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Dr. Ruchi Arora

Radiologist, Delhi

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Dr. Ruchi Arora Radiologist, Delhi
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I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care....more
I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care.
More about Dr. Ruchi Arora
Dr. Ruchi Arora is an experienced Radiologist in Defence Colony, Delhi. She is currently associated with Dr Ashok Khurana Clinic in Defence Colony, Delhi. Book an appointment online with Dr. Ruchi Arora and consult privately on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Radiologists in India. You will find Radiologists with more than 26 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Radiologists online in Delhi and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Block No C 584, Ground Floor, Main Market, Defence Colony. Landmark:- Near Satya Pal Show Room, DelhiDelhi Get Directions
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Nothing posted by this doctor yet. Here are some posts by similar doctors.

Dear sir I have problem of slip disc or disc herniation in cervical. Kindly solve my problem?

MBBS, cc USG
General Physician, Gurgaon
Hello kindly review with X ray cervical AP and Lateral report consult neurosurgeon/orthopedic surgeon
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I have L5-S1 disc extrusion condition from a year resulting in severe pain in the right leg. Is surgery the only solution?

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I have L5-S1 disc extrusion condition from a year resulting in severe pain in the right leg. Is surgery the only solu...
Apply hot fomentation twice daily. Avoid bending in front. Postural correction- sit tall, walk tall.
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I am a student. Usually I used to sit more than 8 hours a day in chair. Now a days I am feeling very much pain on regions of backbone and neck. Is this a chance of disk failure?

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I am a student. Usually I used to sit more than 8 hours a day in chair. Now a days I am feeling very much pain on reg...
Neck advice hot fomentation x twice daily. Neck exercises. Neck stretching. Postural correction. Shoulder shrugs. Core strengthening exercises. Take frequent breaks at work use cervical pillow. Use back support. Back advice. Apply hot fomentation twice daily. Avoid bending in front. Postural correction- sit tall, walk tall. Extension exercises x 15 times x twice daily. Bhujang asana. Core strengthening exercises. Back stretching. Do the cat/cow stretch.
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6 Symptoms of Uterine Prolapse

MBBS, M.S( Gynaecology)
Gynaecologist, Surat
6 Symptoms of Uterine Prolapse

The uterus is a muscular structure held in place inside your pelvis with the help of muscles, ligaments, and tissues. These muscles weaken in women due to pregnancy, childbirth or delivery complications and can lead to severe complications. One such complication is a uterine prolapse. Uterine prolapse occurs when the uterus sags or slips from its normal position into the vaginal canal.

The causes of uterine prolapse are varied and include:

- Delivering a large baby
- Pregnancy
- Difficulty in labor and delivery
- Reduction in estrogen levels post menopause
- Traumatic childbirth
- Loss or weakening of the pelvic muscle
- Conditions which lead to increased pressure in the abdominal area such as a chronic cough, straining, pelvic tumors or accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
- Loss of external support due to major surgery in pelvic area

Uterine prolapse can be complete or incomplete depending on how far the uterus sags into the vagina. Women who have minor uterine prolapse may not have any visible symptoms. However, if the condition worsens, it manifests itself in visible signs.

Symptoms of moderate or severe prolapse are:

1. A feeling of fullness or pressure in your pelvis when you sit
2. Seeing the uterus or cervix coming out of the vagina
3. Vaginal bleeding or increased discharge
4. Painful sexual intercourse
5. Recurrent bladder infections
6. Continuing back pain with difficulty in walking, urinating and moving your bowels

Without proper attention, the condition can cause impairments in the bowel, and can also affect bladder and sexual function. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

2752 people found this helpful

My MRI report says, Mild posterior broad base protrusion of L4-L5 intervertebral disc resultant mild central and lateral canal narrowing causing mild compression over thecal sac and right traversing L5 nerve root. I am doing bed rest from 10 days, what's the report says.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
the report says that you have a disc prolapse and the disc is compressing one of the right nerve root. So if you have back and right leg pain then it would fit with your MRI findings. Absolute bed rest is not required for disc prolapse. as it is a mild prolapse there is a chance that the symptoms will improve with medications. avoid lifting heavy weight and reduce your body weight too
1 person found this helpful
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I am 33 years old my weight 69 kgs .l will take medicine to my disc problem before take medicine my weight 60 how to weight loss give me suggestion?

