vagina.
Depending upon the nature of origin, vaginal cancer can be divided into the following types:
- Vaginal adenocarcinoma, beginning in the glandular cells on the surface of your vagina
- Vaginal sarcoma, developing in the connective tissue cells and multiple cells lining the walls of your vagina
- Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, originates in the squamous cells lining the surface of the bacteria
- Vaginal melanoma, developing in melanocytes, the pigment producing cells in your vagina
Symptoms: As vaginal cancer progresses from one stage to the next, you may experience any one of the following signs and symptoms:
- Diluted, watery vaginal discharge
- Painful urination
- Odd cases vaginal bleeding, for instance, after menopause or after intercourse
- Formation of lumps in your vagina
- Frequent and regular urination
- Pelvic pain
Causes: Normally, cancer develops when healthy cells undergo genetic mutations, subsequently leading to the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells. Cancer cells are known to break off from pre-existing tumors and can easily spread everywhere, in what is referred to as metastasize.
Beyond the natural process of development, here are a few factors, which may further contribute to the growth of cancerous cells:
- Increasing age
- Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
- Exposure o miscarriage prevention drugs
The cancer of the ovaries is known as ovarian cancer. In women there are two ovaries present on each side of the uterus. These ovaries are as big as an almondin size and produce egg also known as ova. They also secrete the hormones progesterone and estrogen.
Ovarian cancer goes undetected until it spreads to the abdomen and pelvis. When detected at this stage then it might be fatal and the treatment gets difficult. An early stage ovarian cancer where the cancer is restricted in the ovaries is much easier to treat with high success rates.
Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer :
- Age - With increasing age the risk of ovarian cancer is higher and is more common in women who are 60 and above. It is less common in women below 40 years of age and develops often after menopause.Obesity Women who have a body mass index of 30 are at a risk of developing ovarian cancer.
- History of Reproduction - It is believed that women who conceive before 26 and carry the full term have a lower risk of ovarian cancer. However, the risk is higher in those women who get pregnant after 35 or who do not have a full term pregnancy. Also, breastfeeding the baby lowers the risk.
- Gene Mutation - Inherited gene mutation causes some percentage of ovarian cancer. These genes are called breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2). These were initially found in cases with breast cancer but also pose great risk for ovarian cancer. Also, gene mutation leading to Lynch syndrome plays an important role in increasing the risk of ovarian cancer.
- Family History - If a woman's mother, sister or daughter is suffering from ovarian cancer then she is at a higher risk of developing the same. The risk also increases if someone from the father&amp;#x2019;s side also has ovarian cancer.
- Fertility Drugs - Drugs like clomiphene citrate, if used for more than a year can increase the risk of the cancer. The risk is even higher if a woman taking the drug does not get pregnant.
- Hormone Therapy and Estrogen Therapy - Long term use and large doses of estrogen can cause an increased risk. However, if estrogen is used in combination with progesterone then the risk is less.
- Age of menstruation and menopause - If menstruation starts before 12 and menopause occurs before 52 then there is a higher risk of getting the cancer.
- Diet - A low fat vegetarian diet has less risk of the disease. Fresh fruit and vegetables should be included in diet along with pulses, rice, pasta, beans, cereals and breads.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a common infection in the female reproductive organs like the ovaries, the uterus and the fallopian tubes and also the inside of the pelvis. If left untreated for a long time, PID can lead to severe problems like pregnancy complications, infertility and cancer.
- Cause: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) like chlamydia and gonorrheaproduce vaginal bacteria which travel to the interior organs and cause PID. Having unprotected sexual contact with someone who has an STD is the most common cause of PID. Moreover, medical processes like abortion, miscarriage, childbirth, insertion of contraceptive devices can also lead to bacterial infection. Having sex with a number of people, or having sex before the age of 20, or having had an STD in the past, also increase the chances of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
- Symptoms: The disease may show only minor symptoms or it may not show any symptom at all. When it does, the common symptoms are pelvic pain, discomfort while urinating or having intercourse, difficulties with menstruation and unusual fluid discharge from the vagina.
- Associated symptoms: High fever, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, exhaustion, shivering and fainting.
- Diagnosis: A pelvic examination is conducted to check for abnormal bleedingfrom the cervix (the opening of the uterus), fluid discharge or severe pain in the uterus, fallopian tubes or in the ovaries. Swabs taken from the cervix and the vagina are tested for STDs or other possible bacterial infections that may cause PID. An ultrasound or a Computerized Tomography (CT) scan is conducted to make sure that the symptoms are not being caused by other disorders like appendicitis or other kinds of infection in the reproductive organs. A pregnancy test is also done to take the necessary precautions to protect the fetus from the adverse effects of the infection.
- Treatment: The treatment procedures of PID vary depending on the type of bacteria that caused the infection in the specific case. Antibiotic medication is used to treat the condition. In case of severe complications, the patient has to be hospitalized.