Nephrotic Syndrome is a condition which is characterised by the loss of protein into the urine (called proteinuria) as a result of increased glomerular permeability and oedema. This results in low protein level in the blood. The low levels of protein in blood result in the drawing of fluids into soft tissues. A severe form ‘hypoalbuminemia’ can cause scores of secondary diseases such as ascites (retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity), pleural effusion (build-up of fluids between the lungs and the chest), or high cholesterol.read more
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Treatment of Hypertension
Treatment of Blood in Urine
Treatment of Kidney Disease
Treatment of Frequent Urination Problems
Kidney Dialysis Treatment
Treatment of Fluid Retention
Kidney Stones Treatment
Treatment of Kidney Failure
Treatment of Kidney Diseases
Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome
Kidney Transplant Treatment
Treatment of Nephropathy
Treatment of Nephrolithiasis
Treatment of Nephronophthisis
Treatment of Bartter Syndrome
Treatment of Renal Agenesis
Treatment of Alport Syndrome
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Nephrotic Syndrome is a condition which is characterised by the loss of protein into the urine (called proteinuria) as a result of increased glomerular permeability and oedema. This results in low protein level in the blood. The low levels of protein in blood result in the drawing of fluids into soft tissues. A severe form ‘hypoalbuminemia’ can cause scores of secondary diseases such as ascites (retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity), pleural effusion (build-up of fluids between the lungs and the chest), or high cholesterol.
No Blood, No needle, No visit to hospital, you can do yourself at home with water. A thin layer of transparent screen like structure hangs in front of the abdominal muscles known as peritoneum. This peritoneum protects the abdominal structures and the muscle. This can also be used for performing dialysis which is carried out when the functioning of kidney gets affected. In peritoneal dialysis a thin and soft catheter is placed in the person’s belly one week before performing the procedure.
The catheter has numerous holes in order to facilitate the transformation of fluids. Dialysis solution is prepared in a bag and the tubing is connected to the catheter placed in the abdomen thereby, the fluids absorb the waste materials from the body. The fluid is allowed to stay in your body for a particular period of time which is commonly referred as dwell time and later the fluid is drained out.
There are two types of peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis. This is the simple form of dialysis which anybody can perform after a short training period and this can be done anywhere in clean private place like hotels, home and even in office.
Procedure followed during Peritoneal Dialysis
All you need to perform a peritoneal dialysis is catheter and transfer set, cycler, dialysis solution and safety precautions materials to stay away from getting infections.
Step 1 - Perform a sterile aseptic technique. Wear a glove and surgical mask before connecting the catheters and transfer set. Clamp the tubing and remove the catheter once the dialysis solution enters your abdomen
Step 2 - Allow the solution to remain in your abdomen for a particular period of dwell time
Step 3 - Drain the fluid from the abdominal cavity into the drain bag. You may feel a mild tugging sensation when adequate amount of fluid is drained.
Step 4 - After drain close or clamp the transfer set and later flush a fresh solution directly to drain bag so as to remove the air from the tubing.
Step 5 - Close your drain bag and open your transfer set and refill your belly with fresh solution.
Make sure you perform without giving way for infection and excess fluid and dextrose absorption.
Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function.Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause.
The tubulointerstitial diseases are nothing but a collection of heterogeneous disorders, sharing similar features of interstitial and tubular injury. Usually characterized by functional and histologic abnormalities these diseases involve the interstitium and the tubules. In case of secondary tubulointerstitial diseases, they are the results of the consequences of progressive vascular or glomerular injuries. Depending on the severity of the diseases, the entire kidney may even be involved, with renal failure as well as glomerular dysfunction.
Know the two types
Depending upon the type of the diseases, the tubulointerstitial diseases can be divided into two different categories, namely, acute tubular nercosis and chronic or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. While the latter refers to the primary injuries to the interstitium and renal tubules that results in reduced renal function, the former category of tubulointerstitial diseases refers to the death of the tubular epithelial cells which are responsible for forming the kidneys’ renal tubules. Analgesic nephropathy, reflux nephropathy, and myeloma kidney are involved with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis.
How does this problem occur?
There can be a number of causes of tubulointerstitial diseases. Contrast nephropathy is a form of acute tubular necrosis that is caused due to iodinated radiocontrast agents. From infections to obstructive processes, toxic agents, including drugs, metabolic diseases like hyperuricemia, diabetes, ischemia, and immune mechanisms meditated damages or radiation can be responsible for tubulointerstitial diseases. Some forms of the injuries to the tubulointerstitial compartment often result from exposure to certain drugs and infections or toxic insult.
