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Fractures are simply a break in a bone. They can be caused due to injury, (traumatic fractures) or a pre-existing condition like osteoporosis that causes weakening of bones (pathologic fractures). There are many ways to classify fractures. All fractures fall into the major categories of simple and compound fractures. Simple fractures are fractures where bones remain inside the skin and don’t jut out. They are also called closed fractures.
Compound fractures, also called open fractures, are broken bones that penetrate through the skin. These types expose the bone and deep tissues to the environment. Compound fractures are more serious of the two. The healing here may be affected due to deep infections for which antibiotics need to be used. There are many different sub types of fractures and we’re only going to skim through them here.
- Comminuted fractures: Severe fractures in which a bone breaks into several smaller pieces.
- Avulsion fractures: A small piece of bone is completely torn off from the main bone due to fierce pulling off a part of the body.
Other types of fractures are characterised by the many different angles the bone breaks into like transverse, oblique and spiral fractures.
When a bone is broken there are symptoms like swelling that doesn’t subside on its own and pain. In such a case it’s imperative that one goes to a doctor for a diagnosis. Doctors can usually recognise most fractures by examining the injury and taking an X-ray. The X-ray also provides a clear idea about the type of fracture and the degree of displacement of the bone. And, it’s important that the patient doesn’t wait too long before approaching a doctor. This is because bones begin to heal very quickly after a fracture and the bone tissue will heal using any tissue available. This can lead to a misalignment of broken pieces of bone and cause disability and loss of function.
There are cases when X-ray may not show a fracture. This is especially common in fractures in the hip and wrist in older people. For diagnosing these, doctors will get some other tests done such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or a bone scan.
Fractures have to be treated by doctors. The doctors set the fractured bones in their proper place and hold them there so that they can heal. Setting a bone is called "reduction." Reduction without surgery is called "closed reduction." But if the fracture is serious, it’s going to require surgery with bone repositioning, called open reduction.
In extreme cases, pins, plates, screws, rods, or glue are used to hold the fractured bones in place, inside the body. Once the bone abutment has been treated, the bone is immobilised to allow the broken pieces to heal. In most cases, the fractured part is set in a rigid cast. The fractured ends of the bone can be fixed into place using metal pins connected to an external frame. This is removed after the bone has healed. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an orthopedist.
At L4-L5diffuse disc bulge with right para central protrusion causing severe canal stenosis, compression over the allows sac, nerve root of audacity equine, bilateral traversing nerve roots in lateral recess marked on right side. AtL5-S1 a focal posterior central disc bulge with tear, mild to moderate canal stenosis, compression over the alloy sac, left traversing S1 nerve root in lateral recess. Neural foramina on either side however exiting nerve root look free in neural foramen. Hip n screening within normal limits. This is the report of MRI. please suggest.
Dear sir, I am 33 year old. I have back ache since 2010 mri also have been done it shown herniated slip disk and doctor has advised me surgery. But I am not willing to get surgery please advise me what should I do.
Herniated disks or bone spurs in the vertebrae of the neck may become the reason behind severe neck pain. They sometimes take too much space and compress the nerves branching out from the spinal cord.
I Suffering from bulging disc in My L1S5 Region Due To Which It Gets Difficult For me to work out Please Suggest me some Solutions To permanently recovery.
Test to screen for breast cancer:
Mammography is the most common screening test for breast cancer. A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast. This test may find tumors that are too small to feel. A mammogram may also find ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis). In dcis, there are abnormal cells in the lining of a breast duct, which may become invasive cancer in some women.
Mammograms are less likely to find breast tumors in women younger than 50 years than in older women. This may be because younger women have denser breast tissue that appears white on a mammogram. Because tumors also appear white on a mammogram, they can be harder to find when there is dense breast tissue.
The left breast is pressed between two plates. An x-ray machine is used to take pictures of the breast. An inset shows the x-ray film image with an arrow pointed at abnormal tissue.
The breast is pressed between two plates. X-rays are used to take pictures of breast tissue.
The following may affect whether a mammogram is able to detect (find) breast cancer:
The size of the tumor. How dense the breast tissue is. The skill of the radiologist.
Women aged 40 to 74 years who have screening mammograms have a lower chance of dying from breast cancer than women who do not have screening mammograms.
Clinical Breast Exam (CBE):
A clinical breast exam is an exam of the breast by a doctor or other health professional. The doctor will carefully feel the breasts and under the arms for lumps or anything else that seems unusual. It is not known if having clinical breast exams decreases the chance of dying from breast cancer.
Breast self-exams may be done by women or men to check their breasts for lumps or other changes. It is important to know how your breasts usually look and feel. If you feel any lumps or notice any other changes, talk to your doctor. Doing breast self-exams has not been shown to decrease the chance of dying from breast cancer.
Mri (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer
Mri is a procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (nmri). Mri does not use any x-rays.
MRI is used as a screening test for women who have one or more of the following:
Certain gene changes, such as in the brca1 or brca2 genes. A family history (first degree relative, such as a mother, daughter or sister) with breast cancer. Certain genetic syndromes, such as li-fraumeni or cowden syndrome.
Mris find breast cancer more often than mammograms do, but it is common for mri results to appear abnormal even when there isn't any cancer.
Other screening tests are being studied in clinical trials.
Thermography is a procedure in which a special camera that senses heat is used to record the temperature of the skin that covers the breasts. A computer makes a map of the breast showing the changes in temperature. Tumors can cause temperature changes that may show up on the thermogram.
There have been no clinical trials of thermography to find out how well it detects breast cancer or if having the procedure decreases the risk of dying from breast cancer.
