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Caesarean Section Procedure
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
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Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
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Pap Smear Procedure
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Dilation and curettage is a surgical procedure where the cervix (the lower part of uterus) is dilated and tissues are removed from the inside of the uterus. The procedure is usually done to treat heavy menstrual bleeding or clean the lining of the uterus after an abortion or miscarriage.
During the procedure, the cervix is dilated with medication and a thin surgical instrument is inserted through the vagina. This instrument is then used to scrape (curettage) the uterine tissues.
Reasons for Conducting the Procedure
Dilation and curettage is mostly done to either treat or diagnose certain uterine disorders. Dilation and curettage is recommended if your doctor needs to diagnose conditions such as:
1. Irregular uterine bleeding
2. Postmenopausal bleeding
3. Discovery of unnatural endometrial cells while conducting a common test for cervical cancer
Sometimes, the doctor can take a sample tissue from the uterus and perform tests on it to check for the following conditions:
1. Uterine cancer
2. Uterine polyps (abnormal tissue growth)
3. Endometrial hyperplasia (precancerous thickening of the uterine lining)
Dilation and curettage, when used for therapeutic purposes, is used in the treatment of the following conditions:
1. To clear away molar pregnancy; which is characterized by formation of tumours.
2. To treat heavy bleeding after childbirth; any remaining placenta in the uterus is removed.
3. To remove benign uterine or cervical polyps.
4. To clear away fibroids (benign tumours which form on the uterine wall)
5. To remove any tissue that could have been left behind after an abortion or miscarriage to prevent heavy bleeding or infection
What needs to be considered before opting for it?
The procedure of dilation and curettage is mostly safe. Complications from this procedure are rare, but some factors should always be taken care off.
1. The surgical instrument can perforate or poke a hole in the uterus. Sometimes, perforations can heal on their own; but if any organ or blood vessel gets damaged, then another surgery will be required.
2. The cervix can be damaged during the procedure. The doctor can stitch the wound close, or apply pressure on the wound to stop the bleeding.
3. Sometimes, there might be scar tissues on the wall of the uterus. This can cause irregular, painful or absent menstrual cycles, augment risks of infertility and future miscarriages. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Breast cancer is a type of a cancerous infection that develops in the skin cells of the breast. This condition is more commonly diagnosed after you have skin cancer and is more common in women than men. There are certain signs to identify this disease, which are as follows.
1. Breast lumps - Lumps are patches of skin that occur due to the thickening and swelling of the skin. Breast lumps is a very common phenomenon for women but that does not always lead to a breast cancer; however, frequent and reoccurring instances of the same increases the risk of breast cancer. A breast lump is easily identifiable through the naked eye as it looks different from the surrounding tissues.
2. Blood discharges - The nipple is one of the most sensitive areas in the human body. In case of women, it is meant to emit milk during pregnancy, in order to feed the infant externally. A probable symptom of breast cancer can also be a frequent discharge of blood from the nipple without any visible damage or injury.
3. Breast changes - If you are experiencing any visible changes in the size, appearance or shape of the breast, then it is an indicative sign that you may have breast cancer. Thus, it is of paramount importance that you observe, touch and physically examine your breast regularly for changes. If there is any major change detected then it is advisable to consult a doctor.
4. Inverted nipple - The tip of the nipple is generally bulging and pointing outwards both in cases of men and women. But sometimes the tip of the nipple is pushed inside due to excessive suction caused by the skin tissues present inside the breast around the nipple area. This suction forces the nipple to grow inwards which is abnormal and might harm the breast and skin in various ways.
However, apart from these main symptoms, some other signs are also there that increase your chances of being diagnosed with breast cancer. They are redness or pitting of the skin over your breast like an orange, peeling or scaling of the pigmented area around the nipple, dimpling of the skin on the breasts, and such others.
During the menstrual days, it is necessary to use some kind of padding or easily absorbent material to remain clean and hygienic throughout the day. This material is available in form of tampons or sanitary napkins.
What is the difference between tampons and sanitary napkin
- The tampon is a mass of retentive material shaped in a cylinder, which needs to be inserted into the vagina. Most tampons have a cord or string to aid manual removal. Tampons are used especially when you have to wear tight fitting clothes.
- The sanitary napkins are disposable flat pads that are worn externally to collect menstrual blood and prevent staining. These are mostly made of rayon or cotton. They are available in a variety of sizes, with added benefits of extra absorption and fragrance in some cases. They are easier to carry.
