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Are you in the last trimester of pregnancy and experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, uterine tenderness and back pain? This might be an indication of a condition called placental abruption. This is a serious, but rare pregnancy complication in women. The placenta is the structure, which develops in the uterus for nourishing the growing baby. When the placenta peels away from the inner uterine wall before delivery, placental abruption occurs. The condition can deprive the growing baby of oxygen.
There are several factors, which increase the risk of placental abruption. They are as follows:
- High blood pressure: High blood pressure, be it chronic or because of pregnancy, increases the risk of placental abruption.
- Abdominal trauma: Certain trauma caused to the abdomen such as a fall or a blow to the abdomen increases your risk of having the condition.
- Substance abuse: Women who smoke and use drugs such as cocaine during pregnancy are more likely to have placental abruption.
- Premature rupture of the membranes: The growing baby is supported and surrounded by a fluid-filled membrane or the amniotic sac. When the sac leaks or breaks before labor, there are high chances of placental abruption.
- Blood clotting disorders: Any health condition which impairs blood clotting may increase the chance of placental abruption.
- Multiple pregnancy: For women who are carrying more than one baby, the delivery of the first baby may lead to changes in the uterus. This may cause placental abruption before the next baby is delivered.
- Maternal age: Placental abruption is more common or likely to occur among women who are above the age of 40.
It is not possible to reattach a placenta, which gets separated from the wall of the uterus. The treatment options for placental abruption depend on several circumstances. They are as follows:
- The baby is not close to full term: If the abruption is mild, your baby has a normal heart rate, and it is too early for him to be born, you might need to be hospitalized for monitoring. If the bleeding ends and the baby is in a stable condition, you might be able to go home and rest. In some cases, medicines are given to the baby for making his lungs mature.
- The baby is close to full term: If your baby is near full term, and the placental abruption is less, a closely monitored vaginal delivery is undertaken. In case of a progressive abruption, an immediate delivery might be required via C section.
It is recommended for you to consult a doctor on experiencing any symptom of placental abruption. This will help you in protecting your baby from any harm.
My periods have stopped 8-9 years ago. But now I get bluish discharge. Why is the colour of discharge blue? Which kind of disease is it?
I am having itching in vulva and their is also some kind of colourless or white secretions sometimes.
I am a female 21 years old My periods were regular but this month it's been a week and it still didn't come. I am not sexually active what reasons could be cause for delay apart pregnancy because I am not at al sexually active.
The body functions are controlled by hormones which are produced by various endocrine glands (named so because these glands secrete hormones directly into the body). There are various endocrine glands, and these are controlled by the master endocrine gland which is the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland is attached to the base of the brain. It also produces prolactin which helps regulate milk production when a woman is breast-feeding. To a smaller extent, it also has some effect on other hormones.
Prolactinoma is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland which produces large amount of prolactin. The cells in the pituitary gland multiply to produce large amounts of prolactin. In people with prolactinoma, there are reduced amounts of oestrogen in females and testosterones in males.
Causes: Though the cause is unknown, a genetic connection believed to exist. Also, people who are hypothyroidic, pregnant, and/or breast-feeding have a higher chance of developing this condition. They can develop in men as well. Interestingly, this is the most common form of pituitary gland tumour.
Types: Depending on the size of the tumour, the tumour is of two main types—microprolactinoma (when the tumour measures less than 10 mm) and macroprolactinoma (when the tumour measures more than 10 mm).
Signs and symptoms: Though the most important function of prolactin is the regulation of breast milk production, it also has various other functions in both men and women. The symptoms, therefore, would depend on the gender and the age group.
If teenagers are affected, there could be reduced growth and delayed puberty.
In addition to the above symptoms, as the tumour continues to grow, there could be pressure on the surrounding nerves, leading to headaches, blurred of vision, and even double vision. As the tumour grows, the normal pituitary functioning may be affected, and other hormones may not be produced and accordingly the symptoms would appear.
Treatment: One of the main reasons it gets diagnosed is infertility. When ruling out causes for infertility, prolactinoma is suspected and to rule this out blood tests are done. Increased amounts of the hormone would lead to undergoing MRI scans and other tests to confirm the diagnosis.
Once confirmed, the treatment would depend on the symptoms and the patient. It causes reduced amounts of oestrogen and testosterone, which is usually harmless. Unless required, some people can choose to go without any treatment. Hormone supplements can be used to restore the normal hormone levels. Dopamine antagonists can be used to suppress the production of prolactin from the pituitary gland. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.