Breast tissue sampling is taking cells from breast tissue to check under a microscope. Abnormal cells in breast fluid have been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer in some studies. Scientists are studying whether breast tissue sampling can be used to find breast cancer at an early stage or predict the risk of developing breast cancer. Three ways of taking tissue samples are being studied:
Fine-needle aspiration: a thin needle is inserted into the breast tissue around the areola (darkened area around the nipple) to take out a sample of cells and fluid.
Nipple aspiration: the use of gentle suction to collect fluid through the nipple. This is done with a device similar to the breast pumps used by women who are breast-feeding.
Ductal lavage: a hair-size catheter (tube) is inserted into the nipple and a small amount of salt water is released into the duct. The water picks up breast cells and is removed.
I am suffering from slip disc problem since 15 years, now pain is unbearable and there is very much stiffness in my left leg unless to walk since last week, what is the cure please help me out, is there any treatment without surgery or I have to go through surgery process, is surgery is only solution and hie much it is successful. I am 38 years old and my weight is 120 kg.
Breast cancer begins when cells in the breast start to get out of control. These cells are mostly in the form of a tumor that can be regularly seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is dangerous (malignant) if the cells attack the surrounding tissues or spread to far off zones in the body. Breast cancer happens mostly in women, yet men can get it, as well.
This is how breast cancer can spread:
- Bosom cancer can spread through the lymph framework
- The lymph framework includes lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and lymph liquid found all throughout the body
- Lymph nodes are little, bean-shaped accumulations of immune system cells that are connected by lymph (or lymphatic) vessels. Lymph vessels resemble little veins, with the exception of that they transport a liquid called lymph (rather than blood) far from the breast
- Lymph contains tissue liquid, waste items, and immune system cells. Breast cancer cells can enter lymph vessels and start to develop into lymph nodes
A large portion of the lymph vessels of the breast deplete into the:
- Lymph nodes under the arm (axillary hubs)
- Lymph nodes around the neck bone (supraclavicular and infraclavicular lymph hubs)
- Lymph nodes inside the neck close to the breast bone (inner mammary lymph hubs)
Following are some of the causes of breast cancer:
- Hormones play a part in creating breast cancer disease; however exactly how this happens is not completely known
- Ordinary breast cells get to be distinctly carcinogenic in view of changes (transformations) in DNA
- Yet, most DNA changes identified with breast cancer are gained in breast cells during a woman’s life as opposed to having been acquired
- Qualities that accelerate cell division are called oncogenes
- Tumor silencer qualities are typical qualities that back off cell division, repair DNA oversights, or advise cells when to bite the dust
- Certain acquired DNA transformations (changes) can drastically increase chances for building up specific growths and are in charge of a large number of tumors that keep running in few families
Some of the treatments of breast cancer include:
- Health alterations: Body weight, physical action, and eating routine are all connected to breast tumor, so these may be territories where you can make a move.
- Restorative alternatives for women at expanded hazard: For women who have certain hazard components for breast growth, for example, a family history; various restorative alternatives may counteract breast cancer.
- Medications to lessen hazard: For women at expanded danger of breast cancer, medications, for example, tamoxifen and raloxifene, can reduce the hazard. However, these medications can have their own dangers and symptoms.
- Preventive surgery: In case that you have a solid family history of breast cancer, you can talk with your specialist about hereditary testing. This test addresses changes in qualities that increase the danger of breast cancer; for example, the BRCA qualities. In case you have a hereditary change from a family with a transformation, however, have not been tried, you could consider surgery to bring down your danger of tumor.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Are you experiencing excessive uterine bleeding? Excessive uterine bleeding may occur between a woman’s periods or before the periods, after having sex, or due to the development of spotting or bleeding after attaining menopause. Any menstrual cycle, which lasts longer than 21–35 days is called excessive, and this is an abnormal form of uterine bleeding.
Causes of Excessive Uterine Bleeding:
The various causes of excessive uterine bleeding are as follows:
One of the main causes is hormonal imbalance, as the balance between estrogen and progesterone gets disrupted. This balance is required for the regulation and development of the lining of endometrium or uterus lining. Because of the hormonal imbalance, the endometrium develops excessively causing heavy bleeding.
Uterine fibroids, which are non cancerous tumours, may lead to prolonged and excessive uterine bleeding.
Polyps are small benign developments on the uterus lining which cause heavy bleeding. They occur because of high levels of hormones.
Adenomyosis is a condition which develops when the endometrium glands get embedded in the uterine muscle, leading to excessive uterine bleeding.
Using intrauterine devices or IUDs may cause side effects as well.
Several uterine cancers, ovarian cancers and cervical conditions may be responsible as well. Inherited bleeding disorders such as von Willebrand’s disease is another likely cause.
Several medicines and drugs, including NSAIDs and anticoagulants are a common cause.
There are different ways of treating excessive uterine bleeding, depending upon the cause of bleeding and the patient’s age.
Medications: Several medicines are used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Hormonal medicines and birth control pills are used to improve the regularity of periods. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also used to manage excessive uterine bleeding. Several antibiotics are also used.
Surgery: In many cases, a woman has to undergo a surgery for the removal of polyps and fibroids, which cause excessive bleeding. Certain fibroids are removed via hysteroscopy and other techniques for treatment are used as well. Endometrial ablation can be carried out to manage the bleeding. This treatment aims at permanent reduction of the excess bleeding. Hysterectomy has to be carried out when other treatments are unsuccessful. This is a serious surgery and after it, a woman will no longer have periods, and she will not be able to conceive a child.
In case of excessive uterine bleeding, you must consult a doctor as soon as possible. This will enable early treatment and prevent the development of further complications.
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding.