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My father-in-law's age is 64 and he had malignant tumour in urinary bladder. Later it was operated 1 year ago. It was in first stage. But yesterday we did a USG. Report of the USG is "mild focal mucosal thickening in urinary bladder. My question is does his cancer in urinary bladder come back?
Doctor I have a compressed Disc that is L4 and l5 which is pressing my nerve and I find it very Difficult to stand straight or walk. And the pain is coming under the Thigh is there a cure either than Surgery Thanks expecting a Response soon thanks a lot. I am Diabetic and 55 years old.
Today we just want to give a message on breast cancer treatment is as of today in India. So breast cancer is one of the most common cancer amongst women. All over the world it is a number one can amongst Indian all over the world and even in India initially 10 years back it used to be survival cancer. But nowadays we have a lot of breast cancer is coming up and it has replaced cervical cancer to take the number one position in the above sentence even in the rural centres.
For an exception of few sentences for cervical cancer does more than the rest of the centre breast cancer has topped the charts as of 2018. The recent WHO on ICMR surveys that have come up the state that breast cancers the most common one and one of the square 25 to 30 women in India are at risk of developing breast cancer in the west such as US the numbers of Huge it's about 1 and 8 women are at risk of developing breast cancer. But that does not that should not make us more satisfactory or complacent because a population is huge so for a population as huge as Indian population number of breast cancer 8 March 5 so per year we see about 1.5 Lakh cases of new cases of breast cancer.
What is more worrisome is that is one population is large second is the population of people with breast cancer come at an advanced stage as compared to be used in the West president stage 1 and stage 2 where is in India breast cancer stage 3 and 4 in which it is less advanced. Second thing women in India the great of for tomorrow's find the Biology is not so good and much more aggressive treatment so that makes it different the scenario is different as of the west.
The second thing because of the highest age of presentation to cure rates of survival rates also slightly lower when compared to the west that means out of 1.5 Lakh woman who been duly diagnose breast cancer every year only 50% of the episode 75000 make it be cure in five years of diagnosis only one and two women diagnosed with breast cancer come to the come to Healthcare get proper treatment and get cured. So what we have to understand this we need to know the symptoms of breast cancer treatment of breast cancer to cast an early to make effect cost-effective treatment and to improve the survival rates the second message that I want to pass whatever treatment.
Whatever standard of care of breast cancer treatment is available all over the world is very much available in India is very much available in Delhi and it is very much available in the affordable cost and acceptable for everyone 10 years back treatment for breast cancer would be the removal of entire breast to mastectomy but now mastectomy is for very old people one simple surgery could take care of the rest of it 12 simple surgery to take care of the rest of its population surgery to take care of the rest of us even less population reconstruction plastic breast surgery cost of breast cancer treatment we come along way and with the recent advances in technology parsley second major advancements in interprocess of breast cancer management.
In the West a number of people are picked up even before they have the lump that is because of the screening mammography their lesion are picked up lump is leas than 1cm in India we also have a section of people who come very early they get picked up in a Mammogram even before patient is able to feel the lump in the asymptomatic face pedicure rates are very high the second major advance is genetic testing all of you and Angelina Jolie story and so we do have about 10% of people of hereditary breast cancer in home the bracket genes are involved and Bracket genetic testing is very much available in India at an affordable rate and if it is present then prophylactic surgeries may be option which certain people might opt for so the message for today's breast cancer is one of the very much curable cancers of all most of the cancers and of all the character of amongst women so the message for today is breast.
Also known as slipped disc, herniated disc or sciatica. The discs are the shock absorbers of your spine. When they are injured the inner soft part of the disc can protrude out through a tear in the outer lining of the disc. This disc material can press on the nerves in the spinal column, injuring them through direct pressure and causing inflammation.
The most common age to develop a disc prolapse is between the ages of 30-50 years., twice as many men as women are affected. Prolpased discs occur mainly in the low back (lumbar) spine. Less than I in 20 cases of back pain are due to a disc prolapse, most are due to mechanical back pain. (see section back pain).
A slipped disc is characterised by sudden, severe back pain that is often made worse by movement and which can usually be eased by lying down flat.
Nerve root pain (sciatica) can also occur because a nerve is trapped or irritated by a prolapsed disc. Although the problem is in the back, patients experience pain along the course of the nerve, for example, down a leg to the calf or foot.
With a prolapsed disc, the sciatic nerve is most commonly affected. The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that is made up from several smaller nerves that come out from the spinal cord in the lower back and travels down each leg. The irritation or pressure on the nerve may also cause pins and needles, numbness or weakness in part of a buttock, leg or foot.
In rare cases, cauda equina syndrome can occur. This is a disorder where the nerves at the very bottom of the spinal cord are trapped. It can cause low back pain as well as problems with bowel and bladder function and weakness in one or both legs. These symptoms need urgent medical treatment to prevent permanent damage to the nerves that supply the bladder and bowel.
A large number of people can have a prolapsed disc without any symptoms if it doesn’t trap or irritate the nerve.
A doctor will normally be able to diagnose a prolapsed disc from the symptoms and by examining the patient.
In most cases, no tests are needed, as the symptoms often settle within a few weeks.
Tests such as x-rays or scans may be advised if symptoms persist. In particular, an MRI scan can show the site and size of a prolapsed disc. This information is needed if surgery is being considered
Of all cancer types that affect the female population, breast cancer is the most common one. Statistics show that above 1 in 8 women in the USA are likely to develop breast cancer (invasive type, which is often severe). Changing lifestyles including prolonged use of birth control, smoking, alcohol abuse, lack of physical activity, dietary changes, etc., have led to an increased incidence. As these are here to stay, the only way is to prevent.
