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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Hello doctor, recently I had a baby, and now we would like to take some time for second child, when is the best time to have sex to avoid pregnancy.
Hello Doctor, my wife who was 22 days pregnant bt day before yesterday morning she had a miscarriage, Now she is facing all this problem. Heavy bleeding, thick blood clots, unbearable pain in lower abdomen, weakness,numbness in legs nd nausea. How long will she bleed. Can you please recommend any medicine to reduce pain and that will quickly flush out remaining clots. What should I do, please help doctor.
My wife 10 weeks pregnant Roj daily subah anaar ka juice or dry fruits than khana And than sham k time again apple and banana and than night me khana or fir milk Kuch is tarah routine he diet ka Roj daily apple or banana khane se baby agar healthy hua to normal delivery me problem to nahi ayegi To yeh sab chije khana chahiye ya nahi.
I have been trying for a baby from the last 2 months I had a iud which I got removed after a gap of 6 years after my 1st baby I exactly don't who when I ovulate and I lack the pleasure of love making please help I'm 33 years old.
I am 28 year old woman. I got married 2 years ago. My sex life is good I want to get pregnant. Is it compulsory to have sex within 10-20 days after periods. How many chances to get pregnant after this period. Usually we come together after this please tell me.
I am an 18 years old girl. I'm having a problem that is continuing for over a month now. Its not always irritating, but sometimes when I get toilet, the area starts to itch suddenly, and also my pee nowadays smells a bit awkwardly different, which is more similar to that of stale coconut water. I never had any uti problem before. The colour of my toilet is absolutely fine, and its not that it itches while I pee. But it sometimes starts all of a sudden, and more specifically when my bladders are full. This never happened before. I maintain a healthy diet full of fruits and veggies in plenty daily, and I also drink large quantities of water everyday. If its at all a uti problem, then should I consult a doctor immediately or should I wait by having plenty of water and living a healthy lifestyle for another few days? please help.
I am 25 years old female I had breast cyst and it was benign before 8 months I operated that but now I noticed the recurrence so what could I do to stop recurrence of the lumps and cysts. Please reply fast.
Yesterday I had a unprotected oral sex for 2 to 3 min with unknown person. I do not know any thing about that person. I am bit worried as I have gone through number of websites where as it say there are very low risk. please help.
Hi My wife is pregnant. This is first time and may I know kitne din me sex karna chaiye or kya precautions rakhne chaiye.
I ovulated on day 16 and same day I started taking CABERGOLINE for high prolactin levels (72) I have been taking cabergoline from 3 weeks (twice a week) My periods are late. I was due on 24 may! Should I be concerned? Cabergoline delayed my periods or I am really pregnant?
During periods knee pain occurs. However last time there was stomach pain and last to last time there was back pain. What should be the reason of these changing symptoms. Is there something like" that body part is gonna pain in periods which is weak" or like I am gonna have knee/back/stomach related issued in ma old age? cant the periods be had without pain?
Pith type allergy in some part of body after delivered a baby. What would be the reason It has 2 month past of delivery.
Continuous pressure on skin often results in injuries to the underlying tissues, causing what are generally known as skin sores. Though they generally occur in areas that cover bony areas like hips, ankles and tail bones, the part below the waist is most susceptible to them.
There are multiple reasons that cause bed sores. Some common causes include:
- Poor nutrition
However there are other more important causes that contribute to this disease. They are:
1. Constant pressure: Continuous immobility often causes pressure on the skin that further damages it and the underlying tissues. Tail bone, hip bone, ankles and heels are more prone to bed sores due to lack of movement. However similar damage is also detected in elbows, spine and ribs.
2. Friction: The friction that is caused when the skin rubs against another surface or when two layers of skin rub against each other, those that were moving in two opposite directions also result in bedsores. Sudden sliding down the chair or being transferred from a bed to a stretcher are common reasons behind it.
3. Excessive moisture: Bed sores are also caused by excessive moisture that softens the skin and also reduces its resistance. Profuse perspiration and unchecked urination are important causes. If untreated immediately there are plenty of complications that arise from this disease. Few of them are:
- Infections: Skin sore causes multiple infections on the body like Cellulitis and Osteomyelitis. Cellulitis results in painful, red swelling of the skin that often oozes out fluid. On the other hand in Osteomyelitis, an infection is caused in the bone resulting in swelling over the affected area. Blood infection called Bacteremia is also caused due to skin sores.
- Septic arthritis: In this there is severe pain and swelling of a joint making it hot, red and tender.
- Meningitis: Caused by the infection of the fluid around brain and spine, this disease causes severe headache with stiff neck and nausea.
- Squamous Skin cancer: This occurs if the skin sores remain unchecked for a long period of time. In this, the skin feels patchy and often bleeds.
Cerebral Palsy: What You Need to Know
Injuries to the brain before, during or after birth can cause cerebral palsy.
- Symptoms of cerebral palsy are usually noticed in infants and toddlers.
- There is currently no cure for cerebral palsy, but treatment options are available to treat associated orthopaedic conditions.
- The functional abilities and intellect of a person with cerebral palsy can vary greatly.
What is cerebral palsy?
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition that is a result of a brain injury. This injury can occur before, during or shortly after birth. Cerebral palsy affects movement and muscle tone.
What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?
