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Treatment of Brain Hemorrhage
Treatment of Neurological Problems
Treatment of Spasmodic Torticollis
Treatment of Nerve And Muscle Disorders
Treatment of Paralysis
Joint Dislocation Treatment
Management & Treatment of Spinal Disorders
Treatment of Spine Injury
Treatment of Brain Infection
Hepatitis B Treatment
Treatment of Spondylosis
Treatment Of Disk Slip
Treatment Of Herniated Disc
Treatment of Spine Injuries
Treatment of Bell's Palsy
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A headache is the most common ailment to affect men and women. Did you know that there are over 150 different types of headaches? Each of these different types of headaches has its own symptoms, triggers and needs to be treated in a different way. In some cases, you may even require surgery. This is often recommended for severe migraines and cluster headaches.
The different types of surgeries that may be performed to treat such headaches include:
- Neurostimulation: For this procedure, a wire electrode is inserted through the skin at the back of the neck near the occipital nerve and used to provide electrical stimulation. This form of surgery is best suited to patients who have benefited positively from an occipital nerve block.
- Radiofrequency thermocoagulation: This is one the most common forms of surgical treatment for cluster headaches. For this procedure, a radiofrequency current is used to heat tissue of a certain area. By doing this, the passage for pain is obstructed and headaches are relieved. Some of the side effects of this surgery could include corneal sensory loss, severe facial dysesthesias and reactions to anesthesia. In rare cases, it could also cause a stroke, infections or motor weakness. Thankfully, these effects typically are resolved within 6 months.
- Microvascular decompression: This is an invasive procedure that is performed while the patient is under general anesthesia. It also involves a craniectomy. The aim of this procedure is to remove a vascular loop that compresses a nerve and thereby restore normal anatomy. Hospitalization is typically required for a few days after the procedure
- Gamma knife radiosurgery: This is the type of neurosurgery where the trigeminal nerve is hit by radiation. This procedure can be performed as an outpatient procedure and can be completed in a few hours. It has a very low rate of complications but the long term effects of this form of treatment are not yet clear. There may also be a high rate of relapses associated with this form of treatment.
- Septoplasty: In the case of migraines, a deviated septum may be contributing to your headache. In such cases, surgical correction of the septum can help relieve pressure on the nerves that pass through it and in turn reduce the frequency and intensity of your headaches. Septoplasty addresses common issues concerning the septum such as a bent cartilage or deviated cartilage. This procedure can be performed under local or general anesthesia.
Restless leg syndrome is a condition where the nervous supply to the lower legs (and sometimes hands) is affected. The person has a constant urge to move the legs due to the tingly sensation or the pins and needles sensation and so this condition is called as restless legs syndrome (RLS). It is almost never a standalone condition and is often associated with other nervous system conditions.
It is a progressive condition and aggravates with time. The patient may experience episodes of this disease. Most people might experience this problem at night due to which a lot of patients complain of disturbed sleep and restlessness while sleeping.
While there is no permanent solution to this condition, there are various home remedies and techniques which can help control the condition. Read on to know more.
- Trigger agents: Some people are able to identify triggers like caffeine or chocolate which induce the condition. The first step would then be to avoid using these, especially before sleeping.
- Exercise: Any form of exercise, which gives a good workout for the leg muscles is recommended. This could range from a 30-minute brisk walk to stretches depending on the person’s overall health status. This is known to induce a good sleep, reduce muscle tension and relax the mood. Choose yoga, gym, cycling, or any form which suits your overall health and schedule.
- Massages:Hot or cold massages, often used alternately, can help in relaxing the muscles. This also helps in reducing tension and improving overall sleep. The ideal time for the massage is the evening so that RLS does not affect during nighttime.
- Diet: A diet rich in vitamins and minerals can prove to be helpful. This is because proper muscle and nerve function requires various minerals like zinc, potassium, calcium, sodium, etc. Diet rich in these helps in improving muscle and nerve function and thereby control RLS.
- Sleep pattern: Sound sleep practices like having an early dinner, a quiet room free of digital media, optimal temperature, and relaxing ambience helps in a better sleep. This has shown to reduce the incidence of RLS and evidence of sound sleep.
- Medications: RLS can also cause mild to moderate pain in the affected legs, and so pain killers can be used once in a while if the pain is not bearable. These should be used only rarely and continued use can lead to stomach ulcers and bleeding. The above mentioned nonmedical methods should be tried before trying medications. Anticonvulsants have been used to control RLS if pain killers alone are not adequate. In more severe cases, antiparkinson drugs are used with great success.
I got paralysed by neuro immune disease transverse myelitis but recovered well. Any suggestions after recovery?
The medical term ‘spina bifida’ or spinal bifida refers to a congenital defect in the spine. In simpler terms, spinal bifida is a defect in the neural tube. Based on the severity of this disease, spinal bifida can be divided into three different types:
The symptoms of spinal bifida vary depending on each of these three types. Let's take a closer look at its symptoms here:
Myelomeningocele is the most severe form of spinal bifida. In this type of neural defect, the spinal canal of the baby remains open in the middle or lower back along a few vertebrae. Due to this opening, a sac is formed at the back of the baby at birth, which exposes the baby to several life-threatening infections.
Some of the common symptoms of this type of spinal bifida are:
- Presence of uneven hips
- Deformed feet
- Curved spine or scoliosis
- Bladder and bowel problems
- Muscle weakness
- Paralyzed leg muscles.
Physical deformities from moderate to severe levels are also very common in this type of spinal bifida.
Meningocele is a ratherrare form of spinal bifida in which a sack of fluid stays in open at the back of the baby. Here the protective membranes that usually stay around the spinal cord push out through the vertebrae’s opening. Though this sack contains no part of the spinal cord, it may cause minor disabilities.
Some common symptoms of this kind of spinal bifida are:
o Membranes forming a visible sack on the back at birth
o Presence of a small opening in the baby's back
The good news is that this sack can be removed through surgery without hampering the normal development of the spinal cord.
Spina bifida occulta is the mildest form of spina bifida, which, in majority of the cases, often stays hidden as its symptoms are rarely visible. As it doesn’t even cause any form of disabilities, it generally goes unnoticed. It doesn’t cause any damages to the nerves or the spinal cord.
Some common symptoms of occulta are:
- Presence of a gap between the vertebrae
- An area on the back formed with extra fat
- Acluster or small group of hair on the back
- A dimple or birthmark on the back.
In this kind of spinal bifida, neither any sack of fluid is formed, nor are there any visible opening in the back. Sometimes, people who have spinal bifida are not aware of it due to its minimal symptoms.
Spinal bifida usually affects a child before birth, when the brain or the cord or the protective covering over them fails to develop completely. Knowing about the symptoms can be one of the best ways to identify and diagnose this disease and opt for proper treatment solutions.
Brain mapping is a technique where the biological quantities of a human brain are represented as spatial quantities resulting in maps. As with many other medical technologies, brain mapping is fast-evolving as well. Among several uses, brain mapping is chiefly used while performing surgery on the brain.
When surgery is to be performed on the brain such as surgery for epilepsy, the surgeon would want to comprehend how the brain areas are affected by seizures. The surgical intervention is meant for removing as much as seizure focus as possible while preserving crucial functions like understanding, speech, vision, movement, and sensation.
Why is brain mapping performed?
Brain mapping is a process which helps in identification of functions of various parts of the brain. Mapping the brain by stimulating different areas of the brain areas can aid in creating a map for a particular person. The map allows the doctor in understanding what parts of the brain are responsible for performing critical functions including sensation, movement, speech and other functions.
Which functions of the brain can be mapped electrically?
Typical areas of the brain which have motor, language, visual and sensory functions are needed to be mapped. When current is applied to a single area at a time, the doctor understands which part of the brain is responsible for which function.
When the patient is not able to speak due to the current, then the area is likely to be crucial for language function. If the limbs, face or trunk of the patient stop moving as the current passes, the area that is tested is responsible for movement. On the other hand, if the individual experiences tingling, numbing, and other sensations when the current is applied, it means that a sensory region is discovered.
How is electrical brain mapping performed?
Electrical brain mapping for guiding brain surgery for epilepsy can be performed in two distinct processes: directly during the surgery or in a two-stage procedure.