BHMS
Sexologist, Noida
I am 33 years old my weight 69 kgs .l will take medicine to my disc problem before take medicine my weight 60 how to ...
Mr. Lybrate-user I suggest you to take homoeoptahic medicine tuberculinum 200 and ars. Iod 30 tds for 1 month ok with take milk mixed with turmeric ok raise your immunity ok so solve your problem. Becouse of your immunity is very low ok.
1 person found this helpful
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How To Prevent Sagging of Breasts?

Vaidya Visharad
Sexologist, Narnaul
How To Prevent Sagging of Breasts?

How to prevent sagging of breasts?

Home remedies for sagging breasts

Breast sagging is a natural process that happens with age wherein the breasts lose their suppleness and elasticity. Breasts do not have muscle. They are made of fat, connective tissues and milk-producing glands, and they need proper care to keep them in good shape.

Yoga


The benefits of yoga for the entire body have been widely studied, and it is primarily a mechanism of toning the body and increasing flexibility. Some of that toning can occur within the breast, depending on which positions you commonly practice.

Massage

Massage your breasts at least 2-3 times per week with olive oil. It will help add firmness to the skin as well as improve the skin tone and texture. It will also tone your chest and increase the elasticity of the skin.

Pomegranate

Pomegranate is considered a wonderful anti-aging ingredient and can help prevent sagging breasts. Pomegranate seed oil is rich in phyto-nutrients that can lead to firm breasts.


    Make a paste of pomegranate peel and some warm mustard oil. Use it to massage your breasts in a circular motion for 5 to 10 minutes daily before going to bed.
    You can also use pomegranate seed oil to massage your breasts 2 or 3 times daily.
    Another option is to mix 4 teaspoons of neem oil with 1 teaspoon of dried and powdered pomegranate rind. Heat this mixture for a few minutes. Allow it to cool and then use it to massage your breasts twice daily for several weeks.


Avoid loose fitting bra / wrong bra size

Some women feel that they would feel comfortable if they wear loose bra. But this is totally a wrong step. You are going to invite your saggy breast by doing this. Avoid this and go for the best fitting bra to keep your breast stay upright and firm. For more details visit us at www.malhotraayurveda.in

52 people found this helpful

Sir my sister aged 32 years is going under total hip replacement. I much confused about prosthetic which one to go for Ceramic with poly or Ceramic on Ceramic Please advice which one is better.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), MRCS, DNB (Orthopedics), MBBS
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
Hi Lots of studies are there. As per my experience in UK 12 yrs, ceramic on ceramic is good in long term. But risk of fracture is there always when ever patient jumps. Ceramic on poly is more safe and it's better combination too. I preserve ceramic on ceramic. Hope it solves you r question.
1 person found this helpful
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Does Knuckle breaking at neck at regular intervals when I'm feel stressed, will that leads to an disk injury or any problems in future. Usually I keep doing that when I work out in gym.

MBA (Healthcare), MRCPsych UK, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Does Knuckle breaking at neck at regular intervals when I'm feel stressed, will that leads to an disk injury or any p...
Try to sleep without pillows-it helps your neck and shoulder muscles to relax properly and maintain a good spine posture.
2 people found this helpful
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Causes and Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids

Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Hyderabad
Causes and Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids are referred to as benign, abnormal growths which tend to develop in the uterine walls of a woman. The size of such growths can range from a few centimeters to even excess of a few inches. As such, they can cause the uterus to increase to the size of a five month pregnancy. Although, the symptoms of fibroids are not always apparent, they often cause heavy bleeding and pain in women. A recent research concluded that around 60 to 75 percent women contract such fibroids by the age of 50, at least once in their life.

Depending on the site of formation, uterine fibroids are distinguished into different types. Intramural fibroids in the lining of the uterus and subserosal fibroids which develop outside the uterus are the most commonly observed fibroids.

What causes Uterine Fibroids?
Although, the exact reason for the formation of fibroids are obscure, medical professionals have determined certain factors that may affect their formation. Some of them are:
1) Hormones: Progesterone and estrogen, produced by the ovaries regenerate the uterine lining during each menstrual cycle and trigger the growth of fibroids.
2) Family history: If you have had a family history of uterine fibroids, then you're likely to develop the condition yourself as well.
3) Pregnancy: The production of progesterone and estrogen increases during pregnancy which increases the likelihood of fibroids.

