My name is Dr. Gurmeet Singh Chabbra, working as a senior consultant Pulmonologist at QRG Health City, Faridabad.
Today I am going to talk about tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacteria called mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can also be caused by non-mycobacterium tuberculosis. Usually, it affects the lungs but it might affect other organs also like bones, kidneys, heart, brain, spine etc. Tuberculosis kills about 4,80,000 people per year i.e. about 1400 people in a day. It is more common in people who have more sad of living. It is more common in smokers. 55% is attributed to malnutrition which is very high compared to HIV. In diabetics, the instincts are more common.
Now how does it spread? Tuberculosis is spread by the one who is suffering from it, when he coughs, shouts, sneezes. The small droplets are exposed in the air. If someone inhales those droplets, it goes into the lungs. If controlled, it can be destroyed by the body. In some cases, it is just controlled and made dormant and it is called dormant TB or TB infection or latent tuberculosis. About 1/3 of the world's population is infected with the TB. The patients who have HIV, they have 24% of more chances of active TB. Latent tuberculosis if develops in active tuberculosis, is also called reactivation of TB. The patients who have latent tuberculosis, they will not spread TB. They will not look sick.
Latent tuberculosis can be diagnosed by skin Mantoux test or from a blood test for TB. We also have to examine the patient by chest x-ray to see whether the patient has active tuberculosis or not. Now about symptoms of tuberculosis. A cough for more than 2 weeks can cough out blood in the sputum, chest pain, fever, lethargy, weight loss, night sweat, not feeling well or in particular if any organ is involved than the patient might have the symptoms of organ involvement. For example: If the patient has spine TB, he will have a backache. If the patient has TB of the kidney, he may have blood in urine. Or he may also have enlarged swelling in the neck if he has a lymph node.
Now how is TB diagnosed? A patient is suffering from chest TB or pulmonary tuberculosis, we can examine sputum. We can send sputum test for CB-NATT test i.e. a DNA test for TB, also called geneexpert test or LPA. Another test like chest x-ray, ultrasound, CT scan will also help in diagnosis. 40% of the population of India has latent tuberculosis. The patients who are at the risk of TB, for example children, the age of less than 6, HIV positive patient, diabetics, they should get treated or examined for TB. The treatment for active TB involved in giving drugs. The patient who is suffering from TB they are treated by anti-tuberculated treatment with about 4 drugs to be given for 2-3 months and then about 3 drugs for 4-5 months. The patients who are suffering from MDR-TB, they require treatment for a longer time with more drugs. The key to success is that the treatment should not be interrupted. The drugs should be taken in proper doses and on time. In case, the patient develops any symptom or any side-effects, he should contact his doctor before stopping the drug. MDR-TB is about 6.19% cases of TB. And it is about 2.84% of new cases. And 11.6% of old cases. Thank You.read more
Find numerous Pulmonologists in India from the comfort of your home on Lybrate.com. You will find Pulmonologists with more than 31 years of experience on Lybrate.com. We will help you find the best Pulmonologists online in Faridabad. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
Book Clinic Appointment with Dr. Gurmeet Singh Chabbra
Submit a review for Dr. Gurmeet Singh ChabbraYour feedback matters!
Patient Review Highlights
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Gurmeet Singh Chabbra to be very helpful, knowledgeable, caring, sensible and nurturing. Thankyou
Dr. Gurmeet Singh Chabbra provides answers that are very helpful. Thanks sir
Dr. Gurmeet Singh Chabbra provides answers that are knowledgeable. Thanks
Dr is very knowledgeable for this disease.
My mother has renal TB, 5 years back she had taken normal TB treatment for 6 months and there was an stent in ureters for 6 months. After 6 months the doctor said their is still swelling in ureters so you need an operation. So we decided not to do any operation. My mother stopped all medicine. But their was some pain in right kidney continuously. So we decided to show again to an urologist in june. The doctor said your tb is still not cured. The doctor said we need to put stent again in right ureters and start again tb medicine. So now to condition is there is an stent and my mother is taking tb medicine from 6 july. The urologist referred to govt tb hospital for tb treatment. My mother is taking cat -2 treatment with streptomycin. She had taken 60 injection. And now she is having vision problem, so tb expert said you need to stop ethambutol. So we stopped ethambutol. So I want to ask to you sir, that, should we stop ethambutol or not.
I have a brain TB sir I have lost my left eye I use medicines from past 1 year but take a 3 months gap then now I use medicines. I have a doubt which medicines and how long I use please tell me sir.
This year i.e 2018, in the month of march I had issues in breathing properly then I was admitted in emergency in hospital. There after taking nebulizer I got well then I went to doctor and he told me that it happens due to allergy in changing season and after about 10-15 days of medication I got well. Now again in september I had same issue of breathing and I went to different doctors and at last went to a doctor who asked for some lab tests. IgE level, CBC,AEC, PFT,Fractional exhaled nitric oxide level. After getting reports my IgE level came about 1290 Iu/ml, Eosinophil-8% these things were not normal and rest everything came normal in blood test. PFT test was also not normal FEV1-2.18L,FEV1/FVC-60.2%,PEF-6.51 L/s, FEF2575-1.35 L/s, Nitric oxide exhaled came to be about 32 PPB. Doctor saw the reports and said that I have asthma. Is there anything that can help me to eradicate this problem. Also the problem occurred only to me this year and I am 23 years old. Please help.
Asthma is an inflammatory disease, which affects the airways of your lungs (respiratory tract that pumps oxygen into the lungs). It is long term in nature. It is characterized by shortness of breath, coughing and wheezing. It occurs few times a day or few times a week depending on the person it affects. Sometimes it worsens during the night.
What triggers Asthma?
- Airborne particles such as dust mites, mold spores, pollen and cockroach waste.
- Infections in the respiratory system such as common cold.
- Cold air can also trigger asthma.
- Physical or outdoor activities which make you pant such as running, skipping, jogging and jumping can cause shortness of breath, thus triggering asthma.
- Pollutants and irritants in air such as smoke.
- Some medications can also trigger asthma.
- Stress and nervous attacks (panic attacks) also trigger asthma.
How to manage asthma better by changing your lifestyle:
- Try to avoid keeping animals in your house such as dogs, cats and rabbits. Many times animal fur, waste, urine and saliva contains particles which can cause allergic reactions and make you cough uncontrollably. This in turn triggers asthma attacks. If you have pets try keeping them away from your bedroom.
- Dust mites also cause allergies which trigger asthma. So wash your carpets, rugs, bed-linen and pillowcases in hot water.
- Bugs and insects such as cockroaches are not only unhygienic, but can also trigger asthma. Cockroach droppings near your bed, kitchen and food are dangerous and you should call an exterminator to get rid of these bugs.
- Sometimes, heavy fragrance also aggravates your respiratory tract and triggers shortness of breath. Avoid using heavy perfumes, deodorants and room fresheners.
- Pollution also triggers asthma. Dust particles come out from the vehicles and mix with the air. If this air is inhaled, it might trigger uncontrollable asthma. So try to cover your mouth with a cloth when you step out of your house.
Asthma can be very severe and can bring many hurdles in your day to day activities. Changing your lifestyle and certain habits can reduce asthma to a great extent.