In the first stage of the process, the surgeon creates an opening in the skull which helps in exposing the surface of the brain. Small electrical contacts or electrodes are placed on the brain surface even though no brain tissue is removed. As soon as the electrodes are in the right position, the scalp is closed. The electrodes not only record the seizure of the patient electrically but also allow mapping of various areas of the brain. The last stage is surgery where abnormal brain tissues are removed.
Brain mapping process during surgery:
Electrical brain mapping may also be performed during the surgery which exposes part of the brain. This is termed as intraoperative brain mapping since it occurs while performing the main operation. The process of mapping may last for an hour to several hours at a stretch.
Brain mapping is also used to diagnose neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. In these cases, the brain map shows extreme shrinkage of the brain due to tissue loss. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Nerve compression is a condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve. It occurs when a nerve is squeezed or compacted. It is also known as compression neuropathy or entrapment neuropathy.
Nerve compression syndrome is also known as:
- nerve entrapment syndrome
- compression neuropathy
- entrapment neuropathy
- trapped nerve
Mentioned below are few of the most common types of nerve compression syndromes:
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Cubital tunnel syndrome
- Suprascapular nerve compression syndrome
- Guyon’s canal syndrome
- Meralgia paresthetica
- Radial nerve compression syndrome
- Prolonged or repeated external force, such as sitting with one's arm over the back of a chair (radial nerve), frequently resting one's elbows on a table (ulnar nerve), or an ill-fitting cast or brace on the leg (peroneal nerve).
- Accidents such as sprains, fractures, and broken bones can also cause nerve compression syndrome
- Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis
- Thyroid dysfunction
- High blood pressure
- Tumors and cysts
- Pregnancy or menopause
- Neural disorders
Signs and Symptoms
- Pain in the area of compressions, such as the neck or lower back
- Radiating pain, such as sciatica or radicular pain
- Numbness or tingling
- Pins and needles or a burning sensation
- Symptoms worsen when you try specific movements, such as turning your head or straining your neck
- Lifestyle changes: Avoiding movements that cause pain. Changing job duties may relieve symptoms. Losing weight can improve symptoms if obesity is the cause of nerve compression syndrome,
- Physical therapy: Flexibility, strength, and range of motion in the affected area can be improved by working with a physical therapist. Physical therapy can also relieve symptoms, such as pain and numbness.
- Medication: Drugs commonly prescribed to manage symptoms caused by nerve compression syndrome include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil) and aspirin. Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, are injected directly around the nerve.
- Prosthetic devices: In few cases of nerve compression syndrome, a doctor or physical therapist may advise a splint or a brace to help avoid putting pressure on the nerve.
- Surgery: The surgical procedure required depends on the type of nerve compression syndrome, the degree of compression, and the nerves and structures affected. Surgery also depends on several factors, which include the duration of the symptoms, the severity of symptoms, and any other underlying health conditions you might have.
- Home remedies: The following home remedies may stop or ameliorate symptoms of nerve compression syndrome:
- Stop activities that cause pain
- Apply icing on the affected area for 10–15 minutes
- Taking regular breaks when doing repetitive tasks
- Applying topical creams, such as menthol
- Elevating the affected area
- Keeping the affected area warmPerforming stretches and exercises to improve strength and flexibility
- Using relaxation exercises
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Spinal fusion surgery is also known as spondylodesis or spondylosyndesis. It is a surgical procedure in which two or more vertebrae are permanently joined into one solid bone with no space between them. The procedure aims at preventing the movement between two bones and prevents back pain. It can be performed at any level in the spine (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar).
- Degenerative disc disease
- Lumbar spondylolisthesis ( a condition where one vertebra slips onto the vertebra below it causing severe pain)
- Unstable spinal column
- Severe arthritis Infections
- Spinal stenosis
- Scoliosis (curvature of the spine)
- Kyphosis (abnormal rounding of the upper spine)
When Does An Individual Need This Surgery?
Spinal fusion surgery is required if medicines, physical therapy, and other treatments (like steroid injections) do not relieve the back pain.
Types of Spinal Fusion
- Anterior spinal fusion
- Posterior spinal fusion
- Vertebral interbody fusion
Preparation for Spinal Fusion Surgery
- Preoperative preparation
- Preoperatively, 8-hour fasting is required. All the routine investigations, including blood tests, and X- rays are done.