Benefits of using a tampon
- Tampons are easy to use provided you are very well informed and well practiced about its usage and methods of insertion
- Tampons can absorb menstrual blood, depending on your flow, for up to six hours.
- Tampons are more hygienic as the entire material does not get soaked. This helps in preventing the menstrual blood from coming in contact with underwear, skin and staining other clothing.
Disadvantages of using a tampon
- Tampons, if not changed within 4-6 hours, may cause leakage and staining.
- The insertion of a tampon is extremely inconvenient and uncomfortable if not used by practiced hands.
- Incorrect insertion can be painful and lead to injuries and infection
- Leaving a tampon on for too long can cause a Toxic Shock Syndrome. It is a fatal disease caused by toxins and bacterial infection.
- Tampons may increase menstrual cramps in some cases.
Benefits of using sanitary napkins
- Sanitary napkins are easy to use. They come in flat, rectangular shapes of absorbent material that are stuck on the underwear and absorb menstrual blood externally.
- Can be worn overnight.
- Easier to use and convenient to carry around.
- Helps to monitor the flow of blood
- Lessens the risk of infections, and there are fewer health risks
Disadvantages of sanitary napkins
- Cannot prevent menstrual odours
- The absorption rate is lower than tampons
- They show through clothing and tight fitted clothes cannot be worn
It is difficult to say which one is a better or healthier option. Both kinds have their own advantages and disadvantages and are a matter of individual preference. No matter what you use, it is important for you to keep in mind that it is necessary to change it after a few hours, and regular washing helps keeping the menstrual odour in check. It also keeps the pubic region clean and free from the risks of bacterial infections. It is necessary to remain active and maintain a healthy diet to have a regular smooth flow without blood clots. In case of uncontrolled bleeding, you must seek medical attention without delay. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
If there is a recurrent pain in the lower pelvic and the lower abdomen region of the body, chances are you might be suffering from pelvic pain. In women, severe pelvic pain can be a warning sign of some internal damage in the reproductive organs (ovaries, fallopian tube, uterus, and vagina) present in the pelvic region or the digestive system of the body. Although not common in men, pelvic pain might be indicative of an infection or severe pain in the colon region or the pelvic bones. Pelvic pain might be acute or chronic in nature and the pain might spread to the thighs and buttocks of the body.
The causes of pelvic pain differ among the genders, which are as follows:
1. For women, pelvic pain can be an indication of more serious disorders in the internal reproductive organs such as uterine cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer and other pelvic inflammatory diseases (when the sexually transmitted bacteria spread to the reproductive organs and causes infections).
2. In women, pelvic pain might also occur due to endometriosis (a disorder wherein the internal endometrial tissues grow outside the uterus resulting in severe pain), adenomyosis (a disorder wherein the endometrial tissues which line the wall of the uterus start growing within the uterus), severe pain during ovulation and miscarriages.
3. The causes of pelvic pain in both men and women include sexually transmitted diseases, a disorder in the pelvic region or the bladder, kidney stones, urinary tract infection, colon cancer, and chronic hernia.
If you suffer from the following symptoms, chances are you might be suffering from pelvic pain:
1. Severe pain in the hips and the groin
2. Sudden fever along with the presence of blood in the stool.
3. Severe menstrual pain
4. You might feel severe pain while urinating or in the middle of a sexual intercourse
5. Bloody vaginal discharge might be indicative of pelvic pain in women
6. Recurring episodes of constipation or diarrhoea
7. Pain resulting from stress and intense physical movements
If the pain is chronic, doctors might suggest prescribed a dosage of birth-control pills, antibiotic (especially for blood in the stool and pain due to infection) and anti-depressants. In extreme conditions, the doctor might prescribe laparoscopic surgery (operation by making minor incisions performed far from the actual source).
A Pap Smear is a screening test done to to test for occurrence of uterine cancer. Carried out in a quick and simple way to extract a sample, the sample is collected from the cervix area of a woman during a pelvic exam. The examination of the sample takes place under a microscope thereafter to find abnormalities that can point towards cancer and pre cancer changes.
There are many reasons why women should get a pap smear screening done:
- Women who are HIV positive should get this test done regularly so as to detect any anomalies in the cervix. This condition usually comes with higher risk of infections and cancer, which is why regular screening is required.
- Age is also another factor and women over the age of 30 should go through an annual screening on a compulsory basis. This is also true for women who have been through pregnancy and childbirth.
