Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 41 years of experience on Lybrate.com. Find the best Gynaecologists online in Delhi. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Miscarriage refers to a pregnancy that has ended prematurely, within 20 weeks. Research shows that around 10-25% of all clinically recognized pregnancies end in miscarriages. Chemical pregnancies cause 50-75% of all miscarriages. The condition happens when a pregnancy is lost not long after implantation, bringing about bleeding that happens around the time of her normal period. The woman may not understand that she has conceived when she encounters a chemical pregnancy.
The normal period where miscarriages are expected to occur is during the first 13 weeks of pregnancy. While pregnancy can be an overwhelming and exciting experience, it is beneficial that the woman keeps herself informed about the possibilities of miscarriages.
Some types of miscarriage are:
- Threatened Miscarriage
- Inevitable or Incomplete Miscarriage
- Complete Miscarriage
- Missed Miscarriage
- Recurrent Miscarriage
- Blighted Ovum
- Ectopic Pregnancy
- Molar Pregnancy
In case of any of the following signs, the doctor should be consulted immediately,
- Mild to Severe Pain
- White-Pink Mucus
- Weight loss
- True Contractions
- Sudden Decrease in Signs of pregnancy
- Tissue made of clot-like material passing from the vagina
- Bright red or Brown bleeding with or without cramps
- The majority of women will require a transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and 98% of complete miscarriages can be diagnosed in this way.
- If a transvaginal ultrasound scan is unacceptable to the woman, then a transabdominal ultrasound scan should be offered and the woman should be made aware of the limitations of this method of scanning.
- If there is no visible heartbeat then a second scan should be performed. This is either done at a minimum of 7 or 14 days, depending up the measurements of the crown-rump length or the mean gestational sac.
- Be aware that a woman with a pregnancy of unknown location may have an ectopic pregnancy.
- Serum hCG
- Serum hCG tests can help to exclude an ectopic pregnancy in women with a complete miscarriage (or pregnancy of unknown location), determined by ultrasound.
- Serial tests are required but results should complement clinical assessment and not replace it. Two tests are taken as close as possible to 48 hours apart:
- >63% increase suggests ongoing pregnancy.
- >50% decrease suggests pregnancy is unlikely to continue.
- A woman with results between these parameters should be reviewed in the EPAU withing 24 hours.
- Slow doubling times are associated with miscarriage and declining values have high sensitivity of 93-97% in diagnosing a complete miscarriage.
- Rare causes of a raised hCG should also be borne in mind, including gestational trophoblastic disease or cranial germ cell tumour, which must be considered.
One meta-analysis has shown that a single low progesterone measurement for women in early pregnancy, presenting with bleeding or pain and inconclusive ultrasound assessments, can rule out a viable pregnancy. However, a very low serum progesterone can be seen in normal viable pregnancies, so progesterone should not be used as the definitive diagnostic test without other evidence.
- Admission to hospital can be avoided in 40% of women with threatened or actual early pregnancy loss.
- Following a miscarriage, all women should have access to support, follow-up and formal counselling when necessary.
- Anti-D rhesus prophylaxis (250 IU) should be offered to all rhesus-negative women who have a surgical procedure to manage a miscarriage.
- However, anti-D rhesus prophylaxis does not have to be given to those women who:
- Receive solely medical management for an ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage.
- Have a threatened miscarriage.
- Have a complete miscarriage.
- Have a pregnancy of unknown location.
- Women need evidence-based information to guide their decisions, as well as access to support and counselling; leaflets, web addresses and helpline numbers for support organisations should be offered to all women experiencing miscarriage.
- There is no evidence to support a couple delaying attempts to conceive following a miscarriage.
The main purpose of treatment is to prevent haemorrhage and infection. It is common that the body expels all the fetal fluid during the earlier stages of the pregnancy. In case it doesn t, a procedure known as D&C (Dilution & Curettage) is performed to remove the fluid and prevent infection.
Since most miscarriages occur due to chromosomal abnormalities, nothing significant can be done to prevent them.