The surgery is performed under general anesthesia. A bone graft (ie, a synthetic bone or a small piece of the patient’s pelvic bone) is prepared to fuse the two vertebrae. Depending on the location of fusion, the graft is placed accordingly between the affected vertebras to join them. Once the graft is put in place; plates, screws, and rods are used to keep the spine from moving. This maneuver is called internal fixation. It provides stability and helps the spine to heal faster with a higher rate of success.
Postoperatively, the patient may need to wear a brace to keep the spine in proper alignment. Fusing may take up to 6 weeks or longer, after which normal activities can be resumed. Physical rehabilitation is required to strengthen the back and learn ways to move safely. Complete recovery takes about 3-6 months.
- Infections causing inflammation of the affected parts
- Poor healing causing pain
- Pain at the site of the fused area, especially nerve pain
- Heart attack or stroke during a spinal surgery
- Reactions to medications or anesthesia
- Respiratory problems
- Damage to a spinal nerve leading to weakness, pain, bowel, or bladder problems
- Blood clots in the legs that can be life-threatening if they travel to the lungs
- Blood loss
- Pseudoarthrosis (nonunion between fused bone segments)
Warning Signs of Infection
- Swelling, redness, or discharge from the operated site
- Fever above 100 0F
- Shaking chills
- Increased pain
Safe and faster recovery from spinal surgery is suggested through physical therapy.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Stress has become an integral and inevitable part of life. From personal life to professional commitments, the trigger can be anything. While there can be many common and harmful effects of stress, one that deserves a special mention is a headache. Almost 90% of the people worldwide get a Tension Headache (a term often used for a headache associated with stress).
In case, when headache is due to tension, the head feels tight and heavy. Further, a person may experience pressure mainly around the forehand and also at the back side of the head, moving down to the neck. However, it is important that one does not confuse a tension headache with a migraine. The two are as different as chalk and cheese. A tension headache can be chronic or episodic. A person with a chronic tension headache may suffer from the condition frequently. On the other hand, if a person gets a tension headache for less than 15 days a month, the headache is said to be episodic. The condition is more severe and painful in a chronic tension headache.
What causes a tension headache?
While stress (physical, mental and emotional) is the major contributing factor, the following triggers may also play a pivotal role in a tension headache.
- Severe anxiety and depression.
- Lack of a proper rest and sound sleep.
- Extreme fatigue (physical or mental) or hunger can also result in a tension headache.
- A person with iron deficiency may also suffer from a tension headache.
Managing a stress related headache
Managing and eliminating stress can go a long way to prevent a tension headache. The following activities are sure to make the situation better
- Sleep well to keep stress at bay: Sleep can work wonders to reduce stress and the associated headache. Maintain a healthy sleep cycle. Work is important, but compromising on your sleep is foolish. It is important that you sleep for not less than 6-8 hours daily.
- A healthy diet for a stress-free life: A healthy diet can play a significant role to reduce stress, thereby enhancing your moods. Enrich your diet with dark green leafy vegetables, dark chocolates, nuts, probiotics, berries (especially blueberries), seeds (sesame, pumpkin, and sunflower), foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Foods rich in vitamins, magnesium, and potassium are known to be great mood enhancers. Try and avoid processed foods as well as foods rich in fats and complex carbohydrates as much as you can.
- Meditation can help: People under stress can benefit immensely from meditations, exercise, and physical activities. Exercise is known to trigger the release of endorphins or feel good hormones. Endorphins can lift up your mood and spirits to a great extent.
- Family time: Spending time with your family and loved ones can also help to reduce stress.
Stress and headache can both be managed and taken care of if you follow a healthy lifestyle.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder, which causes fragility of bones. In the absence of proper prevention and treatment modalities, osteoporosis can cause a painless progression and subsequent fractures. Such fractures (broken bones) mostly occur in the hip, spine, or wrist. As per several past data-driven studies conducted in the United States of America, 1.5 million new fractures are witnessed in people with osteoporosis every year. Of these, spine fractures are seen in 700,000; hip fractures in 300,000; wrist fractures in 250,000; and fractures of other bones in 250,000 people.
