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Management of Abortion
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
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During the natural course of events, a women's body starts its reproductive phase with menarche and at about 50 years of age, attains menopause. This is when the reproductive function ceases and the ovaries stop producing the hormone estrogen and progesterone. In some cases, for various reasons including medical, the ovaries stop functioning earlier, and this is medically termed early or premature menopause. Menopause that occurs before 40 years of age is termed premature menopause; it is due to primary ovarian insufficiency and occurs in 1% of the women. If it occurs between 45 to 50 years, it is termed early menopause.
Causes: Normal ageing, family history, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, toxins, and surgery are some reasons that could lead to premature menopause.
Effects: Estrogen and progesterone have a lot of beneficial effects on a women's body. Reduction in their levels leads to some of the below changes:
- Emotional changes like mood swings, irritability, and in some cases depression, especially in premature menopause.
- Irregular cycles before complete cessation of the menstrual cycles.
- General mucosal dryness leading to vaginal dryness, dry skin, dry eyes.
- There also would be urinary incontinence and reduced sex drive due to reduced hormone levels.
- For women who still would want to have children, infertility would be a big cause for concern. This could lead to other emotional issues, worsening the depression.
- Osteoporosis - Bones lose their density and get weak and are more prone to fracture.
- Cardiovascular health - Post menopause, women are more prone to heart attacks and stroke. Though not fully proven, this is believed to be true as the good role that estrogen plays on blood vessels is negated with menopause.
- Accelerated ageing - Menopause leads to accelerated damage of genetic structures, thereby leading to faster ageing. This also leaves a feeling in the women of being less attractive and less desirable.
There is also a good news, that after menopause women are at lesser risk of cancer - especially breast and ovarian.
It is not easy for women to handle premature menopause. The body undergoes some changes much earlier than expected, and it requires a lot of support and caring and comforting to come to terms with it - especially if associated with infertility or chemotherapy for cancer. Emotional issues of not being able to have children and feeling less attractive require frank talks to boost the person's confidence and increase self-worthiness.
It is easier said than done, but one of the key ways to handle premature menopause is an open discussion. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Dr. I am 26 years old and my boyfriend is 23 he always ask me to have sex but I don't like to have sex since I was 26 then also I don't have much sex and feelings can you tell me what is the reason behind this?
Hello I'm 21 years old I've missed my periods this month and pregnancy tests are all negative but I have stomach ache body pain vomiting head ache. Last month I got ma periods on jan 7 and now that February is also over I have still not got periods. Am I pregnant?
All painkillers work by interfering with the pain-transmission process.Although there are many different types, painkillers-or analgesics-usually relieve pain in one of two ways:
· By predominantly reducing inflammation or
· By predominantly affecting the central nervous system.
PAIN KILLERS THAT ACT BY REDUCING INFLAMMATION
Inflammation is the body’s way of responding to injury, infection or invasion by foreign bodies. Inflammation is controlled by inflammatory mediators, substances that are made by the body and which may make inflammation worse by sensitizing pain receptors.Drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen are called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
As their name suggests, they work by preventing or limiting inflammation-specifically by blocking the manufacture of prostaglandins. Although prostaglandians do not cause pain themselves, they sensitize nociceptive nerve endings to other inflammatory mediators (like bradykinin and histamine) and thereby amplify the basic pain message. Prostaglandins are manufactured in the body by an enzyme called cyclo-oxygenase, or COX for short.
The COX enzyme helps to metabolise (or breakdown) a larger substance called arachidonic acid, into pain-causing prostaglandins. By attacking COX and stopping it from doing its job properly, aspirin-like drugs slow down the production of the pain-causing prostagladins. However,slowing down COX is not always a good thing. Confusingly, there are two forms of the COX enzyme- COX-1 and COX-2. Blocking COX-2 ultimately helps to relieve pain. But, most NSAIDs block COX-1 as well, which disrupts other biological processes that are far removed from pain transmission. One of these processes is the production of protective mucus in the stomach. This explains why some people develop gastric ulcers, indigestion and general nausea after taking NSAIDs.
WHEN PAIN ‘GETS ON OUR NERVES
Pain becomes a problem to us when it affects the way in which we live our
lives (i.e. becomes chronic). For example, if we injure our backs or are suffering from a disease like arthritis, we can experience pain that is persistent. But when does pain become ‘a pain’?
When our pain machinery becomes sensitized and is activated when it shouldn’t be. Pain can be triggered by the irritation of nerve endings (one cause of which is inflammation) or by damage to the nerves.
Pain is generally divided into three types:
· Acute nocicpetive pain usually originates from the site of injury.
· Inflammatory pain involves the activation of the immune system.
· Neuropathic pain is usually caused by damage to the peripheral or central nervous systems.
Type of pain
1. Acute nociceptive Cause- injury to muscle, soft tissue, bones, joints or skin.
How it feels-sharp, stabbing, aching, throbbing, can be excruciating but is not usually long lasting.Example-twisted ankle, bee sting, childbirth.
2. Inflammatory Cause- generation of inflammatory mediators following a painful stimulus.
How it feels- burning, dull ache, can be excruciating, can come and go, or be virtually permanent.Examples-rheumatoid arthritis.
3. Neuropathic Cause- damage to nerve tissue.
How it feels- aching, tingling, numbness. Can be excruciating, can come and go, or be virtually permanent.Examples- trapped or compressed nerve, nerve damage caused by diabetes.