Knowing the symptoms is crucial
The signs and symptoms of the tubulointerstitial diseases can be various, depending on the cause and type of the disease. While some people experience pain in the lower back, dysuria, vomiting, nausea, weight loss and fatigue when suffering from chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis; bilateral renal engagement, weight loss, and abdominal pain are also common signs of interstitial edema. Decreased consciousness, lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, fluid retention, decreased or no urine output at all are some of the most common symptoms of acute tubular necrosis.
Treatment options available
When it comes to treating tubulointerstitial diseases, the treatment methods vary depending on the disease and the cause behind them. Some of the most effective ways of treatment involve identifying the inciting factors and the removal of the offending agents, trying certain drug therapies and if need be, opting for surgeries. To improve the renal functions, chemotherapy plasmapheresis treatment can also be helpful. Identifying the general disease associated with the tubulointerstitial diseases and treating it is another effective way of treatment.
Remember, opting for immediate medical attention is necessary once any symptoms of any tubulointerstitial diseases are noticed because, the earlier the diagnosis of the tubulointerstitial diseases will be, the more effective and fast will be the path to cure. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Every organ is important for the human body to perform its functions normally. Kidneys too are vital and are responsible for removing the excess fluid and toxins from the body. If the kidney is not functioning properly, then the patient is advised to undergo dialysis treatment. In some cases, the patient is advised to undergo a transplant. However, in any case, the patient has to follow a healthy diet, for the treatment and the medicines to work positively.
Suitable diet during dialysis
Most of the patients are not aware of the diet prescribed for dialysis. Though it is always advised to consult a dietician before following any diet for the condition, it is also advisable to gain some knowledge about what the dietician might suggest, so that one is not clueless about the treatment. In a majority of the cases, food containing potassium, phosphorus, low-fat cholesterol, and sodium is included in the diet of these patients. However, these are prescribed in a limited amount and vary from patient to patient.
- Sodium: The sodium level of the dialysis patients needs to be controlled; and this can be done by eating food items that have a low sodium content, not more than 2,000 mg. Hence, the quantity of snacks, pudding, and chips are to be reduced in the diet chart.
- Potassium: The level of potassium also needs to be kept in check to avoid further deterioration of the kidney. Bread, certain vegetables, and grains contain a high amount of potassium. Moreover, various salt substitutes contain potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride. Large intake of these foods may affect the kidney permanently. Hence, these are majorly excluded from the diet. The patients are advised to include tomatoes and bananas in their diet, though not on a daily basis.
- Phosphorus: The patient is advised to avoid foods with high phosphorus. This includes milk and dairy products and grains. However, while on dialysis, meat is important as it gives enough protein despite being high on phosphorus. But, an abundance of meat in the diet may affect adversely. Hence, this is advised, but kept in control.
- Cholesterol: To keep cholesterol amount in check during dialysis, the patient needs to cut down on fruits and vegetables and specific fat diets, while eating a sufficient amount of fish.
- Protein: High protein food is necessary for a patient with a kidney disease. Meat is an excellent source of protein. Along with that, poultry, fish, and eggs are important, as well. Hence, all this is included in the diet.
- Fluids: Dialysis helps in removing the excessive waste fluids from the kidney. But, to keep the body hydrated, the patient is allowed liquid intake, but only up to a certain limit.
It is necessary to maintain a proper diet during dialysis, as it quickens the treatment as well as helps the patient recover quickly.
The kidneys are responsible for the elimination of waste from the body. The blood is filtered in the kidneys and all toxic wastes are filtered out and excreted through urine. When this filtration does not happen effectively, a lot of waste can be found in the blood, which affects normal body function.
Kidneys may lose their functioning either due to age, injury, or disease conditions. Whatever the reason, when kidney function is hampered, the body suffers. If there was an injury or congenital problem, it could be unilateral and the non-affected kidney could still do the function. However, if it is infection or old age, normally both kidneys are affected and then replacement should be looked for externally. This is where a kidney transplant comes into the picture.
What is it?
It is a surgery where a healthy, functioning kidney is placed into the body. The donor could be
- Living: These donors have to be related or unrelated. Related is often termed someone, who is a family member and is willing to donate one kidney (one kidney is sufficient for normal, healthy individuals) to the diseased person.
- Cadaver: If a person is willing to donate kidneys post death, these are used for transplant, within a specified time.
Identifying the right donor and recipient:
- Blood type and tissue type should be matched; a good tissue type match improves the chances of success
- Overall health of the donor to ensure there is no heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes
- The recipient also should be healthy
What to expect during surgery?
- Once a donor is identified, in living donors, the surgery to remove the kidney and to transplant it are done simultaneously
- The surgery usually takes about 3 to 4 hours
- Antibiotics are given prior to the surgery to prevent infection
- The blood vessels and ureter are connected back to the kidney after the transplant
- Hospital stay can range from 5 days to 2 weeks, depending on the overall health of the patient and the anticipated risk of rejection.
