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Treatment Of Acne/Pimples
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Blood is a fluid that circulates in the body and functions to provide the body with nutrition, oxygen and aids in removal of waste products. It is mostly made up of liquid called plasma which functions as the transport medium for gases. The other components are the cells – red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. Blood moves in the channels across the body, known as the blood vessels. These vessels are categorized on the type of the blood they carry. Oxygenated blood flows through the arterial network and de-oxygenated blood flows through the veins. Blood is observed to be red in color owing to the presence of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. But from the skin surface, the blood vessels appear to be blue in color. Does that mean the blood is blue?
A quick glance at the wrist and it’s easy to understand why some people believe their blood is blue. After all, the veins look distinctively blue in color. But is the blood flowing through them blue? The answer is 'NO'. Red color of the human blood ranges from a bright red tint when it is adequately oxygenated to a very dark bluish red when it is deprived of oxygen. This change is due to the increased levels of de-oxyhemoglobin in the de-oxygenated blood. The blue appearance of the surface veins is solely due to phenomenon caused by the effect of light. Veins and arteries appear similar when seen directly after the removal of overlying skin.
Red light has a long wavelength (700 nm) and can travel easily through most things, even through the body tissues reaching upto 5-10mm below the skin, without being deflected. When it reaches the veins, the red light is absorbed by the hemoglobin present in blood. The use of this phenomenon is done by a phlebotomist, by reflecting red light on the arm while drawing out blood from the veins. On the other hand, blue light has a comparatively shorter wavelength (475 nm) which causes it to scatter and deflect more. Due to a shorter wavelength, the blue light doesn’t penetrate skin and is deflected back easily. This is the reason why in normal lighting conditions, the veins appear blue in color. Warmer spectrum colors penetrate through skin and muscles and are absorbed by blood whereas the blue light reflects back making veins appear blue. In very fair skinned people, blue veins are very prominent.
Lack of hemoglobin and presence of copper based hemocyanin gives a distinct blue color to the blood of certain animals like cuttlefish, octopus, tarantula, snails, lobster, squid, marine worms etc. But humans, absolutely red-blooded! No human bleeds blue for sure!
Patients look up to the us, doctors as their life savers. They expect to be cured for their ailments and to be made whole again. However, doctors are humans and humans can make mistakes. A mistake made by a doctor can have serious implications on the patient’s health and hence must be avoided at all costs. A report by the WHO put medical errors amongst the top ten killers. It is said that 1 in every 10 patients admitted to a hospital will experience an adverse event. Thus, the WHO has also put down a few guidelines for patient safety, which not only doctors but patients must also take care of.
Here are a few tips you could consider.
- Prevent the spread of infections: At any given point of time, 1.4 million people across the world suffer from infections caught in a hospital. Offering single bedrooms are an effective way to limit the transmission of infections from one patient to another. Also, pay attention to your air filtration system and provide multiple hand wash stations. Simple measures can also help reduce blood stream infections associated with a central line. Whenever a venous catheter needs to be inserted, wash your hands, clean the skin thoroughly, remove unnecessary lines and only then perform the insertion.
- Pick Blood Donors carefully: Many surgical procedures and treatments require blood transfusions. If attention is not paid to testing blood before it is administered to the patient, there could be serious complications. It is the duty of the hospital to provide safe and sufficient blood supply. For this, the WHO recommends a proper assessment of blood donors and testing their suitability to donate blood at each occasion. Blood transfusion services should also be able to screen for diseases that can be transmitted through transfusion.
- Use good design principles: A fall from a chair or bed can elongate a patient’s recovery. Hence, pay attention to how your hospital has been designed to reduce the risk of such events. Avoid steps and slippery tiles as far as possible. Sensitive bed and chair alarms could also be used to alert a nurse whenever a patient needs assistance. Nurse stations should also be decentralized so that the nurses have easy access to the patients. According to WHO guidelines, a hospital’s ventilation system should provide a minimum average ventilation rate of 60 l/s/patient for general wards.
