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Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Management of Pregnancy Query
Management of Abortion
Treatment of Painful Periods
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Treatment of Painful Sexual Intercourse
Treatment of Heavy Periods
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Treatment of Breast Pain
Treatment of Vaginal Discharge
Treatment of Miscarriage
Treatment of Vaginal Itching
Treatment of Fertility
Treatment of Delayed Periods
Treatment of Vaginal Infection
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Most women suffer from gynaecological infection at least once in their life while some may suffer from them multiple times. The most common infections that affect women’s reproductive tracts are vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease or the dreaded PID. What’s even worse is the fact that these dangerous infections are often missed in women due to lack of information and the absence of health services, especially in rural parts of the country.
Let’s take a quick look at each one of the above four gynaecological infections:
Vulvitis is an inflammation of the vulva, the tender folds of skin outside the vagina.
Common symptoms include-
- Redness and swelling on the lips of the vulva
- Clear, fluid-filled blisters
- White, sore and thick patches on the vulva
Causes can include anything from the use of toilet paper, swimming in pools, synthetic underwear, rubbing against a bike seat, bubble baths to shampoos and deodorants…
Usually, urine tests, blood tests and tests for sexually transmitted diseases are used to diagnose this infection. Vulvitis can be caused due to a number of reasons and it’s also a symptom of other more dangerous diseases, hence its treatment is done taking all these factors into mind.
Treatment can include-
- Avoiding irritants like swimming in pools
- Sitz baths with soothing compounds for itch control
Vaginitis refers to any inflammation of the vagina. Usually, the inflammation strikes the walls of the vagina. It can be infectious or non-infectious. This infection is common in women of all ages with one-third of women reporting suffering from the infection at some time during their lives.
These can be many like infection with bacteria, yeast, viruses etc. Chemicals in creams or sprays, and even clothing can cause the condition. It can be sexually transmitted too. Your hormones, overall health and other diseases you may have – all of these also determine whether you’ll get vaginitis.
The 3 types of vaginitis are-
Vaginitis should always be taken seriously. If left untreated, vaginitis can cause PID which can lead to infertility. If you get a discharge- a frothy white discharge or a colourless discharge with a fishy disorder and see redness around your vagina and pain during urination or sex- don’t take it lightly, but fix an appointment with your gynaecologist ASAP. He or she will mostly treat you using antibiotics.
This is an irritation or infection of the cervix. It is caused by a number of different organisms and it can be either acute or chronic. Common causes are sexually transmitted diseases or STDs like-
- Smelly discharge containing pus
- Pelvic pain
- Bleeding between periods or after sex
- Urinary issues
Pelvic exam and tests for STDs are used for diagnosing this infection. Treatment includes the use of antibiotics for the victim and her sexual partner to prevent re-infection.
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection that affects the woman’s entire reproductive tract like the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. It causes scar tissue formation which grows between internal organs leading to chronic pelvic pain. PID can also lead to ectopic pregnancy or a pregnancy which happens when the fertilized egg grows outside the uterus. Untreated PIDs can lead to chronic infection and infertility.
The main cause of PID is bacteria. Intra uterine device use is also linked to PIDs.
Motherhood is a gift and though every woman understands this, only those who are infertile, really yearn for it. There are several reasons why some women aren’t able to conceive a baby naturally. One of the most common reasons is a blocked fallopian tube, in fact; almost 20% of female infertility cases are due to this cause. The good news, however, is that it is treatable.
Fallopian tubes are tube-like structures extending from the two corners of the uterus and acting as transporting medium between the Sperm and the ova. If there is an obstruction in any of the tubes, the sperm won’t be able to reach the egg and hence forming an embryo will effectively be impossible.
There are several reasons why fallopian tubes may be blocked:
- Infection: Some of the most frequent cases that doctors witness on day to day basis is of blocked fallopian tubes that are caused due to an infection in the area. These could range from sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease: This is an infection of the uterus (womb), ovaries and fallopian tubes, causing tissues to stick together, forming obstructions in your tubes. Severe cases may lead to pus filled abscesses developing in the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
- Endometriosis: A condition where parts of your uterus lining grow in other areas besides the uterus, such as fallopian tubes or ovaries.
- Hydrosalpinx: Formation of fluid inside the fallopian tubes is also known as distal tubal occlusion in medical terms. It can be treated through a surgical procedure called salpingectomy. Scar tissue, adhesions and damaged tube ends that may be caused through previous injury or surgery.
If you’re diagnosed with obstruction of fallopian tubes, don’t lose heart. Ask your gynaecologist to recommend the right treatment protocol, that will help you to conceive soon. They will conduct a laparoscopy, which is a surgical procedure to look inside your pelvic area and at your fallopian tubes to suggest the necessary course of action. Some of the options may include the following:
- IVF: In vitro fertilisation is one of the most common procedures to help you conceive. It is a non-invasive technique which is safe and effective.