The likelihood of developing breast cancer is determined by risk factors. Some of these risk factors cannot be changed. For instance, age, ethnicity, and history of familial breast cancer. However, there are others, which can be acted upon or modified to reduce the chances of developing breast cancer.
Some of the preventable risk factors are as follows:
- Nicotine abuse: Quitting smoking has multiple benefits for a woman, and one major benefit is the reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Other benefits include reduced incidence of diabetes, heart disease, and other cancers.
- Hormone replacement therapy: To the extent possible, avoid prolonged use of birth control pills or hormones for other treatment purposes. In addition to using non-hormonal methods, if not avoidable, constantly monitoring hormone levels is very important. Birth control pills should especially be avoided by women over 35 years of age who smoke. The risk associated with developing cancer reduces as soon as the hormone supplement is stopped.
- Weight Management: One of the major risk factors is obesity, and in people with other non-alterable risk factors, it is best to work on weight management from an early age. Talk to your doctor about your ideal BMI and ensure this is maintained.
- Physical Activity: Regular physical activity, at least 30 minutes per day, in addition to strength training will help in keeping the body agile and managing weight. It also reduces the risk of breast cancer.
- Breastfeeding: Studies have shown that breastfeeding has protective effect against breast cancer; longer a baby is breast fed, greater is the protective benefit.
- Screening: Even if not completely preventable, early detection of breast cancer is very important. This will help in less severe treatment and better prognosis. Recommended ages for mammography are as follows:
- In the age of 40 to 44, an annual mammogram is advised along with a discussion with the doctor on the risks.
- An annual mammogram for all women in the age of 45 – 54 is important as most women enter menopause by this time. This needs to be continued annually, as self-breast exams alone cannot detect cancer, thus it is a good practice and anything abnormal will not go undetected.
- These will help reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, help in early detection, and improve prognosis.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
How does neuclus pulposus take to decay when it comes out of annulus fibrosus and extruded to nerve root as for example in L5-S1? Does it decay over the time or it never?
Weight increasing .swelling in legs and shoulders. Age 51 working in school. Uterus removed 7 years ago.
Breast Cancer - What exactly is it?
‘Breast cancer’ is a term that is used to refer to a malignant tumour, which has developed from cells present in the breast. Generally, all tumours can be divided into two categories i.e. benign and malignant and it is the malignant tumour that is responsible for causing cancer. Breast cancer generally originates in the cells the milk producing glands of the breast's or the passage, which carries milk from the glands to the lobules. Additionally, breast cancer can also originate in the stromal tissues, including the fibrous and fatty connective breast tissues.
Breast Cancer: Treatment Options
Treatment for breast cancer depends upon two things: the exact type of the cancer and how advanced the cancer is. Treatment options for breast cancer can thus be broadly divided into two categories as Local treatments and Systemic treatments.
Treatments that target the tumour without having any effect on the rest of the body are called local treatments. The following types of local treatment options are available for treating breast cancer:
- Surgery: Surgical breast cancer treatment involves removal of the malignant cancerous tumour in an operation. Smaller tumours can be removed using a surgical process referred to as ‘lumpectomy’, wherein the tumour along with a small amount of healthy tissue surrounding the tumour is removed. For larger tumours, removal of the entire breast becomes mandatory, in a surgical process known as ‘mastectomy’. Women who undergo mastectomy can choose to undergo reconstructive plastic surgery for reconstruction of the removed breast(s).
- Radiation Therapy: This basically involves using radiation to kill cancer cells present in the body. Radiation therapy is a long-drawn process that usually involves a set number of treatments administered over a long period of time. Radiation therapy is also generally the follow-up procedure after a lumpectomy, or more rarely, a mastectomy.
Treatments involving drugs that are administered via either the mouth or direct injection into the bloodstream are called systemic treatments. These include:
- Chemotherapy: This includes using drugs to destroy the cancer cells present in the body by stopping the cancer cells from growing and dividing. Chemotherapy can be administered using either an IV (intravenous) tube or via pills that can be swallowed.
- Hormone Therapy: This treatment option is used for treating tumours which have tested positive for progesterone or oestrogen receptors. Blocking hormones that fuel the tumour’s growth is the basis of this therapy.
- Targeted Therapy: This targets specific proteins and genes which contribute to growth and survival of the cancer cells. Targeted therapy is an extremely focused treatment, and is very effective in blocking the growth and division of cancer cells, as well as minimizing damage to surrounding healthy cells.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Breast Cancer is cancer that develops in the cells of the breasts. In the United States, breast cancer happens to be the second most common cancer diagnosed in women. General signs and symptoms of breast cancer include, a lump in the breast, noticeable change in breast shape, liquid oozing out from the nipple, there might be a newly inverted nipple or a red patch of skin. Before going into the treatment and most importantly see how can this be prevented from affecting women, we will look closely into the causes, which lead to breast cancer.
Prevention of breast cancer
Doctors do not guarantee that breast cancer can be prevented. Still, women can be cautious and through reviewing the risk factors, that lead to development of cancerous cells or increase the chances of them getting affected, can go a long way in minimizing the risk.
Some of the preventive measures are:
- Keeping a good body weight is a must. Being overweight increases the risk of breast cancer.
- Risk of breast cancer can be reduced through medicines like tamoxifen and raloxifene. Both these medicines block the effects of estrogen on breast tissue.
- Aromase inhibitors, as medications, can be used to prevent the production of small amounts of estrogen, which are usually produced in women during post menopause period.
- Group of patients, who have a very high risk of breast cancer, removal of breasts through surgery is an options which doctors consider to prevent this from happening.
- Having healthy diet is a must. Taking more of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts is desirable if you want to keep yourself away from this dreaded disease.