What are the signs of the condition?
Depending on the location and size of the tumors, symptoms of such fibroids include:
1) Heavy bleeding and blood clots during periods
2) Pain in the pelvis
3) Frequent menstrual cramps
4) Pressure and pain in the lower abdomen
5) Swelling in the abdomen
6) Pain while intercourse

What is the procedure of the treatment?
Ultrasound and pelvic MRI are common diagnostic procedures to check for uterine fibroids. After diagnosis, depending on your age, size of the fibroid and your comprehensive health, the doctor would prescribe you with appropriate medications. Only after medications prove futile, doctors opt for minimally invasive surgeries. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2790 people found this helpful

Brain Surgery - What Should You Know About It?

IFAANS, DNB (Neurosurgery), MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
Brain Surgery - What Should You Know About It?

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.

1861 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - Know More to Say 'No' More!

MBBS, DGO, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Breast Cancer - Know More to Say 'No' More!

Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.

Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.

Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.

  1. A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
  2. Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
  3. Redness of your breast or nipple
  4. Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
  5. Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
  6. Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
  7. One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
  8. Hardened area under the breast skin

Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.

Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.

  1. Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
  2. Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
  3. Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  4. Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
  5. Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  6. Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
  7. Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.

Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.

  1. Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
  2. Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
  3. Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
  4. Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
  5. Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.

Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.

  1. Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
  2. In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
  3. Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
  4. Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
  5. Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.

Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.

  1. Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
  2. Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
  3. Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
  4. In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).

Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.

2622 people found this helpful

Stroke - Brain Attack

MBBS, DMCH, DEM
General Physician, Jaipur
Stroke - Brain Attack

STROKE- Popularly known as "Brain Attack". It occurs due to sudden  impairment of blood supply to a part of brain leading to acute neurological insult. 

Stroke is an emergency. Know the signs of a stroke and  Remember  FAST.

F- Face Drooping - Ask the person to smile. See for any deviation/asymmetry of mouth. If YES..

AArm Weakness  Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? If   YES..

SSpeech Difficulty  Ask the person to speak, look for any slurring of speech. If YES..

T- Time is money , Call Ambulance/Rush to the hospital. 

Other signs/ symptoms - 

  • Sudden onset of  numbness or weakness of the leg / arm. 

  • Sudden confusion/ trouble seeing in one or both eyes, trouble walking, Chakker, loss of balance, severe headache / Loss of speech.

Be Aware, This can be STROKE.

Act FAST, Save LIFE and disability. Up to 80% of strokes are preventable

11 people found this helpful

Hello Dr. Sir, I am Harvinder singh from yamunanagar, Haryana. I have lower back pain since last 2 years. Its slip disc and sciatica pain in left leg. I am very unhappy with this problem. Please advice me best of best treatment for the same and where I can get the same.

BAMS
Ayurveda,
Hello Dr. Sir, I am Harvinder singh from yamunanagar, Haryana. I have lower back pain since last 2 years. Its slip di...
You may use yogi joint pain churna for few days, if its helpful for you, then continue to get relief from sciatica.
1 person found this helpful
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Sir I am FROM CHENNAI having back pain when mri scanned impression as follows Early lumbar spondylosis. Mild disc bulge with focal posterocentral and bilateral postrtolateraldisc at l3_ 4 disc level causing thecal sac ibdentation and bilatrral mild beural foranimal narrowings (L>R) MILD ligamentum flavum hypertrophy at L3_4 & L4_5 disc level causing mild posterior thecal sac indention Disc desiccation in L4_5 & L5_ S1 DISC LEVEL AS LOSS OF HYPERINTENSE SIGNAL ON T2W1 PLEASE HELP I REPLY ME POSITIVELY

Dip. SICOT (Belgium), MNAMS, DNB (Orthopedics), MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Hello Sir, This is Dr Akshay from Fortis Hospital, New Delhi. It appears from your report that you have degenerative spine with multiple levels more at L3/4 level. I need to understand from you - How is your back pain? - Leg Pain? - How much distance can you walk? - Is there any numbness in legs, wekaness in legs etc? Please get back to me with answers and then we can start your treatment accordingly. Thanks & Regards Dr Akshay Email : akshaysaxena2004@yahoo.co.in
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Hello meine last year neck k 2 ct scan bhi krwaye the report normal h aur kisi karan last year bahut depressed bhi thi aur roti rehti thi. Kya in sabse breast cancer ka risk increase hota h kya please provide me accurate answer.

