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Diagnostic X- Ray
Bone Densitometry Procedure
Uterine Artery Embolization
Interventional Diagnostic Procedures
Angiography Radial Approach
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Uterine cancer is also known as endometrial cancer. It is a cancer which begins in the lining of the uterus. The uterus is the part of a woman's body where the fetus develops. Uterine cancer is one of those rare cancers in India, which can be diagnosed in its early stages. This is because excessive vaginal bleeding occurs, thus making it a very serious and an apparent symptom. It is also one of the few forms of cancer which can be cured as removing the uterus is often more than enough to cure the patient of uterine cancer.
Here are the causes, diagnosis and treatment of uterine cancer:
The exact cause of uterine cancer is not yet known, however, there is a theory on what causes uterine cancer. Hormones in a woman's body have been thought to increase the chances of getting uterine cancer. This is because it has long been thought that having high levels of estrogen is the cause of uterine cancer. Increased estrogen thickens the endometrium and thus, increases the likelihood of uterine cancer.
There are several tests used to diagnose whether you have uterine cancer including:
1. Pelvic exam: This is an examination in which the vagina, bladder, rectum and uterus are scanned for lumps. If they are found, it might be due to uterine cancer.
2. Pap test: A pap test is a special test designed to scan for uterine cancer.
3. Transvaginal ultrasound: A transvaginal ultrasound uses high-intensity sound waves so that pictures of the uterus can be taken.
4. Biopsy: During a biopsy, the doctor will remove tissue from the endometrium and it will then be analyzed for cancerous growths.
1. Surgery: This is the most common treatment as it removes the entire uterus and prevents the spreading of the cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves giving drugs which kill cancerous cells. They are given through either an intravenous line or even in pill form.
3. Hormone therapy: This is a therapy in which either progesterone levels are increased or estrogen levels are decreased.
4. Radiation therapy: In this treatment, high energy laser beams are used to destroy cancerous cells.
Sir I am 25 years old I am suffering L1L2 Disc degeneration I am unable walk speed and left leg jerks please help me.
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the second most carried out transplant procedure in the world. It is a potentially difficult surgery that is performed by a team of two to four surgeons along with the help of anesthesiologists and nurses. It takes around 10 to 12 hours to complete the procedure as there are many anastomoses, sutures, reconnections, and disconnections, which are to be performed under the liver bed which is necessary for the transplant to be a success.
Tests required before a transplant is planned
- Computed tomography, or CT scan which employs X-rays and a computer to create pictures of the liver, showing its size and shape. CTs and chest X-rays are also recorded to evaluate your heart and lungs.
- Laser Doppler flowmetry: to check if the blood vessels to and from the liver are normal.
- Echocardiogram to check the status of heart function.
- Pulmonary function test or lung capacity test to study and determine the lungs' ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- Blood tests are performed to determine the patient's blood type, clotting ability, and biochemical status of blood, and to determine liver function.
The liver transplant procedure
- After an admission at the hospital, an Intravenous line is started in the patient's arm or hand. Other tubes (catheters) are put in their neck and wrist, or their collarbone or the area between the belly and the thigh (the groin). These are used to check heart and blood pressure, and to get blood samples.
- The patient is placed on the back, over the operating table.
- If there is too much hair at the surgical site, it may be shaved.
- A catheter is placed into the bladder to drain urine.
- After the patient is sedated, the anesthesiologist will insert a tube into the lungs. This is done so that the breathing can be helped with a ventilator. The anesthesiologist will keep checking the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level during the surgery.
- The skin at the surgical site will be cleaned with a sterile (antiseptic) solution.
- The doctor will make a cut (incision) just under the ribs on both sides of the belly.
- The doctor will carefully separate the diseased or the injured liver from the nearby organs and structures.
- The attached arteries and veins are then clamped to stop the blood flow into the diseased liver.
- The diseased liver will be cut off from the blood vessels and then removed.
- The surgeon will check the donor liver before implanting it into the body.
- The donor's liver is placed in the patient's body.
- The incision will then be closed with sutures or surgical staples.
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I’m Dr. Malvika Sabharwal, from Jeewan mala hospital and Apollo Spectra hospital, New Rohtak Road in Karol Bagh. In fact I’ve been a laparoscopic surgeon since the year 92, I introduced it in the North of india. 2000, we had got recognition at this hospital for managing most of the gyne problem laparoscopically.