- Most transplanted kidneys work effectively almost immediately. A kidney stored from a cadaver may take a little longer compared to a fresh kidney from a living donor
- People who have had transplants are put on immunosuppressants on a chronic basis to reduce chances of rejection. The new kidney will always be recognised by the body as a foreign body, and so this is essential.
Kidney transplant success rates are quite high, and more and more people are opting for transplants as opposed to dialysis. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Eating right has never been more emphasized than today where people around the world are affected by several medical conditions. Be it any condition, the diet has an essential role in effectively managing the problem, and kidney diseases are no exception.
The primary function of the kidneys is to purify the waste from the blood along with maintaining the right balance of fluids in the body. They also play a critical role in regulating blood pressure.
If your kidney functions have been impaired to the slightest extent, it is essential to shift to a diet that supports healthy blood pressure and allow you to manage the issues. This invariably means you will have to avoid excess protein, sugar, salt and trans fats.
Let’s take a look at the foods you should steer clear of when you are suffering from kidney problems.
- Foods high in phosphorus and potassium: Depending on the type as well as the severity of the kidney issues you are going through, you may be advised by your dietician to limit the intake of foods which contain copious amounts of phosphorus and potassium. This is because these minerals can start accumulating in the blood when the kidneys are not able to function correctly. Your doctor may also suggest you avoid salt substitutes which may contain potassium and limit rich products. You should limit the intake of avocados, milk, yogurt, bananas, and other seeds and beans. Foods rich in phosphorus include nuts, liver, soft drinks, and beans.
- Too much protein: Excessive protein intake may prove to be detrimental to the kidney disorders. According to the National Kidney Disease Education Program, people with chronic kidney disease should limit daily protein consumption to about 0.36 grams per pound of body weight. The moderate approach to the consumption of protein can allow about 54 grams of protein daily for a person weighing around 150 pounds.
- Processed foods: Fast and processed foods are said to contain high amounts of sugar, salt, and unhealthy fats. It is important to avoid them when you have kidney disorders. This means that you will have to bid farewell to crackers, chips, cookies along with frozen meals, canned soups, and other convenience foods. It is important to note here that even foods that appear to be healthy such as canned fruits and vegetables tend to contain high amounts of salt and sugar. Thus, fruits packed without added sugar is the best option for people affected by kidney diseases.
- Soda and Soft Drinks: Soda and soft drinks offer absolutely no nutritional benefits, but they contain hordes of sugars, which are either natural or chemically produced. Studies have shown that sodas can lead to various health conditions such as osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, kidney diseases and dental problems. Diet sodas may contain a lesser amount of calories, but they can still offer no nutritional values and often come with harmful additives that may prove detrimental to your overall health.
Thus, you should try to avoid these foods to manage your kidney disorder better.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
With the advancements in technology, you have gained more and more comforts for life and with that the incidence of lifestyle diseases to have increased. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, has affected an approximate 422 million people across the world, and is continuing to affect a large number of people every year.
Insulin is a vital hormone in the body which regulates the level of sugar in the blood, and when this level is elevated, it can lead to issues in various parts of the body. Diabetes is a disease that doesn't allow the body to produce enough insulin or optimize the use of insulin produced in the pancreas, and thus impairs several organs and decreases the quality of life adversely.
What are the effects of diabetes on the kidneys?
- When a person has high blood sugar, the tiny blood vessels in the body are injured. When the blood vessels in the kidneys are damaged, the kidneys are not able to clean the toxins from the body properly. It results in the retention of water as well as salt in the body, which typically leads to weight gain and swelling in the ankles. Also, a person may have protein in the urine along with waste materials in the blood.
- High blood sugar can also lead to nerve damage in the body, causing difficulty in releasing the contents of the bladder. The pressure exerted from the bladder may back up and cause harm to the kidneys. Also, when the urine remains in the bladder for an extended period, one may develop infections from the rapid growth of bacteria in the urine owing to high blood sugar level.
- About 30 percent of people affected with Type 1 diabetes and around 10 to 40 percent of people with type 2 diabetes would eventually be affected by kidney damage.
What are the signs and symptoms of kidney damage due to diabetes?
- The earliest symptom of kidney disease due to diabetes is a rise in an excretion of the protein known as albumin in the urine.
- This increase in the protein is confirmed through various general tests. Therefore, it is essential to get these tests done on a yearly basis. In its early stages, it diabetes leads to weight gain and swelling in the ankles.
- There is an increase in blood pressure, and it causes frequent urination, particularly at night. If you are affected by diabetes, you should get your blood, urine and blood pressure checked at least once in every year.