Preparing for a Pap Smear: To prepare for a pap smear test, you need to ensure that you are not menstruating at the time. Also, you may want to avoid sexual activity just before the test so as to get the most accurate readings. During the process, remember to stay calm and relax your body physically.
Procedure: The pap smear procedure is a quick one that might be only slightly uncomfortable. This test is usually carried out on the examination table at the gynecologist's clinic. The legs will need to be spread and placed in stirrups. The doctor will insert a speculum to hold open the vaginal opening so that the spatula can be inserted easily to take a sample from the area. This sample of the cells will be tested in a lab after due preservation.
Test Results: The test results can either be normal or abnormal. An abnormal result does not point at the presence of cancer. Rather it can simply mean that abnormal cells exist in the cervix. The doctor may ask you to go through these tests and screening more frequently so as to study the anomalies in a more detailed manner.
Vulvodynia refers to a condition, in which you have chronic pain near your vaginal opening. This area is known as the vulva. Vulvodynia is an extremely painful condition, which also causes a lot of irritation and burning in the vulva. There is no known cause of vulvodynia and it has been said that vulvodynia can go on for months or even years. It is such a painful condition that having sex or even sitting down for extended periods will be troublesome for you.
Here is everything you need to know about Vulvodynia.
There is only one symptom of vulvodynia and that is when there is pain in your genital area. However, the type of pain you experience may be characterized by burning, stinging or itching among other sensations.
The cause of vulvodynia is not yet known. However, there are certain factors, which increase the risk of contracting vulvodynia. Here are the factors.
- Injury or irritation to the nerves around the vulva.
- Vaginal infections
- Sensitive skin
- Changes in hormone levels
Vulvodynia itself cannot be cured, only the symptoms of vulvodynia can be relieved. Relieving symptoms is not a very quick process either as it takes weeks and sometimes even months for the symptoms to
improve. Some of the treatments which can be used to treat vulvodynia include.
- Medicines: Certain medicines relieve the symptoms, which vulvodynia causes. These medicines include steroids and anticonvulsants so that your pain will be reduced. Antihistamines are known to reduce itching.
- Surgery: When vulvodynia is localized to a particular area, surgery can be used to remove the skin and tissue of the area which has been affected by vulvodynia.
- Anesthetics: Local anesthetics can be given so that your pain is reduced for a short while. A good time to apply local anesthetics would be 30 minutes before having sexual intercourse. This is because most local anesthetics used to treat vulvodynia come in the form of ointments. If your partner comes in contact with this ointment, then he will also be feeling numb.
- Pelvic floor therapy: Many times, vulvodynia is caused by the tension in the muscles of the pelvic floor. Exercises to relieve those muscles often ease the pain caused by vulvodynia.
Related Tip: "Causes and Symptoms of Vulvodynia"
There are two main ways of finding out if you are pregnant - getting your blood tested, and doing home pregnancy urine test. In order for these tests to give you a clear picture, you need to wait until the right time i.e. until you've missed your period. However, there are several early signs of pregnancy that can give you an indication that you might be expecting.
1. Shortness of breath - Do you find yourself losing your breath on the stairs or when you walk for a long period of time, more than you usually do? This could be a sign of pregnancy since the fetus needs oxygen, leaving you feeling a little breathless even when you mildly exert yourself.
2. Sore breasts - If your breasts suddenly start feeling a little heavy or you feel like they have grown and your areolas seem slightly darker, it could be one of the first signs that you are pregnant.
3. Fatigue - The increase in hormones in your body during a pregnancy could lead to you feeling a lot more tired. If you end up exhausted after a normal day this could be because women tend to feel extreme tiredness during their first trimester of pregnancy.
4. Nausea - Around 6 weeks into a pregnancy (sometimes earlier), women tend to feel nauseous. This usually subsides as you enter into your second trimester. Feeling nauseous could be a sign of pregnancy. You can treat it by eating things that help settle your stomach like crackers and soda.
5. Frequent Urination - If you notice yourself needing to urinate more than usual, it could be a sign of pregnancy. This happens because your body is now producing extra fluids that cause your bladder to work extra.
6. Headaches - An early sign of pregnancy is experiencing frequent headaches. This happens because your body is now suddenly dealing with a lot of excessive hormones. To deal with the headaches make sure you take a pregnancy safe painkiller instead of a normal one.
Everybody has a way of expressing itself if only we take the time out to listen. If we really pay attention to these tiny reactions, detecting a pregnancy early, that is even before you skip that period is possible
Related Tip: 6 Pregnancy Complications You Need to Know About