- Tubal surgery: Depending on the position and extent of the fallopian tube blockage, tubal procedures can be done using microsurgical techniques, wherein the blocked or infected portion of the tube is removed and the two healthy ends of the tube are then joined.
- Medication: In cases of infection, over-the-counter medication or hormones may be given to the patient.
Though being a mother is a wonderful feeling, do not consider yourself unfortunate if you can’t conceive. Think of it as an opportunity presented to you, to adopt a child and to make his or her life complete. Motherhood can come in all forms, so be ready to embrace it in any way.
During the natural course of events, a women's body starts its reproductive phase with menarche and at about 50 years of age, attains menopause. This is when the reproductive function ceases and the ovaries stop producing the hormone estrogen and progesterone. In some cases, for various reasons including medical, the ovaries stop functioning earlier, and this is medically termed early or premature menopause. Menopause that occurs before 40 years of age is termed premature menopause; it is due to primary ovarian insufficiency and occurs in 1% of the women. If it occurs between 45 to 50 years, it is termed early menopause.
Causes: Normal ageing, family history, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, toxins, and surgery are some reasons that could lead to premature menopause.
Effects: Estrogen and progesterone have a lot of beneficial effects on a women's body. Reduction in their levels leads to some of the below changes:
- Emotional changes like mood swings, irritability, and in some cases depression, especially in premature menopause.
- Irregular cycles before complete cessation of the menstrual cycles.
- General mucosal dryness leading to vaginal dryness, dry skin, dry eyes.
- There also would be urinary incontinence and reduced sex drive due to reduced hormone levels.
- For women who still would want to have children, infertility would be a big cause for concern. This could lead to other emotional issues, worsening the depression.
- Osteoporosis - Bones lose their density and get weak and are more prone to fracture.
- Cardiovascular health - Post menopause, women are more prone to heart attacks and stroke. Though not fully proven, this is believed to be true as the good role that estrogen plays on blood vessels is negated with menopause.
- Accelerated ageing - Menopause leads to accelerated damage of genetic structures, thereby leading to faster ageing. This also leaves a feeling in the women of being less attractive and less desirable.
It is not easy for women to handle premature menopause. The body undergoes some changes much earlier than expected, and it requires a lot of support and caring and comforting to come to terms with it - especially if associated with infertility or chemotherapy for cancer. Emotional issues of not being able to have children and feeling less attractive require frank talks to boost the person's confidence and increase self-worthiness.
It is easier said than done, but one of the key ways to handle premature menopause is an open discussion. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Expecting a baby is the best feeling for any woman but this may or may not be the case in teenage pregnancy. Getting pregnant at the early age can cause serious damage to her not only to her health but also her future. Any pregnancy that occurs in women under the age of 20 is termed as teenage pregnancy. It is classified as high-risk pregnancy which can cause grave danger to the mother as well as her unborn child.
Technically, a girl can become pregnant after sexual intercourse anytime after beginning ovulation. In common- speak, a girl can become pregnant after she begins menstruating.
Risks of Teenage Pregnancy
Usually what happens is that a teenager gets pregnant against her wish… She doesn’t plan to but gets pregnant maybe due to unprotected sex. This increases the risk to both her and her baby.
It usually leads to a lag in her accessing and getting prenatal care. This can lead to problems later on like-
- High blood pressure
- Premature births
- Low birth weight
Controlling high blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care is the single most important thing that a pregnant teen can do for her own and her baby’s health.
Teenage mothers are at high risk for suffering from high BP which means they are at high risk for developing pre-eclampsia. This is a sudden increase in blood pressure after the 20th week of pregnancy and can be life-threatening for both the mother and the unborn baby. There are no proven ways to prevent it and most women who have signs of pre-eclampsia are monitored to lessen the harm and to avoid complications. The only way to cure pre-eclampsia is to deliver the baby. Usually, doctors manage high blood pressure in pregnancy by closely monitoring the baby, lifestyle changes by the mother and use of medicines. Compliance among teenagers for making lifestyle changes is usually low according to experts.
Premature babies are also common in teenagers and these babies can have health problems at the drop of the hat because their organs did not have enough time to develop in the womb. Problems that they are prone to are-
- Breathing problems
- Cerebral palsy
- Developmental problems
- Problem with vision
- Hearing problems
- Feeding problems
Low birth weight babies are another risk of teenage pregnancies. These babies who weigh less than 5 pounds are at higher risk for health problems like delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. They also become sick more often in the first days of life or develop infections.
Risks of low birth weight, premature labour, anemia, and pre-clampsia are linked to the low age of the mother and all of these are observed in teen births even after controlling for other risk factors such as prenatal care.
What can be done?
A pregnant teen, therefore, should do the following-
- Get regular prenatal check-ups
- Take vitamins and iron to prevent birth defects
- Staying away from smoking, alcohol, and drugs to prevent birth defects
- Use a condom during sex to prevent sexually transmitted diseases that could hurt the foetus
The only way to prevent teenage pregnancies is educational interventions and promotion of birth control. And both of these should be used to prevent these high-risk pregnancies. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.