- This can allow you to exercise better control of the disease and the early treatment of kidney disease. You should try to lower your blood sugar level to reduce the risk of severe kidney disorder.
In the advanced stage of kidney disease, the blood urea nitrogen will increase along with the level of creatinine in the blood. It will cause symptoms such as extreme fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, vomiting, anemia, and muscle cramps. Your nephrologist will work with you and your dietician for reducing the blood sugar level and also keep the kidneys in working condition.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Alport Syndrome, first detected by Dr. A. Cecil Alport and named after him is a rare inherited disease. It affects the kidney and also the inner cochlea or ear and the eyes. Passed down through families, it is caused by genetic mutations that affect the type IV collagen family of proteins. Collagen is an important tissue that forms the basement structure of the kidney, inner ear and eye.
Types of Alport syndrome
- X-Linked Alport Syndrome: A most common form of Alport Syndrome, boys who are affected with this type tend to develop serious complications and kidney failure.
- Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS): When both the parents carry the abnormal gene and pass it down to their offspring, this type of syndrome is caused. If affects the male and female with equal severity.
- Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS): This happens when the child inherits the abnormal gene from one of the parents. Only one copy is needed to cause a mutation.
Signs and symptoms of Alport syndrome
With all types of Alport Syndrome, the tiny blood vessels of the kidney called glomeruli are damaged and the kidney will be unable to filter the toxins from the body. The most common symptoms include:
- Hematuria – Blood in the urine
- Proteinuria – Protein in the urine
- High blood pressure
- Edema – Swelling in the legs, ankle, feet and around the eyes
- Hearing and vision problems
- Flank pain
The following tests and examinations can be performed to assess the condition and type of Alport Syndrome:
- Urine test – It helps in finding the presence of blood or protein in your urine.
- Glomerular Filtration Rate – The blood work assesses the levels of waste and protein in your blood.
- Kidney Biopsy – A tiny piece of kidney is removed with special needle and analyzed
- Hearing Test – It checks, if hearing is affected
- Vision Test – This is conducted to check any abnormalities in vision
- Genetic Test – It determines the type of Alport syndrome and confirm the diagnosis
There is no specific treatment for Alport Syndrome. However, treatment aims to relieve the symptoms and slow the progression of kidney disease.
- Medications to control high blood pressure
- Diuretics or water pills
- Limiting salt or sodium intake in your diet
- Kidney transplantation if patient is progressing towards kidney failure
- Medications to slow down the onset of kidney damage
Awareness of family history of this disorder will help in detecting Alport Syndrome at an early stage and also help you take the right steps to prevent any further complications.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Glomerulonephritis is a disease that is caused due to inflammation of the small filters that are present within the kidneys or glomeruli. Glomeruli eliminate the excess waste, electrolytes and fluids from the blood, discharged through urine. A glomerular disease can be either acute or chronic. If the condition arises without a combination of any other disease, it is termed as primary glomerulonephritis. Secondary glomerulonephritis is characterized by diabetes or lupus (an auto-immune disorder) being at the root of the disease. Prolonged or severe inflammation can take a toll on the kidneys.
Nephrotic syndrome can be primary, being a disease specific to the kidneys, or it can be secondary, being a renal manifestation of a systemic general illness. In all cases, injury to glomeruli is an essential feature. Kidney diseases that affect tubules and interstitium, such as interstitial nephritis, will not cause nephrotic syndrome.
Primary causes of nephrotic syndrome include the following, in approximate order of frequency:
Secondary causes include the following, again in order of approximate frequency:
Viral infections (e.g., hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] )
Amyloidosis and paraproteinemias
Allo-antibodies from enzyme replacement therapy
Nephrotic-range proteinuria may occur in other kidney diseases, such as IgA nephropathy. In that common glomerular disease, one-third of patients may have nephrotic-range proteinuria.
Nephrotic syndrome may occur in persons with sickle cell disease and evolve to renal failure. From a therapeutic perspective, nephrotic syndrome may be classified as steroid sensitive, steroid resistant, steroid dependent, or frequently relapsing.
Whether one is suffering from acute or chronic nephrotic glomerular , with symptoms moderate or severe, the treatment lies in treating high blood pressure and other underlying conditions of the disease.
Water pills help control sweating, thus increasing the fluid flushed from the kidneys.
Statins reduce cholesterol level.
Blood thinners such as anticoagulants lower the risk of blood clots.
Corticosteroids regulate the immune system and ease the inflammation that results from kidney disorders.
Incorporating certain lifestyle changes such as opting for lean proteins, cutting on the intake of fat in the diet and consuming lesser amounts of salt can treat inflammation and swelling.
For kidney failure, dialysis can come to the aid in eliminating excess fluids and regulating hypertension.