I am Dr. MC Gupta, a respective physician practising in Faridabad for the last 40 years. My talk is on Asthma.
Asthma is a very common disease involves 3-10 % of the population and the prevalence is gradually increasing due to increased pollution in the industrialization and environmental and occupational problems. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the air tubes that carry oxygen and air from and into the lung. Due to chronic inflammation of the air tubes, there is a hyper responsiveness of the air tube that means if there is any trigger they react, constrict, there is an increase inflammation and that lead to the attack of asthma.
Asthma by symptom is characterized by shortness of breath, chest tightness, cough. These are the main three symptoms. Asthma is usually variable. One we have an asthma attack and the patient may go into dimensions when there are no symptoms at all.
There are many risk factors and if we control the risk factor we can avoid or control the asthma attack. The risk factors are a family if any one of the parents is having asthma then there are twenty-five percent chances of children getting asthma or if both the parents are having asthma then fifty percent of children can develop asthma. Other risk factors are repeated viral infections, stress obesity, rhinitis, reflex, some medicines which can aggravate the symptoms of asthma, even in some exercise can induce asthma which is called exercise induced asthma. Tablet aspirin commonly taken as disprin and in some persons can induce the attack of asthma.
The diagnosis very simple usually on the basis of symptoms the patient is suffering supported by pulmonary function tests, x-ray test, haemogram and total IGE and rust test for lse.
Treatment of asthma depends upon the character of asthma, rather it just mild intermittent or it is persistent. In persistent is mild moderate and severe. If the asthma is just mild and intermittent one needs only rescue medicine that shorts acting beta 2 taken during the time of the attack and after that, the patient usually goes into remission and does not require the treatment. In persistent asthma, in mild asthma long acting beta 2 with an inhaled corticosteroid in minimum doses that control asthma and keep under control. Moderate asthma and severe asthma the bowls of inhaled corticosteroid can be increased from 800mg to 2000 microgram and it should be given in a combination of long acting beta 2. In the fourth stage of asthma, these inhaled corticosteroid plus long acting beta 2 agonists may be added with LAMA that is long acting muscarinic acids agents or taken orally or steroids. The oral steroids should not be taken continuously for the treatment of asthma because they can cause osteoporosis diabetes, hypertension and obesity.
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Understanding what causes COPD and what are the signs that a person might be suffering from it.
Clinical diagnosis of COPD is usually made by presence of symptoms that is cough, sputum production, breathlessness and spirometry. Assessment of COPD is also made by spirometry and rate of excess exacerbation. With each exacerbation there is increased breathlessness, increase in the sputum production, increase in cough, there is sputum may be dark in color which shows infection. For each excess exacerbation there is permanent damage of a lung and severity of the COPD may increase.
Treatment of COPD is by pharmacotherapy which aims to control the symptoms of the patient and prevent exacerbation. If you prevent the exacerbation then the patient health improves and prevent further damage to the lungs. If a patient is Breathless on walking at ground level, then the patient may be helped by rehabilitation and by increasing the day to day activities. Exacerbation can be prevented by adult vaccination that is vaccination for non invasive pneumococcal infection and flu vaccination. This disease is gradually progressive. Symptoms can be controlled with pharmacotherapy. But the disease cannot be cured. The main aim of the diseases to prevent and to prevent is hundred percent. If one avoid smoking, exposure to occupational gases and inter Biomass exposure. Patient of COPD should consult a chest physician or respiratory physician.
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Management of Bronchial Asthma
I’m Dr. M. C. Gupta, practicing at Jeevan Jyoti Hospital, Faridabad for the last forty years in pulmonary medicine. Today, I will talk regarding bronchial Asthma. Asthma is prevalent in about 5-10 percent population. Symptoms of asthma are cough, breathlessness, chest, tightness and wheeze. It can occur at any age from an infant to old person. On examination, one may find bronchitis on chest.
The treatment of asthma is, if it is mild and infrequent then, only SABAs that is Short-Acting Beta-Agonists can be taken off and on as and when required. If someone is having persistent asthma then along with inhaled corticosteroids one need LABAs that is Long-Acting Beta-Agonist which is to be continued till the symptoms are controlled. After the symptoms are controlled, one can be put on controller medicine that is inhaled corticosteroids and which should be taken in the minimum possible dose to prevent any side effects of the inhaled steroids. The side effects of inhaled steroids are very less as compared to oral steroids. The treatment may continue lifelong or the patient may go into reminiscence.
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My team mate has TB detected and I am seating near to her. Can I get infected from her and what are the symptoms of TB and how can I diagnosis that I have infected by TB.
I'm 31 years old female. I'm suffering from some type of asthma type allergy from last few months. Can you suggest me some Ayurvedic or homeopathic medicines. I'm also having trouble with my periods. I didn't get my periods from December 2017. I'm not pregnant. What should I be prescribed.
I'm 24 years old female had severe pain near the sacroiliac joint, I went to orthopedician he suspected SI TB, hence undergone mantoux which was positive, hrct showed nodules and recently I had black stools went to gastro. H.pylori positive. Taking treatment sompraz HP. What am I suffering from? Could it be intestinal TB? Please help me with the diagnosis.
Pulmonary Function Tests or PFTs are a set of tests that are used to determine, measure or observe the functioning of the lungs. The most common pulmonary function tests used are spirometry, gas diffusion, and lung plethysmography.
Highlights of pulmonary function tests
- A spirometry test is used to measure the amount of air inhaled and exhaled. It also measures the amount of time taken to complete a respiration cycle.
- A lung plethysmography measures the amount of air in the lungs after the patient has taken a deep breath. It also measures the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the patient has exhaled as much air as possible.
What does a Pulmonary Function Test measure?
Pulmonary function tests would not only check how well the person is breathing but also how effectively the lungs are able to conduct oxygen to the rest of the body. In addition to air flow, these tests would measure the size and volume of the lung and lung diffusion.
These tests can also be used to measure
- Total Lung Capacity – the amount of air present in the lungs after breathing in deeply
- Forced Vital Capacity – the amount of air that can be exhaled after breathing in deeply
- Minute Volume – the amount of air exhaled per minute
- Vital Capacity – the total volume of air that can be breathed out after inhaling as much as possible
- Tidal Volume – the amount of air inhaled or exhaled when breathing normally
- Maximum voluntary ventilation – the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled in one minute
- Functional Residual Capacity – the amount of air that remains in the lungs when breathing normally
- Forced Expiratory Flow – the flow or volume of air during an exhalation
- Peak Expiratory Flow Rate – the rate at which a person can exhale
When are Pulmonary Function Tests recommended?
A physician might recommend a patient undergo a PFT as part of a routine physical check-up. This test would be advised if the patient is experiencing any symptoms associated with lung problems or disorders such as asthma, respiratory Infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD. A doctor would also use these tests to monitor and check whether a certain treatment prescribed for a lung disease or condition is working effectively.
Pulmonary function tests are safe as they are non-invasive but it is important to follow the instructions of the doctor or technician before, after and during the test. It is important to make your doctor aware of any surgeries, respiratory infections, chest pains or heart attacks that you might have experienced before the test. If you are taking any medications you might need to follow the advice of the doctor as to whether you can take them before the test.
Your doctor would also advice you on how to prepare for the test such as not eating a large meal, avoiding caffeine and wearing loose-fitting clothes. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!