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In a normal pregnancy, the egg that the ovaries release enters the fallopian tube. If a sperm fertilises it, the fertilised egg attaches itself inside the uterus. However, sometimes the fertilised egg can attach itself outside the uterus. This condition is called ectopic pregnancy.
Ectopic pregnancy can be detected in the first few weeks of the pregnancy itself. If your doctor does discover ectopic pregnancy, you would need immediate medical attention. Ectopic pregnancies can be sad and scary. The survival rate of the baby is extremely low, and you may need some time to get over your loss. Fortunately, one ectopic pregnancy doesn't mean you can never conceive again. Many women who lost their first baby to ectopic pregnancy have been able to have a healthy and normal pregnancy the second time around.
The causes of ectopic pregnancy include:
- An inflammation or infection of the fallopian tube can lead it to become entirely or partially blocked.
- Scar tissue from a surgery or an infection of the fallopian tube may also hinder the movement of the fertilised egg.
- Surgery in the tubes or pelvic areas in the past might cause adhesions.
- Birth defects or abnormal growths can cause anomalies in the shape of the tube.
- Age (The age group of 35-44 especially)
- An ectopic pregnancy in the past
- Previous abdominal or pelvic surgery
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Several prompted abortions
- Conceiving with an intrauterine device in place
- Endometriosis (growth of uterus lining tissues outside the uterus).
- Fertility treatments.
The signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy include:
- Minimal vaginal bleeding
- Vomiting and nausea with pain
- Pain in the lower abdomen
- Sharp cramps in the abdomen
- Localised pain (Pain concentrated on one side of your body)
- Pain in your neck, rectum or shoulder
- Rupture of the fallopian tubes can cause fainting due to the bleeding and pain
The treatment of ectopic pregnancy can be any one of the following:
- If the pregnancy has not progressed too far, methotrexate will be administered. This absorbs the pregnancy tissue and can save the fallopian tubes.
- The tubes may be removed if they have ruptured or stretched, and have started bleeding.
- Laparoscopic surgery (operations performed by making minor incisions) may be performed to remove or repair the tubes and recover the ectopic pregnancy.
One may have minor physical symptoms throughout your pregnancy that are considered normal pregnancy changes. Talk with your doctor about any concerns you have during your pregnancy so that your health problems can be checked quickly.
A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a woman's uterus. The uterus, also known as the womb, is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The uterine lining is the source of menstrual blood.
A woman may have a hysterectomy for different reasons, including:
- Uterine fibroids that cause pain, bleeding, or other problems
- Uterine prolapse, which is a sliding of the uterus from its normal position into the vaginal canal
- Cancer of the uterus, cervix, or ovaries
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding
- Chronic pelvic pain
- Adenomyosis, or a thickening of the uterus
Hysterectomy for noncancerous reasons is usually considered only after all other treatment approaches have been tried without success.
Types of Hysterectomy-
Depending on the reason for the hysterectomy, a surgeon may choose to remove all or only part of the uterus. Patients and health care providers sometimes use these terms inexactly, so it is important to clarify if the cervix and/or ovaries are removed:
- In partial or supracervical hysterectomy, the upper portion of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
- Complete or total hysterectomy involves the removal of both the uterus and the cervix. This is the most common type of hysterectomy performed.
- Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
- Radical hysterectomy is an extensive surgical procedure in which the uterus, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, upper vagina, some surrounding tissue, and lymph nodes are removed.
Hysterectomy Surgical Procedures-
Traditionally, hysterectomies have been performed using a technique known as total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). However, in recent years, two less-invasive procedures have been developed: Vaginal hysterectomy and Laparoscopic hysterectomy:
- Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH): In a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), the surgeon makes an incision approximately five inches long in the abdominal wall, cutting through skin and connective tissue to reach the uterus. This type of surgery is especially useful if there are large fibroids or if cancer is suspected. Disadvantages include more pain and a longer recovery time than other procedures, and a larger scar.
- Vaginal Hysterectomy: A vaginal hysterectomy is done through a small incision at the top of the vagina. Through the incision, the uterus (and cervix, if necessary) is separated from its connecting tissue and blood supply and removed through the vagina. This procedure is often used for conditions such as uterine prolapse. Vaginal hysterectomy heals faster than abdominal hysterectomy, results in less pain, and generally does not cause external scarring.
- Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: During a laparoscopic hysterectomy, your doctor uses a tiny instrument called a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera at the front. The instrument is inserted through incisions in the abdomen. Three or four small incisions are made instead of one large incision. Once the surgeon can see your uterus, they will cut the uterus into small pieces and remove one piece at a time.
A hysterectomy is a major decision that you should take after careful consultation with your doctor. You should understand the reason for the operation, the benefits and risks and the alternatives to a hysterectomy. If you are unsure, discuss the issue with your doctor or obtain a second opinion. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A rising number of teenage girls in the country are getting affected with Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease or PCOD. Though an advanced menarche has become very rampant these days, there are many young women who are suffering from a delay in menarche, which in turn is leading to PCOD as opined by gynaecologists. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle among young people have caused a rapid doubling of PCOD cases in the past five to eight years.
Occurrence and Symptoms:
Gynaecologists report that they get at least 15 fresh instances of PCOD cases and a considerable number of teenagers aged 16-17 are not getting their menarche. Such patients are recommended to take a strictly balanced diet, which will help them to lose weight. Initially, their mothers think that they would experience their menarche in proper time, but some girls are diagnosed with PCOD when taken to a family gynaecologist. Even worse, they could never imagine that their obesity can pave the way for such a grave health issue. PCOD can cause numerous other problems like delayed and irregular menses, rapid weight gain and tremendous difficulty in losing weight, developing acne and blocked skin pores. Furthermore, it leads to thinning of hair and excessive growth of hair on chest, back and face. Infertility, continual miscarriage, high blood pressure and high blood sugar are also common with PCOD.
Help yourself with the right diet:
There is no proven evidence regarding the cause of PCOD though gynaecologists are of the opinion that some females possess a predisposition to this disease and it may run hereditarily in the family. You can alleviate your PCOD symptoms to a considerable extent by regulating your diet properly. Have loads of fruits and green leafy vegetables and try to abstain from dairy products as many experts believe that dairy products are a direct cause of an increase in insulin levels, which can aggravate skin troubles along with other PCOD symptoms. Avoiding red meat and eating lean meat instead will help the condition and reduce the chances of infertility. It is always recommended to avoid hydrogenated and saturated fats, which are normally found in animal and dairy-based food. Try to put a stop to cheese, cottage cheese, clarified butter, pork, lamb, beef, etc. and certain baked products like cookies, cakes and fudges as they will trigger a rise in your blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
PCOD is such a condition, which you can never afford to overlook. If you had been facing any of the common symptoms, then it is probably time to pay a visit to a responsive gynaecologist.