Possible Causes of Osteoporosis
- Hormonal imbalances Pregnancy
- Metabolic diseases Cancer
- Age beyond 60-65 years
- Symptoms of Osteoporosis-Induced Compression Fractures
- Significant upper or lower back pain
- Changes in posture
- Difficulty with breathing and digestion
- Decreased ability to walk
- An overall decrease in the quality of life Increased tendency for fracture of adjacent vertebrae
Compression fractures are usually managed with pain medications; narcotic pain medicines are administered for a few months until the pain decreases. Also, few available medications are known to increase the bone density. It is hoped that by building the bone density, future fractures can be prevented. Another method is immobilization of the spine with a brace that helps decrease pain from a broken vertebra; however, such braces are helpful only for the fractures of the lower back.
Role of Kyphoplasty in the Management of Osteoporosis
Kyphoplasty is a procedure that involves a new technology whereby an osteoporotic compression fracture can be treated with relief in pain, restoration of the lost bone height, and immediate stabilization of the fracture with the injection of bone cement.
How is kyphoplasty done?
The procedure is carried out via two A½’’ incisions on each side of the affected vertebra. The technique utilizes X-ray equipment to place working tools into the collapsed vertebra. This step is followed by an insertion of an inflatable bone tamp or expander into the fractured vertebra on each side, after which, the balloons are slowly inflated, lifting up the fractured portion of the vertebra to a more normal height. The balloons are then deflated, and cement is slowly injected. Excellent restoration of fractures, which are less than 4-6 months old and better than 90% success at reducing pain associated with the broken vertebra, is seen with kyphoplasty.
Which patients can benefit from kyphoplasty?
- Patients with a recent vertebral compression fracture due to osteoporosis
- Patients with fractures which are less than 4 months old
- Patients with fractures who are on chronic prednisone or steroids
- Complications from this procedure have been primarily related to patients who have been on blood thinner medications.
- Potential complications also include cement leaking out of the vertebra and into inappropriate areas.
The spine is one of the most delicate bones of the body. It literally supports the entire body and helps us walk upright. Any damage or degeneration of the same can lead to dire consequences ranging from pain to paralysis. Spine degeneration is something that progresses over time and does not happen overnight. The normal structure of the disc will be gradually lost in such cases, and there may even be changes in the vertebrae.
The discs may start thinning slowly, which will lead to posture and other issues like pain and weakness. These problems may happen due to old age, arthritis, accidents which may have rendered some damage to the spine, as well as neurological problems where the nerves may get pressed due to an outgrowth or a bulging disc.
Here are the facts that you need to know about spine degeneration related to neurosurgery-
Spinal Stenosis: This is a condition where the spinal canal becomes progressively narrow which may further lead to many problems. In such cases, the spinal cord and the nerves around it tend to get pressed and pinched, which causes significant pain. This may happen due to several reasons including old age which changes the structure of the spinal cord, and other issues such as spinal herniation which causes the growth from the spine. It can also happen due to problems like osteoporosis or the existence of a tumor.
Symptoms: This congenital condition can affect the entire lunar area as well as the shoulders and the neck. It can also lead to painful sensations in the legs and lower regions. Many patients also complain of the loss of bowel control in extreme conditions.
Causes: The stiffening of the invertebral joint leads to the growth of a bony structure. This is known as an osteophyte formation which can lead to spondylitis. There are chances of people as young as 35 years of age, experiencing such a problem. These kinds of issues directly affect the nerves and cause pain in various areas of the body.
Treatment: In such cases, a laminectomy procedure or a de-roofing surgery will be required so that the bony outgrowth may be sliced off, for better recovery of the patient. This will also prevent the nerves from getting affected or pressed, which in turn helps in leading a more normal existence. The success rate is quite high for this kind of surgery, as per myriad medical reports and studies. Yet, it is not entirely suitable for older patients who have other complications.
Other Methods of Treatment: In many cases, the patient may be required to go through other forms of physiotherapy so as to deal with the issue. The patients may also be given epidural injections that have steroids so as to deal with the pain. This is also one of the most preferred methods of managing chronic lumbar area pain which is caused due to herniation and nerve pressing. Electronic stimulation methods such as a neuro modulation with the help of decompression and fusion may also be followed in such cases.