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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I have a wife of 18 years age. Married few days back. I had an unprotected sex with my wife. Last month 12th was when my period started. So what are her chances of being pregnant.
My dates was started on 14th April at around 10 pm. Can you please tell m the safe period for sex. Bcoz my husband don't want to use condoms. Nd he could not ejaculate out. Is there any other method to avoid pregnancy. I hav one year old baby.
I do weekly sex that is once in a week on monday & every time doing this I feel pain in vagina & this Monday even got bleeding. My white discharge is also normal. Bt sometimes in white discharge there's little redness of blood then why do I still feel pain & why bleeding happened?
I am 21 years old I just want to ask that there is a frequent white discharge from my body why is it so?
I am 27 yrs. Old I got married 6 months back. I got regular periods but this month it was late by 4 days and stays only for 2 days and very less flow. Now I am feeling heaviness, pressure and little pain in lower abdomen. Plzz. Help me out why this happens.
I am 6 weeks pregnant as per my lmp which was 15 Oct. Ultrasound shows pregnancy of 4 weeks one day and sac 11.3 mm with no heart beat and no fetal pole. Gyno said it may be case of late conception. Please help me it is normal pregnancy or not.
Maim meri wife ko piread 27 jan ko hua aur maine sex 15 feb ko kiya to kya pregnant hone ke chans hai eske bad piriad nahi ayaplease reply.
I am 47 years old. I think I am facing menopause problem. Very scanty bleeding. About 20 days back the spotting extended upto 6-7 days. Is this abnormal?
Recently she indulged in sex. Now she is complaining that her breast is paining a lot. Is sucking causes a pain in breast of girl?
Meri shadi ko eight month hu huye he. Meri periods jis date ko atithi us date se ten days ho gaya lekin abhi tak mera periods aya nahi. Mene gharape pregnency test kiya usame nagetive dikhata he. To kyu abhi tak mera peroids aya nahi. Mujhe pata nahi ki me pregnent hu ya nahi but abhi mujhe baby nahi chahiye to me kya karu doctor.
When I kiss my gf something white like liquid come from her vagina. It is said that when it discharged in large amount she would never become pregnant is it true or not please advise me in full details.
Hello doc im a mother of 9th month old baby last to last month I gt my cycles on 21st n last month it gt on 14th n nw its 29 what shud I do I hd done d test at home as it ws negative nw shud I wait? Pls suggest. Thanks in advance.
I am 19 female, I haven't got my periods for 5 months. My last period was on Oct 8.am not sexually active. Am eating more fruits now and iron content to get my periods. Please suggest a tablet to get my periods. Am scared.
New path to blood sugar control
Most dm drugs make pancrea to increase insulin other act on liver other act on body cell
To date, two of these new drugs have been approved by the u. S. Food and drug administration for treating type 2 diabetes. The first, canagliflozin (invokana®), was cleared last march; the second, dapagliflozin (farxiga®), was approved just this week.
Both drugs are so-called sglt2 inhibitors that act by blocking the kidneys’ reabsorption of sugar, or glucose. The result is that more glucose is released in the urine and the patient’s blood glucose level goes down — a major goal of diabetes treatment.
Most other available drugs for diabetes work by targeting the liver, pancreas or gut to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce insulin resistance or stimulate insulin secretion. In contrast, sglt2 inhibitors work completely independent of insulin.
The two new medications, which are taken by mouth in pill form, are approved for use as stand-alone drug therapy, in addition to changes in diet and increased exercise, or in combination with other drugs for diabetes. Their approvals were based on multiple clinical studies — nine for canagliflozin and 16 for dapagliflozin — showing that they effectively lowered hemoglobin a1c, a measure of average blood sugar level over the previous three months.
A surprise effect on the waistline
An added benefit is that sglt2 inhibitors are associated with modest weight loss. For instance, patients shed from 2.8 percent to 5.7 percent of body weight in clinical studies of canagliflozin.
“The weight loss is an appealing side effect of sglt2 inhibitors, especially in the growing population of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes,” says cleveland clinic endocrinologist mary vouyiouklis, md. “aside from metformin, which occasionally results in modest weight loss, other oral drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are weight-neutral or can cause weight gain.”
Safety profile: keeping an eye on heart effects
Another potential benefit is also a potential adverse effect: the fact that sglt2 inhibitors have a mild diuretic effect (i. E, tend to increase urination). This results in lowering of blood pressure, which can be good for some patients who have high blood pressure but can also cause lightheadedness, dizziness or even fainting in other individuals. Dr. Vouyiouklis says caution is needed before these drugs are started in any patients at particular risk of the latter effects, such as the elderly or patients taking diuretics or multiple drugs for blood pressure.
The drugs’ other most common side effects in clinical trials — genital yeast infections and urinary tract infections — are also related to the fact that they act via the kidneys. Both drugs posed a low risk of hypoglycemia, the dangerously low blood sugar episodes associated with some diabetes therapies.
However, the new drugs were found to modestly increase levels of ldl (“bad”) cholesterol, which could be a concern because patients with diabetes are already at increased risk of heart disease. The potential for increased rates of heart attack, stroke and other cardiac events is being specifically monitored in large ongoing studies of both canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, but full results are not expected for several years.
Ongoing bladder safety scrutiny with dapagliflozin
Additionally, patients taking dapagliflozin in clinical trials showed a small increase in bladder cancer diagnoses compared with control patients. In fact, dapagliflozin was rejected for approval by the fda two years ago because of concerns over bladder cancer and liver toxicity.
The agency’s concerns about these risks were eased by additional data from dapagliflozin’s manufacturer this time around, but the drug’s approval included a requirement that it be studied for bladder cancer risk in patients in ongoing trials as well as in new animal studies looking specifically at effects on the bladder.
Canagliflozin does not appear to be associated with bladder cancer or liver toxicity, the fda concluded.
More agents in the pipeline
Several other sglt2 inhibitors may soon be available as well. One of them, empagliflozin, is in late-stage studies, and the fda is expected to decide on its approval by the end of march.
Who should get these drugs, and when?
Dr. Vouyiouklis says obese patients with type 2 diabetes and normal kidney function stand to benefit most from sglt2 inhibitors. In general, these drugs seem to be best tolerated by patients with normal kidney function and less well tolerated by those with moderate kidney disease (they should not be used by patients with severe kidney disease). They are not approved for use by pregnant women, patients under 18 or individuals with type 1 diabetes.
“Although sglt2 inhibitors are approved for use as single drug therapy, metformin remains my choice for first-line oral therapy,” says Dr. Vouyiouklis. “Because sglt2 inhibitors are relatively new and their long-term effects are not yet known, I prefer to reserve them for use as add-on therapy. I believe they will be a useful addition, especially in obese patients who are seeking to lose weight.”