- Prevent surgical infections: Surgical infections are rare but they still can happen. To reduce the risk of surgical infections, doctors and nurses must sanitize their arms up to their elbows with antiseptic soap before performing surgery. According to WHO guidelines, hands must be washed for a minimum of 2 minutes before any procedure. Special, gowns, masks, hair covers and gloves must be used by anyone in the operation theatre. After surgery, the caregivers must again wash their hands and forearms with antiseptic soaps, even though their skin did not come in direct contact with the patient.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
When you are potentially exposed to HIV, and if there is a way to prevent from getting infected, you will seek to perform it. One such procedure is Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) which must be initiated within 72 hours of possible exposure to HIV.
What is PEP meant for?
The Human immune deficiency virus causes HIV infection that affects the immune system and is considered to be one of the deadly forms of infections. This virus spreads through bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk. There are chances of encountering the infection under the circumstances such as having sexual intercourse or sharing needles with an infected person by accident. In such a case, PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis) can come to your aid in preventing the infection.
The medical term PEP refers to the intake of ARV or antiretroviral medicines after being exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus. To be more specific, PEP is a short-term antiretroviral treatment that works towards reducing the symptoms and likelihood of the HIV infection after being exposed to it.
Who should opt for PEP treatment?
PEP can be ideal for everyone who comes in contact with the HIV and is an HIV negative. Whether one is exposed to HIV through a needle stick injury during his/her work as a health care professional, or whether it’s unprotected sex that has exposed one to HIV, or the sharing of used needles or through sexual assault, opting for the PEP can be the next best step as it is particularly meant for emergency situations.
When and how long PEP can be taken?
Are there any side-effects of taking PEP?
When opting for PEP treatment, some people may experience a few side effects due to it, which varies from person to person, such as vomiting, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, fatigue, etc. However, none of the side effects are life-threatening and can be easily treated. Often, it is due to the reaction of the PEP medications with other drugs that one is taking at the same time that the side-effects start showing. Moreover, as PEP can potentially prevent HIV infection, this benefit certainly outweighs the inconvenience caused as side effects.
PEP is considered to be one of the most effective and promising treatments available for preventing HIV infection if taken correctly and within the certain time duration. In case one thinks he or she has been exposed to HIV somehow, talking to a health care professional regarding PEP becomes crucial.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A migraine is one of the worst form of headache. It is reported that over 90 percent of people who suffers from a migraine are unable to work. The intense pain totally makes them vulnerable. A mammoth 113 million workdays are wasted globally due to this problem. This being said, if the pain is slowly starting to set in, it is possible to manage it at the workspace.
Here is a convenient guide to do just that:
1. Pain Medication: If you are a migraine patient, it is likely that you have your migraine medication with you. The first step is to try the medication. If on the other hand, the medication is not available basic painkillers can be given a shot to manage the pain. Basic pain medications, such as ibuprofen are easily available over the counter and are capable of providing temporary relief.
2. Educate co-workers: Despite awareness about migraine pain, many organisations continue to turn a deaf ear about the problem. Instead of fighting with the whole organisations, it makes sense to educate your immediate colleague about a migraine. All you require is 1-2 people who have your back.
3. Control the environment: With the onset of the pain, it becomes more and more difficult to resume work. Few environmental changes such as adjusting the monitor to the eye level, using a sachet of odour neutralizer and switching off the nearest light will help you to manage the pain for few hours.
4. Staying hydrated: Migraine tends to increase multifold if the body is not hydrated. It is, therefore, essential to drink as much water as you can. Apart from water few other drinks such as lime juice and green tea can be of great assistance to hold the pain back for quite some time.
5. Small snacks: Although eating during a migraine can be tough because of the buzzing pain it is a good idea to have small snacks throughout the working hours. An empty stomach creates acidity and further aggravates the pain. Small time snacks such cookies and chocolate bar can come really handy at this time.
6. Get enough air: A centralised workplace can be claustrophobic and intensify the pain for many. Get out of the workspace to get some fresh air. A sudden gush of oxygen can be a welcome relief from the monotonous and crowded office floor.
7. Apply water on the skull: While this might sound like a crazy idea, applying a small amount of water in the middle of the skull can give temporary relief from the throbbing effect of a migraine. If ice is available in the office pantry, make no hesitation in applying it on the migraine side of the forehead. Ice is capable of spreading a cooling effect throughout the forehead and the skull.