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FBD (Fellowship in Breast Diseases), UICC Fellowship
Oncologist, Pune
No increase in any type of cancer because of stress and ct for a small period. So don't worry. Inspire of that try to reduce your chances by doing morning walk for 30-40 minutes and having a good diet.
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I am bodybuilder I had a disc replacement due to bulge in my disc. Is it possible to continue bodybuilding. Lifting weights etc. Plzz help me.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
lifting weights is not advisable once you have had problems in your spine. there are other discs in the spine that can always create the same problem you had initially.
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Sir I am 25 years old I am suffering L1L2 Disc degeneration I am unable walk speed and left leg jerks please help me.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), DYA (DIPLOMA IN YOG & AYURVED), D.I.H.M (DIPLOMA IN INDUSTRIAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT)
Ayurveda, Nashik
Sir I am 25 years old I am suffering L1L2 Disc degeneration I am unable walk speed and left leg jerks please help me.
1) do massage with warm sesame oil or suitable oil for 15 min. Afterwards take hot fomentation for 10 min. 2) start natural calcium supplement. 3) do regular stretching exercise 4) in yoga do bhujangasan, halasan & suryanamaskar. Life-style correction 1) correct your sitting posture. 2) take small pillow or back rest for lower back. 3) foot should rest to floor easily. 4) take small break after 1 hr & walk few steps. 5) do neck & upper back extension, give feedback after 4 days. Best treated with ayurved & panchakarma procedures. 1) massage + steam 2) pinda swedan 3) agnikarma you must start ayurvedic medicines to 1) strengthen bones & muscles. 2) stop further degeneration of joint. 3) healing of joint. 4) release muscular spasm even chronic. 5) reduce swelling & pain.
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Flattening of thoracic curvature ,to some extent .diminution of disc spaces with small osteophytes formation at the adjacent vertebral margins at T4>T8. No other obvious abnormality IMPRESSION - (Early/min) spondylitis changes -Mid-thoracic spine This is my x ray report please tell me is that a major problem or it can be heal with medicine and exercise and what r the reason for this. Please tell.

BPTH/BPT, MPTH/MPT-Orthopedic Physiotherapy, Post Graduate Diploma In Ergonomics (PGDHSC - Ergonomics)
Physiotherapist, Gurgaon
Flattening of thoracic curvature ,to some extent .diminution of disc spaces with small osteophytes formation at the a...
This happens because foulty sitting posture. You should consult a good physiotherapist nearby and learn some stretching and strengthening exercises. Try to maintain neutral posture while sitting and standing. Avoid continues sitting for more than 30 minutes at a stretch.
1 person found this helpful
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Breast Cancer - In A Nutshell

Post Doctoral Research (Ph.D.) (A.M) (Oncology), Integrative Oncology for Physicians (MSKCC, N.Y, USA), Doctor of Natural Medicine (N.D/ N.M.D), Ayurveda (I) Cert., Advanced Strategic Management (APSM), B.E (Computer Sc. & Engg.), Clinically Relevant Herb-Drug Interactions (CME) - (Cine-Med Inc. USA)
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Bhubaneswar
Breast Cancer - In A Nutshell

Breast cancer begins when cells in the breast(s) start to grow out of control. It is understood as being the most common cancer, seen predominantly in females, globally. It is reasonably treatable and often curable.

1. Type: Adenocarcinomas constitute more than 95% of breast cancers with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) being the most common form of invasive breast cancer.

Frequently occurring breast cancers present as one of the following types mainly

1. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): Is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer and is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. There is no invasion in the basement membrane. Pure DCIS metastasizes rarely. Non comedo cribrioform carcinoma is the most common DCIS found which, when compared to the comedo type, is mostly non-aggressive.

2. Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): Represents majority (about 3/4th) of the breast cancers, and is known to metastasize commonly to bones, lungs and liver.

3. Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS): Develops in multiple lobules of the breast (bilaterally). LCIS is less commonly seen, compared to DCIS.

4. Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): Represent about a tenth of all breast cancers and tends to metastasize to other regions of the body.

Less commonly occurring breast cancers such as

5. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Is relatively uncommon and are caused probably owing to viral infections. The breast is warm, red and swollen.

6. Paget’s disease of the nipple: Is a rare form of breast cancer. It begins in the milk ducts and spreads to the nipple and areola.

7. Medullary Carcinoma

8. Mutinous Carcinoma

9. Tubular Carcinoma

10. Phylloides tumor etc all.

2. Gender: Affects the female populace predominantly. However, a small percentage of breast cancer is attributable to the male populace as well.

3. Etiology: No definite cause is known. However, diet, lifestyle, environment, hormonal/ reproductive factors, personal or family history of breast cancer especially in first degree relatives and also any benign breast disease history etc all are known to increase the risk of breast cancers. Specifically, excessive fatty diet, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, benign breast disease, heredity/ inheritance of mutated breast cancer genes 1 (BRCA1) and 2 (BRCA2), smoking, alcohol intake, infertility, estrogen therapy/ hormone replacement therapy (long term) in post menopausal women, delayed age at first pregnancy, nulliparity (not having child), early menstruation, delayed onset of menopause, lactating mothers not breast feeding, exposure to ionizing radiation, sedentary lifestyle, depression, exposure to MMTV virus etc all can potentially increase the risk for breast cancer.

4. Features: Signs & symptoms, of breast cancer, manifest majorly in the following ways

  1. Lump/ nodule in the breast that gets attached to the skin of the breast over time. The lump / nodule could be hard and painless with irregular edges or it could also be soft, rounded, tender and painful.

  2. Enlarged lymph nodes in the axilla which are palpable.

  3. Swelling of whole or a part of a breast. This is even if there is no distinct lump felt.

  4. Retraction or thickening of the nipple(s).

  5. Pain in the breast or nipple.

  6. Discharge from nipple other than breast milk.

  7. Irritation/ scaliness of skin over the breast.

  8. Redness of nipples

  9. Rarely, red, swollen and tender breast.

5. Screening: Is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations goal of which, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose breast cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly radiologic with mammography/ USG being instrumental in raising suspicions for further diagnostics (i.e. biopsy) that help detect breast cancer, if any, early.

6. Diagnosis: A self-examination/ clinical exam of the breast(s)/ axilla that reveals a palpable mass prompts the following diagnostics. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow up imaging/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.

  1. Blood: ER/ PR/ HER2/neu, uPA, PAI-1, CA15-3, CA27.29 etc all tumor markers are helpful.
  2. Imaging: Mammography/ USG Scan usually, as relevant. Again, CT Scan of abdomen & pelvis and chest, PET CT scan, bone scan etc all help detect metastasis, if any, for cancers in stage III & above.
  3. Biopsy: either excisional, incisional, fine needle aspiration (FNA) or core biopsy technique, as contextually appropriate, is frequently employed and a histopathological examination (HPE) thereof clinches the diagnosis and the nature of the disease.

7. Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy/ chemotherapy as deems appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as would be feasible contextually.

8. Prognosis: Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage breast cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the type, grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. Above-mentioned apart, age, menopause status, lymph node status, ER/ PR/ HER-2/ neu status, size & extent of breast cancer etc all also influence the treatment outlook in breast cancer. The five year survival rate is strongly correlated with the stage of breast cancer.

9. Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an increased focus on protective factors and avoidance of the risk factors can be of help. An adherence to a Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising (for at least 30 minutes daily), de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for reducing the risks of breast cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. It is advisable to limit milk/ dairy, preferably of low fat content, to 1 to 2 servings max daily. Although alcohol is optional and is not for everyone, the consumption of the same, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided. Smoking is to be avoided as well. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly or are best avoided too. Limiting dosage/ duration of hormone therapy, if any, especially to counteract post menopausal symptoms and also avoiding exposure to radiation and environmental pollution can help reduce the risks of breast cancer. Apart from the above-mentioned, for high risk cases, a prophylactic oophorectomy, prophylactic radical mastectomy, long term hormone therapy etc all can help reduce the chances/ risks of developing breast cancer significantly. Breastfeeding is known to confer protection against breast cancer risk too.

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