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Kidney Stones Treatment
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Varicose Vein Laser Treatment
Hernia Repair Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Male Breast Reduction Treatment
Prostate Laser Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Treatment of Bone Marrow Transplantation
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Submit a review for Dr. Shiv ChopraYour feedback matters!
I have a black marks and pimples in my face. My face got ugly. Please help me to get rid off the black marks and pimples.
My mom's face gets swallowed and gets red and also feels itchy. We don't understand why it happens. She had taken lots of medicines of allergies but nothing had happened. please help.
Doctor how to remove sun tan I am too dark causing sun light help me doctor give me some tips to gain bright colour.
Meri nose pr dark circles pad gaye h or vo kisi bhi medicine se remove nhi ho rhe. Mene soltred gel or betnovet cream bhi use kr k dekh li. Ap ap kuch btao.
Hello Dr. My skin looks totally dull since my experience with scabies. Like I've lost my glow from inside. What should I do? Help me.
My skin is going rough n dark. I lives max time in ground due to my profession. What should I do to save my skin.
My skin. Have so. Many dark. Spot and. Pimple. And. Many mole in face. How to remove this type. Of problem.
How to remove skin tags? Any natural method for this? Is Allopathy treatment is cause any harmful effect?
Hello . My face is very dirty with dark face . And my face is black . I need a superior face. So what can I do.
I wanna remove a tattoo which is on my hand. Is there any liquids or else I should go on a treatment.
I have a problem in my buttock there many finger likr small structure near it and sometimes it pain what is this and why theseoccur.
Christmas & new year offers - skin whitening treatment
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Skin whitening is the practice of using substances, mixtures, or physical treatments to lighten skin color. Skin whitening treatments work by reducing the content of melanin of the skin. Many agents have been shown to be effective in skin whitening.
Specific zones of abnormally high pigmentation such as lentigo spots, moles and birthmarks may be de-pigmented to match to the surrounding skin. In cases of vitiligo, unaffected skin may be lightened to achieve a more uniform appearance.
Discovery and design
Melanogenesis inhibitors have been discovered and developed through several methods, including: screening of synthetic chemical libraries (high-throughput screening is occasionally used), screening of plant extracts, computational (in silico) search, found as a side effect of previously known drugs and exploration of structural analogues of previously known tyrosinase inhibitors based on knowledge (in varying degrees) of their structure-activity relationship. Thus, the development and discovery of melanogenesis inhibitors illustrates many of the methods used in drug design. Some of the most potent competitive reversible tyrosinase inhibitors are synthetic compounds with a potency hundreds of times that of kojic acid.
Mechanisms of action
Melanin is the main substance responsible for the color of the skin. Melanin is class of dark polymers generated by the body through the process of melanogenesis. Among the melanin pigmenting the skin and hair, 2 types can be distinguished based on its chemical composition and biological route of synthesis: the black/brown eumelanin and the red/yellow pheomelanin. The variation of skin color among individuals is mostly because of variation of the content of melanin in the skin. Skin with little or no melanin is almost white. Other factors influence skin color in a lesser degree, including the amount of blood in blood vessels (because of the color of blood), skin thickness and content of carotenoids in skin.
Melanin in synthesized in melanosomes which are organelles produced in melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells dedicated to this function that are present in the skin, hair follicles, and other structures of the body. The synthesis of melanin (also called" melanogenesis" and" melanization") involves a chain of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions and non-enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The main precursor to melanin is l-tyrosine. The first step of melanogenesis is the conversion of l-tyrosine to l-dopa; this is the first and rate-limiting step and is catalized by the enzyme tyrosinase. Other enzymes involved in the synthesis include tyrosinase-related protein 1 (trp1) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (trp2); trp2 is also known as" dopachorome tautomerase" (dct). L-tyrosine is taken by the melanocytes from the intercellular medium, then transported to the melanosomes. L-tyrosine is also synthesized within the melanocytes from l-phenylalanine by the enzyme phenylalanine-hydroxylas (pah)
Melanosomes are transferred to keratinocytes (the most abundant cell type in the skin). Most of the melanin of skin is found in keratinocytes. Additionally, melanocytes interact with keratinocytes through chemical signaling.