Tips to be taken to ensure a healthy conception are:
- Regular Exercise
- Stress Management
- Daily consumption of folic acid
- Not smoking. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
All the treatments and principles of ayurveda are based upon one goal; that is to balance the tridosha. So if you look for a healthy living, you need to understand all three doshas.
I have PCOD since 4 years, and I have never taken any medications regarding this. But I get continuous bleeding since past 4 months and I have consulted 4 doctors concerning this, and they say it's due to hormonal imbalance, and I have been into Primolut-N since then. I have to take it continuously for being in normal condition or else my bleeding starts again. There is no permanent solution for this problem? Please doc help me!
Hello I am having burning and pain in lower back and spotting since last few days it is in between periods. Please help me.
Hi. I have 2 children. Girl baby is the 1st one. And 2nd is boy. Am facing very big problem with girl who is 3 years 4 months. She is very very naughty girl. Whenever she is playing with her age group she is beating, biting or holding their necks tightly. So no one is interested with her to play. If am beating then she is saying no I won't do it again but later she is very normal means again beating and so on. If am telling politely then also she is not listening. Here one problem is there. When am pregnant while carrying this girl child at 7th month of pregnancy BPD is 4 weeks lesser than other factors. And they said that the head shape is dolico cephalic. After the baby born paediatrician checked baby and said all is well with baby. But now am worrying about this thing. Because of that is there any change in brain. Why she is not listening to our words. Am sending her to tution from 15 days onwards to relax in home and to have house chores and having so much work with my 3 months boy. But yesterday night tuition teacher came to home and said that please don't send to tution, we are unable to bear her naughty things. One more point, her grasping powers are normal.in all remaining things she is very intelligent. But worrying about her naughty things. Is der any child psychiatrist appointment need or else any brain scans required. Please tell me the solution. She is going to school. Nursery 9 to 12.30 timings.
I am 26 years old. I have already 3 miscarriage. Now I am pregnant. Lmp was 29.7.2017. But MSD 0.49 cm 4 to 5 weeks (19.9.2017) gestation 4-5 week. No yolk sac, but fetal pole & cardiac activity noted. Corpus luteum cyst 1.8x1.6 cm in left overy and seedling fibroid 0.7x0.5 cm in anterior wall close to the lower uterine segment. Hcg level 1140. This is a normal pregnancy or not. Have a getting healthy baby this pregnancy please reply. My baby is normal or not.
My wife is 20 years old. She has a lot of white discharge and itching on skin near her vaginal opening especially during sex. I use condoms while having sex. Please help. Me with this.
Hello Doctor, I am 26 year old and got married last November. We wish for a baby. My vaginal hole is really tight and while trying for intercourse his penis doesn't go in at all and am feeling pain with fingers sometimes. Could you please advise, is there any way I can have a hole/enlarge my vaginal opening.
I've been suffering from pcod since 4 years now and initially I had symptoms like acne and facial hair but now my periods get disturbed. I've been taking homeopathy medicines since 5 months but no results found. Whenever I ask in how much will it take me to recover he says it's just a starting. No one knows may be years. Is it true?
Im 18 years girl I have un wanted hair on my chin and above the upper lip. Please give me solution for my problem. I don't have any other health problems and hormonal problems.
Is doing vaginal sex daily is good or bad for both in doing vaginal sex there is any risk plzz a brief explain doctor.
Hi, I usually have regular menstrual cycles. My last period was on 20th march then I had unprotected sex on 24th match after my period got over. I had to take emergency pills on 24th. Now suddenly I hav bleeding on april 1st. Am bleeding on my mid cycle. What should I do? I was advice to take t. Trapic. Do I need to take it?
Sir ,Is there chance to make pregnancy after taken of I pills twice. I lover taken two times it after sex with .we want children's so please guide which medicines we suppose to use for my lover .please advise me.
I have lumps in my left breast. It has been quite a while since I've had them but I never got it checked. Also, they don't hurt either. In the beginning it was just one lump but not too long ago it has become two. Is this something I need to worry about? If yes, what should I do about it? Whom should I consult? Is it okay to ignore this?