Today I will tell you about fibroid uterus. It’s a very very common problem, seen almost in 25% of cases and at all ages, at any age and It causes various problems. In case agar ye bleeding cause kar ra hai, to bleeding k sath to mareez fatafat aatay hain k han g hamay bleeding ho rai hai, un ka diagnosis b ho jata hai. Kabi kabi wo infertility cause karta hai, infertility ka matlab k pregnancy nai ho rai hai. In such cases, agar pregnancy nai ho rai hai to b mareez aa jaat hain sooner or later. Par kai fibroids aise hain jo k hotay hain even after having couple of children. 2,3 bachay ho gae phr b wo fibroids hai. Ab basically fibroids hotay ki hai, ye normal uterus hai, 2 tubes hain 2 ovaries hain, ye muscle wall jo hai agar is me se ek bhi fibre barh jata hai, ye fibroid cause karta hai aur fibroids jo hain wo is tarha k tumors hain uterus k andar. Agar ye uterus me fibroid andar ki taraf jhukav de ga, agar 2cm ka b hai, wo bleeding cause karay ga aur us k liye aap fatafat doctor k paas pohnchen gey aur us ka samadhan ho jae ga. Agar fibroid boht barha hai, wo upper ki taraf jae ga aur us ka pata b nai chalay ga aapko. Kabi kabi kuch pata b nai chalta, kabi kabi us se aata hai patient k g hamy urine nai ho paa ra, hum peshaab nai kar pa rae aur ye hamay boht tang kar ra hai, tou tab diagnose hota hai. Any which ways, hamaray paas 2 hi options hain, ya tou uterus ka nikaalna ya fibroid ka nikalna. Agar hamay uterus ka kaam lena hai, patient young hai, aagay bachay paeda karne hain tou definiteky fibroid ko nikalna hi better hai par agar family complete hai, agar us ko bachay aur nahi chahye aur us ki umer b towards the maybe 40 years or above hai or even otherwise agar boht zaada takleef ho rai hai, many options are there par durbeen se hum fibroid b nikalte hain aur uterus b nikalte hain. Agar fibroid nikala jae tou sirf fibroid ko nikaal kar k hum bolte hain ab aap pregnancy shuru kar sakte hain. Once fibroids are removed laparoscopically ya ek aur tareeka hota hai hysteroscopically, uterus ko andar se ja kar k hum dekhte hain, muaaena karte hain aur jahan fibroid hota hai us ko nikaal letay hain. It’s a non-touch technique hysteroscopy wala. Laparoscopic jo karte hain, us me 2, 3 holes bante hain pait k andar aur us kop hr morselate kar k tareekay se nikaala jata hai. Ye morselation b boht zaada ajkal controversy me b aaya , is k baaray me tarah tarah k hare k forum me discussions hue k karna chahye ya nai karna chahye aur ye jo fibroid ko nikalne ka tareeka morselation ka hai, aaj kal in-bag b hai matlb aap bag k andar fibroid ko daalo aur us ko nikalo. Is se wo cheez jo hai wo phailti nai hai aur boht araam se wo aap k nikal aati hai. Ye ek din ka stay rehta hai hospital me fibroid nikalne k liye. Laparoscopic fibroid removal me patient is there in the hospital just for one day. Us k baad you’re back to normal and aap ko koi rok thaam nai hai, serhiyon pe jaana utarna, aap ko koi jhukna, travel karna. Log Hindustan k bahr se b aatay hain is ko remove karwanay k liye. So, this is one thing which is available in our hospital and we’ve been doing it since 92. 2000, we have already got to recognized training center for fibroid removal. Now there are situations jahan pe fibroids nahi nikal paatay, tou us me b koi aisi baat nai hai, it’s not k it’s the end, like k agar tubes k boht paas ho, agar boht zaada paas hai tou kabi kabi situationally aap nai nikaal paatay but that is something jo k aap ko us k liye koi aisi wo baat nai hai as long as the tubes are patent, matlb aap tube ko test karte ho aur pregnancy amooman hojati hai. Fibroid removal k baad sab ka question hota hai hum kab shuru Karen pregnancy? 3 maheenay is the ultimate time jo l hum log detay hain k us k baad hum kehte hain aap zarur us ko shuru karlo and jo ye fibroid ki problems hain this is something which is so common. I feel that we should look into it, regular checkup is the only answer at every age. Har ek umer ki larki ko apna every year checkup kara lena boht zarurui hai.
We have more than 200 bones in our body and each of them is susceptible to bone cancer. However, long bones in the arms and legs are most susceptible to this condition. Bone cancer can be primary or secondary. Primary bone cancer involves uncontrolled and abnormal cell division within the bones while secondary bone cancer refers to cancer that originated somewhere else in the body and later spread to the bones. While children and adults are equally at risk for primary bone cancer, adults and elderly people are more susceptible to secondary bone cancer. If diagnosed early enough, bone cancer can be treated and even cured with surgery, chemotherapy or radiation.
Hence it is essential to recognize the signs and symptoms of bone cancer. Here’s what you should look out for.
- Pain in Bones: Pain is one the primary symptoms of bone cancer. As the tumour grows larger, this pain can become more intense. In its early stages, the pain may be experienced as a dull ache inside the bone or the affected part of the body. It may also increase or decrease according to your activity level or may be experienced only at night. However, not all bone pains signify ‘cancer’ as this is also a symptom associated with osteoporosis.
- Swelling: In some cases, the abnormal growth of bone cells can result in the formation of a lump of mass that may be felt through the skin. In other cases, the affected area may also show signs of swelling.
- Breaking of the Bone: Cancer can weaken the bones and make them more brittle. This may make the bones more susceptible to fractures. A bone breaking in an area that has been painful or sore for a long period of time may be a sign of cancer. This is known as a pathologic fracture.
- Reduced Flexibility: If the tumour is located near a joint, it may affect the range of movements possible and make simple actions uncomfortable. For example, a tumour around the knee may make walking and climbing stairs a painful exercise.
Other symptoms to look out for are sudden and drastic weight loss, tiredness, excessive sweating at night, fever and difficulty breathing in case cancer has spread to other organs. Since many of these symptoms are common to other medical disorders, you should conduct a doctor immediately if you notice any of them. A physical examination and a couple of tests along with a biopsy will be required to confirm a diagnosis of bone cancer. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!