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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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My wife is pregnant of 25th week. Scan shows the low lying placenta of 2 cm and blood report shows pcv of 33%. Is there any risk of low lying placenta. Please guide.
hello doctors! I'm 25 years old. Unmarried and working lady. I've been suffering from a number of problems, some from my adolescence which are still there and have become chronic and some have developed recently. I have many health issues at the same time, below is the list:- 1- i'm exhausted all the time, I feel lethargic and slouchy. 2- few years back I used to have extreme pelvic pain; I couldn't stand the pain and my Dr. Gave me injections of voveran. Now from the last year my periods are not regular, I just menstruate for one day. 3- i'm constantly putting on weight, especially around my belly. I exercise but it doesn't help. 4- when I was 13 years old my knees used to knuckle/crack a lot. This condition remained for 8-9 years. Now it doesn't happen but i've severe pain in my knees and ankles; i'm not able to climb stairs, I can't do cycling I can't walk fast, cannot jump/jog, in short I feel like a 60 years old lady. 5- also I pent when I climb stairs or walk fast. My folks say that i'm a lazy girl and not at all attentive. 6- i'm absent minded, so much forgetful. I misplace things most of the time. One doctor said i've dementia or alzheimer's. I'm shocked. 7- I look pale and have many skin problems, like breakouts, scars, black head white heads, patchy skin. Did consult doctors. But nothing did really help. Blood test already done, there's no blood infection. 8- i've consulted a gynaecologist too for my periods and skin issues, conducted some tests which were normal. I feared of pcos but luckily it was not that but there was some watery discharge from my left breast. 9- i'm short sighted too and my number is -8. Severe headache is common. 10 - in 2013 I was down with typhoid. My haemoglobin was 7.8 at that time and I took iron tabs (dexorange) for three months. 11- four five years back I had a bone marrow test which indicated my bones were weak. In later years I consulted an specialist he said I hv arthritis, I didn't continue the medicines. 12- my tongue has unusual black spots. My metabolism isn't good. Constipation is not a regular problem. 13- recently i'm realising that my body's tiny hair including my face is growing dark. I fear of hormonal problem. 14- from last one month i've chronic bony pain especially in my hands, feet and legs. My finger joints are paining like anything, I can't keep my feet on the floor, it hurts badly. I'm not able to sleep due to unbearable pain. In fact I can't explain my condition. Every part of my body pains, I feel sick, very very sick. Please help, what should I do, i'm stressed out, not even able to work properly in my office. Where to start? who's the right doctor? please help out.
I got marriage 4 years back I am not getting pregnant right now I went for checking I have no problems what is the problem please let me know.
Sometime I have severe pain in my breast There may be 2 or 3 lump but I do not know what to do it? I discussed with one of the doctor he said that we have to take out that lump through h minor operation. I am not sure that operation will rectify this lump prblm for always. Please I want your advice help me.
Oral Health Complications During Pregnancy
Recent findings have reported that oral bacteria and their by-products can possibly pass the placental barrier keeping oral health at prime importance during pregnancy. An awareness related to oral health during pregnancy cannot be neglected or avoided in order to minimize the complications.
This article focuses on few points related to the necessity of oral health during pregnancy.
Pregnancy comes with many responsibilities making expecting mothers more concerned about their health. However, many pregnant women may not be aware of oral health and its effect on the developing child. Negligence of oral health is quite common during pregnancy due to lack of alertness of oral hygiene and its effect on systemic health.
Moreover, pregnancy discomforts like frequent bouts of nausea, increased physical demands, weight gain or certain dental problems like pregnancy gingivitis or inflammation of gums may be dangerous to developing fetus.
Risk of oral problems during pregnancy:-
Few common oral problems associated with pregnancy are as follows.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy leads to pregnancy gingivitis. It is a condition of bleeding gums, redness. Moreover inflammation, swelling and tenderness are also observed. Ignorance of such problems may lead to serious gum disease. Frequent cleaning can avoid such dental issues. Progesterone levels are elevated during pregnancy which stimulates the production of prostaglandins and leads to inflammation of blood vessels in gums.
Diet during pregnancy is of high importance. It is designed to nourish both mother and unborn baby. Diet rich in carbohydrates actually increases the risk of tooth decay. The morning sickness increases acid secretion in the mouth which is harmful to enamel.
Overgrowth of tissue on gums in pregnant women are called as pregnancy tumors. They are noncancerous and generally observed in the second trimester of the gestation period. It is nothing but swollen gums between teeth. The bleeding and reddening of gums observed in such conditions.
Periodontal disease and preterm birth:
Untreated gum disease or periodontal problems can development periodontitis characterized by inflammation and infection of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth.
This ultimately leads to loss of supporting material and finally the teeth themselves.
A study result has revealed that there is a relation between preterm birth and presence of gum diseases in the pregnant women. The reason is not yet known.
However, research study findings have evidence that oral bacteria or their byproducts can pass placental barrier. This initiate inflammatory response leading to preterm birth.
Another correlation exists between the gum disease and the increased rate of pre-eclampsia, a condition of high blood pressure during pregnancy. The positive correlation suggests that gum disease may cause stress to the blood vessels of the mother, placenta and the fetus.
The basic periodontal therapies like oral hygiene instructions, scaling, root planing and prophylaxis can substantially decrease the level of prostaglandin responsible for inflammatory response.
The regular treatment and follow-up in pregnant women can maintain good oral health and minimize the risk of preterm birth.
Dental treatment during pregnancy:
The dental procedures mostly include the use of X-rays and use of anesthesia. In the case of pregnancy, these procedures can be used with precaution.
Therefore, before sitting on dental chair patient should declare her pregnancy to the physician. Untreated dental infections can harm fetus as well as the mother.
The emergency situations request use of dental radiographs which can’t wait. The radiation of dental x-ray is generally very low and precaution is always taken for lowest radiation exposure. A leaded apron including collar, shields can be used to prevent abdominal exposure to the x-ray radiation.
Use of dental X-ray is not at all contraindicated in pregnancy when used with precaution.
The use of local anesthesia is also not contraindicated in the pregnancy.
A clinical trial result showed that there is no harm in the use of local anesthetics during pregnancy. It is not linked with increased risk for major medical problems like cerebral palsy, cleft lip and heart defect in newborns.
The medication prescribed during dental treatment mainly includes local anesthetics, analgesics, and antibiotics. Most of them can be used with safety precautions. Each drug has its own pregnancy category which should be considered during its use.
The antibiotic like tetracycline can permanently cause discoloration of developing teeth.
Dentists can educate patients with following points to avoid problems associated with oral hygiene.
- The patient should declare the pregnancy to the Dentist
- Follow routine oral checkup.
- Undergo all elective and emergency procedures.
- Follow good oral hygiene practice ask for a better toothpaste.
- In the case of morning sickness avoid sweets and snacks which increase the risk of tooth decay.
- Have healthy and balanced diet.
Awareness of oral health during pregnancy is a must to avoid complications.