If you are suffering from burning pain or tingling sensation in hands or feet; sharp shooting pain in legs; numbness in hands or feet, then you might be suffering from Neuropathic pain.
What is neuropathic pain?
Neuropathic pain is a special type of pain which occurs when there is damage to nerve fibers,which produces tingling or burning type of pain.It is of two types:
1. Peripheral Neuropathic pain: It occurs when there is injury to peripheral nerve fibers (A-delta or C-fibers)which carries pain sensation to brain (Thalamus) for interpretation.
2. Central Neuropathic pain: It occurs due to sensitization of central pain interpreting mechanisms (Thalamus) to falsely feel pain, when peripheral nerve fibers are no longer sending pain impulses to them.
Worldwide-estimates of prevalence of neuropathic pain are 7% i.e. 7 persons out of 100 people are suffering from different types of neuropathic pain.
a.Tingling sensation or feeling of ants crawling under skin
c. Sharp shooting pain or electric current-like sensation
d. Stabbing pain
e. Dull pain with numbness or heaviness
Reasons for neuropathic pain:
1. Diabetes mellitus: Most common cause worldwide due to uncontrolled blood sugar levels, causing damage to nerve fibers.
2. Alcohol consumption/Cigarette smoking: Damage to nerve fibers or damage to blood vessels supplying nerve fibers.
3. Neck pain/Low Back pain/ Glutei pain
4. Vit. B12 deficiency
5. Chemotherapy for cancer patients
6. Post-Herpes virus infection
7. Post-Spine surgery
9. Diseases like Spinal cord injury,multiple sclerosis, HIV, Lead toxicity, etc.
a. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Tingling, burning sensation in hand which occurs due to compression of median nerve in wrist area. It occurs in women especially due to pregnancy, hypothyroidism,diabetes, etc. and in men due to improper position of wrist during working on computers.
b. Cervical Radiculopathy: Pain in neck and shoulder region (which increases with neck movements), along with sharpshooting pain radiating from neck to hand occurs in cases of cervical radiculopathy. This is due to compression of cervical nerve root by disc prolapse, facet subluxation, muscle spasm, trauma,etc.
c. Lumbar Radiculopathy: Pain in lower back or glutei region with sharp shooting pain radiating from hip to leg/foot region, occurs in cases of Lumbar radiculopathy or Sciatica. This is due to compression of lumbar nerve root or sciatic nerve by disc prolapse, facet joint, trauma, hypertrophied ligamentum flavum, piriformis syndrome, etc.
d. Meralgia paresthetica: Tingling or burning sensation in front of thigh, occurs due to compression of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh, near waist region. Usual causes are tight or constrictive clothing at waist region, prolonged sitting, protuberant abdomen,etc.
Prevention of Neuropathy:
a. AVOID Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking.
b. Maintain ideal body weight / BMI (Body mass index)
c. Life-style changes: Daily exercises (>30 minutes per day) or brisk walking or swimming; Avoid prolonged sitting or standing (>30 minutes).
d. Food/Diet should have following components:
- Green vegetables e.g. spinach, fenugreek leaves (methi), radish,etc.
- Coloured vegetables e.g. Tomato, carrot, Capsicum (green/red), ladies-finger (bhindi).
- Milk products e.g.Milk, buttermilk, curd, cheese (paneer)
- Protein-rich foods e.g. Fish, egg, chicken, pulses(daal)
- Fiber-rich foods e.g. Bran, oats, Brown-rice.
- Fruits e.g. Apple, orange, guava, papaya, pomegranate, Berries.
e. Blood sugar control (in diabetics)
f. Care of feet:
- Regular inspection of feet (with mirror).
- Comfortable,well-fitted shoes.
- Regularconsultation with podiatrist.
- Treatmentof wounds, foot deformities
g. Adequate sleep
h. Warm water bath (increases blood flow to affected area)
- Consult Pain medicine specialist.
- Neuropathic pain killers e.g. Amitriptyllline, Pregabalin, Gabapentin, capsaicin,Duloxetine, etc.
- Vit.B12 supplements, Anti-oxidants, multi-vitamins.