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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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I am 35 year old and during combined screening test iugr risk factor is 1: 35.there is no chromosomal abnormality and no downs syndrome. Should I be worry or not.
My daughter is 8 year old but she is very week she eat every thing but health is not good please give me advised.
Sir/Mam my kid (boy) we never denied him what he asks. He always says I'm feared. why like that. He will be very free at home but in new place or person he will not go to them he says I'm feared. why now he is 5 years old. Pl.
I am confused whether to give my 7 month old son flu vaccine as it is listed as optional in the vaccination schedule. I live in kolkata and have not seen anyone suffering from influenza in the near past in my area. Please advise.
My son is 3 months 20 days old. He has given 3dose of pentavalent vaccine on scheduled time. I missed his 1st dose of ipv before so He got 1st dose of IPV (0.1 ml subcutaneous) with 3rd dose of pentavalent vaccine. So when should I give 2nd dose of IPV? How many doses are needed? His weight is 6.6 kg now. Which other vaccines are mandatory?
Hi Please let me know wat to feed to 8 mnth old baby with timings ,hw much Quantity n hw many tyms, wat kind of veg n fruits.
My daughter is 6 years & 4 months old. Her weight is only 19.7 KG. She doesn't eat anything & if we force her, she keeps food in her mouth & doesn't chew. If we give her one chapati she takes more than One hour to finish it. She also sucks her thumb till now and now she has also started biting her nails. The biggest problem is she keeps on Talking/speaking whole day & more than 50 times in a day we have to say her keep quiet but she doesn't. At home, she talks very loudly but at school, she doesn't speak any thing. In every PTM her teacher complains that she doesn't speak & if she speaks her voice is too low that no body can hear. Now day by day she is also getting Stubborn & aggressive. Can you please give me some solution for this problem or should we visit some child psychiatrist? One thing more I want to tell you that my wife is also too aggressively & stubborn. She is yelling & abusing everyone whole day. She doesn't spare me & kids also. Is my wife's behaviour impacting my kids?
My 10.5 month baby isn't gaining weight. I give her two snacks and three meals a day which includes veggies and fruits. Her weight is 7 kgs which is really concerning. I wish there should be an article on babies weight like other articles by doctors.
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body (partial) or the entire body (generalized), and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.
Seizure episodes are a result of excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain can be the site of such discharges. Seizures can vary from the briefest lapses of attention or muscle jerks to severe and prolonged convulsions. Seizures can also vary in frequency, from less than 1 per year to several per day.
One seizure does not signify epilepsy (up to 10% of people worldwide have one seizure during their lifetime). Epilepsy is defined as having 2 or more unprovoked seizures.
Fear, misunderstanding, discrimination and social stigma have surrounded epilepsy for centuries. This stigma continues in many countries today and can impact on the quality of life for people with the disorder and their families.
Signs and symptoms
Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such as loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, sensation (including vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive functions.
People with seizures tend to have more physical problems (such as fractures and bruising from injuries related to seizures), as well as higher rates of psychological conditions, including anxiety and depression. Similarly, the risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to 3 times higher than the general population, with the highest rates found in low- and middle-income countries and rural versus urban areas.
A great proportion of the causes of death related to epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries are potentially preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns and prolonged seizures.
Epilepsy is not contagious. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and has no identifiable cause.
Epilepsy with a known cause is called secondary epilepsy, or symptomatic epilepsy. The causes of secondary (or symptomatic) epilepsy could be:
- brain damage from prenatal or perinatal injuries (e.g. a loss of oxygen or trauma during birth, low birth weight),
- congenital abnormalities or genetic conditions with associated brain malformations,
- a severe head injury,
- a stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain,
- an infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis, neurocysticercosis,
- certain genetic syndromes,
- a brain tumor.
Epilepsy can be treated easily and affordable medication. Recent studies in both low- and middle-income countries have shown that up to 70% of children and adults with epilepsy can be successfully treated (i.e. their seizures completely controlled) with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Furthermore, after 2 to 5 years of successful treatment and being seizure-free, drugs can be withdrawn in about 70% of children and 60% of adults without subsequent relapse.
Idiopathic epilepsy is not preventable. However, preventive measures can be applied to the known causes of secondary epilepsy.
- Preventing head injury is the most effective way to prevent post-traumatic epilepsy.
- Adequate perinatal care can reduce new cases of epilepsy caused by birth injury.
- The use of drugs and other methods to lower the body temperature of a feverish child can reduce the chance of febrile seizures.
- Central nervous system infections are common causes of epilepsy in tropical areas, where many low- and middle-income countries are concentrated.
- Elimination of parasites in these environments and education on how to avoid infections can be effective ways to reduce epilepsy worldwide, for example those cases due to neurocysticercosis.