Signs of CP are usually noticed during infancy or in toddlers. It can be associated with exaggerated reflexes, floppiness in the trunk or limbs, or stiffness in the trunk and limbs. It can present with involuntary movements and abnormal gait.
There is no cure for CP, but there are many treatment options to help with the orthopaedic problems associated with CP.
Common Orthopaedic Conditions Seen in Children with Cerebral Palsy
This is a deformity of the hip that can be found on one or both hips in children with an underlying neuromuscular condition, such as CP. Increased or decreased tone in the muscles can lead to migration of the femoral head out of the hip socket, requiring additional treatment.
- Proximal Femoral osteotomy:This surgical procedure can be used to correct hip subluxation or dislocation in children who have an underlying neuromuscular disorder. It is used to correct the position of the proximal femur for better coverage by the acetabulum, leading to better distribution of weight on the femur. A wedge of bone is typically removed to place the proximal femur into the hip joint. A plate and screws are used to secure the femur bone properly in place.
- Acetabular osteotomy: This surgical procedure can be used to provide better coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. A wedge of bone is cut and placed in a position to add coverage. Hardware is used to secure the bone in place.
Neuromuscular scoliosis is a condition of the spine associated with an underlying neuromuscular condition, such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy or spinal cord injury. The underlying condition typically causes changes in the muscles, leaving them unable to support the spine adequately. This leads to a curvature of the spine. The typical presentation is an abnormal S- or C-shaped curvature. The spine can also have rotation creating a multidimensional curve. The curvature can be progressive, especially with growth spurts.
- Bracing: A back brace may assist in better positioning and supply better support, but it usually does not stop the progression of the curve. In children who are nonambulatory, modifications to the wheelchair can also assist in better spine support and sitting position.
- Spinal usion surgery: This is a common treatment option for neuromuscular scoliosis when the curvature of the spine interferes with function or becomes a high degree of curvature. The spinal fusion surgery fuses the spine with metal hardware to stabilize the curve and secure the spine.
This is a foot deformity commonly seen in children with CP. Due to muscle imbalance, the deformity can make weight-bearing activities challenging.
- Split anterior tibial tendon transfer: This surgical intervention releases and transfers tendons in the foot to correct the deformity.
- Calcaneal Osteotomy: This bony surgical procedure is used in patients who have more rigidity of the deformity in the hind foot.
This is a deformity of the foot due to an underlying neuromuscular condition. The abnormality of the muscles in the feet leads to a flat foot with minimal or no arch. This condition is commonly seen in children with hypotonia or low tone.
Orthotics: In children with flexible flatfoot, a brace or orthotic may be helpful to provide better arch support and decrease pain. In children with rigid or painful flatfoot, a surgery may be recommended to correct this deformity and improve the alignment of the foot.
This is a condition in children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder that leads to high tone or muscle tightness in a child’s ankles, and can cause them to walk on the toes or balls of the feet.
- Physical therapy: Several sessions to work on stretching the tight muscles may be beneficial to decrease the amount of toe walking.
- Serial casting: Short leg casts can be applied for two-week intervals to progressively work on stretching the tight muscles to improve the position of the foot and ankle. The addition of Botox injections to help stretch the tight muscles in casts may be more effective in some children.
- Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius lengthening: When physical therapy and serial casting are ineffective in correcting the tight ankle, a surgery may be necessary to achieve a flat foot position with walking. A lengthening is a surgical procedure in which the tight Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius muscle is lengthened to allow greater range of motion and function of the foot and ankle. The lengthening also allows children to better tolerate ankle-foot orthosis and achieve a flat foot position with walking.
Limb Length Inequality
Limb length inequality is a difference in the lengths of a child’s lower extremities (legs). The difference in length can be found in children with hemiplegic CP.
The application of a shoe lift inside a child’s shoe on the shorter side assists in lessening the discrepancy. Surgical treatment to shorten the longer leg is also a way to decrease the discrepancy in children with a greater than 2-centimeter discrepancy. The procedure is called epiphysiodesis, and it is a carefully calculated surgery to close the growth plate in the longer leg and allow the shorter leg to continue to grow and balance out the discrepancy.
Some children with CP develop an inward or outward twist in their lower extremities. When this is excessive, it can interfere with their gait pattern.
Tibial or femoral rotational osteotomy: This surgical procedure is used to correct deformity of the tibia or femur bone. The bone is cut, placed in a corrected position and secured with hardware. The deformities can be surgically corrected with different techniques to provide improved function, especially with gait.
In a child with an underlying neuromuscular disorder, muscle tone can be increased, which can lead to a contracture of the muscle. This means the muscle does not stretch well. Common muscles involved are the hamstrings, adductors, hip flexors and gastrocnemii.
- Physical therapy and bracing: Physical therapy and bracing techniques can help keep muscles stretched to improve range of motion and assist in preventing a muscle contracture.
- Botox: An injection of this is used to temporarily weaken the muscle to allow for stretching of the muscle. The effects of Botox typically last about three months and then wear off. During this time, it is important to aggressively stretch the affected muscle to optimize the medication. Physical therapy and serial casting are commonly used in conjunction with Botox treatment.
- Tendon lengthening surgery: When stretching and bracing are not effective in improving range of motion, tendon lengthening surgery can be used to provide additional stretch and function at various muscle sites. Common muscles lengthened include hamstrings, gastrocnemii and adductors.