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Dr. Rakesh Sharma

MBBS, MD

Pathologist, Delhi

41 Years Experience  ·  250 at clinic
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Dr. Rakesh Sharma MBBS, MD Pathologist, Delhi
41 Years Experience  ·  250 at clinic
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Personal Statement

Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; a......more
Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; as a health provider being ethical is not just a remembered value, but a strongly observed one.
More about Dr. Rakesh Sharma
Dr. Rakesh Sharma is a popular Pathologist in Shakti Nagar, Delhi. He has had many happy patients in his 41 years of journey as a Pathologist. He studied and completed MBBS, MD . He is currently practising at North Delhi Pathology Clinic in Shakti Nagar, Delhi. Don’t wait in a queue, book an instant appointment online with Dr. Rakesh Sharma on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Pathologists in India. You will find Pathologists with more than 43 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Pathologists online in Delhi and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Specialty
Education
MBBS - GSVM medical college Kanpur, - 1977
MD - GSVM medical college Kanpur, - 1980
Languages spoken
English
Hindi

Location

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North Delhi Pathology Clinic

No. 27/5, Nangia Park, Shakti Nagar. Landmark: ICICI Bank, DelhiDelhi Get Directions
250 at clinic
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Hello Sir, now I have one problem now my body always pain but before no that problem coming only few months what I can do. My age 34 years old male I am working as a pipe fitter very hard working.

BHMS
Homeopath, Faridabad
Hello Sir, now I have one problem now my body always pain but before no that problem coming only few months what I ca...
Hello, this might be because of weakness and overwork. So take alfalfa tonic with ginseng and five phos 6x, 5 tabs twice daily. Take care.
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Last 3-4 days I am not felling well coz little fever in and out. And l also little body pain. Yesterday night I take sumo paracetamol table bt still I am not feeling well. please help me what I do.

MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
Last 3-4 days I am not felling well coz little fever in and out. And l also little body pain.
Yesterday night I take ...
1.Take paracetamol 500mg, one tablet sos upto a maximum of three tablets daily after food 2.Drink plenty of water 3.Take rest 4. If no relief do blood examination like CBC, Widal/ Typhidot test, Blood for mp and Dengue antigen(NS1) test after consulting doctor 5.Consult for further advice
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What is Leprosy - Types, Symptoms, Treatment and more!

MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi

Leprosy:

Leprosy is a chronic contagious disease induced by Mycobacterium leprae bacterium. The disease primarily affects the skin, the exterior nerves, the nasal lining, the upper respiratory tract and the eyes. Leprosy damages the nerves, weakens the muscles and leads to skin sores in the body. It can lead to severe deformities and disabilities if not treated on time. This disease can trigger in early infancy and may even develop in adulthood.

Leprosy is among the primogenital diseases in history. References to this disease have been found from 600 B.C (as per the source from World Health Organization (WHO)).

Leprosy is also known by the name of Hansen’s disease. Leprosy is prevalent in various countries, mostly which have tropical or subtropical temperatures.

Types of Leprosy:

There are three different systems of classification of leprosy. According to the first system, leprosy is of two types: tuberculoid and lepromatous. Here, the immune response of a person to the disease defines what type of leprosy he/she has.

For example, in tuberculoid leprosy, a person exhibits good immune response with only a few skin sores on the body. This type of leprosy is considered mild and less contagious.

However, in lepromatous leprosy, the immune response is low and it causes extensive lesions and nodules on skin and also affects the nerves and other vital organs of the body. This form of leprosy is severe and highly contagious.

WHO classifies leprosy based on the kind and number of affected skin regions. According to them, the first type of leprosy is paucibacillary. In this category, there are five or lesser sores without any bacteria found in the skin sample. In the second type of leprosy, which is called multibacillary, there are greater than five sores with bacteria found in the skin sample.

There is another system called Ridley-Jopling system used by Clinical studies to classify leprosy depending on the type of symptoms. According to this system, there are six types of leprosy:

- intermediate leprosy: is that form of the disease where only some lesions appear that may heal by themselves or turn into a more severe form.

- tuberculoid leprosy: is a category in which few flat sores, some big and numb, with few lesions involving nerves are found; this form of leprosy may heal by itself, continue, or increase to a greater degree of severity.

- borderline tuberculoid leprosy: in this from wounds are like tuberculoid though smaller in size and more in number; with less nerve involvement; this form may continue, change to tuberculoid, or progress to other forms of the disease.

- mid-borderline leprosy: symptoms of this form are swollen lymph glands, rosy lesions with some numbness, which may reduce, continue, or advance to severe forms.

- borderline lepromatous leprosy: numerous lesions, some of which are flat, raised wounds, plaques, and lumps, with numbness; symptoms may continue, retrogress, or progress.

- lepromatous leprosy: in this form, numerous lesions develop with the presence of bacteria; patient has hair loss, nerve impairment, limb numbness, disabilities, and the symptoms do not retreat.

Transmission of Leprosy:

The exact method of spread of leprosy is unknown. However, the common belief is that the disease is transmitted by human contact with an infected person.  Recent studies point out to the respiratory tract as a possible route of transmission. There could be possibilities of the spread of the disease through insects too.

Leprosy is a highly contagious disease that spreads through the mucus of an infected person, usually when he/she sneezes or coughs. The bacterium that transmits the disease multiplies at a very slow rate. The incubation period i.e. the time between transmission and the onset of the first symptoms is like five years. The infected person may have the symptoms for as long as 20 years.

Signs/Symptoms

The cardinal signs of leprosy include:

- weakness in body muscles

- numb feeling in the hands, arms, legs, and feet

- skin abrasions

- thickened nerves causing nerve injuries

- painless ulcers

- eye damage

- hair loss (eyebrows)

- other deformities or disabilities of body organs

The skin sores become less sensitive to touch, pain or temperature variations. They persist till many weeks and become lighter as compared to the normal skin tone.

Diagnosis

Clinical diagnosis is through signs and symptoms like Hypopigmented patches of skin or red patches of skin with sensory loss or nerve damage or both.

Mostly, a skin biopsy or scraping is performed by a specialist. A small part of skin is removed and sent it to a lab for testing.

A lepromin skin test may also be performed to define the type of leprosy. For this, the doctor injects a small dose of leprosy-causing bacterium into the skin, usually in the upper arms. Patients with tuberculoid or borderline tuberculoid leprosy experience irritation with this injection.

There are other tests like CBC (complete blood count), creatinine test, LFT (liver function test), or a nerve biopsy that are conducted to see whether other body organs have been impacted.

Treatment

Leprosy can be cured with a multidrug therapy (MDT). Multidrugs are used because treatment with just a single antileprosy drug also called monotherapy can lead to a person becoming resistant to that drug. Treatment of Leprosy can last for six months or up to a year. The kind of drugs combined to develop the MDT is largely dependent on the category or form the disease has taken. Rifampicin is the key antileprosy drug used in the treatment of both the kinds of leprosy. For patients with multibacillary leprosy, it is recommended to use a combination of rifampicin, clofazimine and dapsone (as per WHO rules); for those with paucibacillary leprosy, a mix of rifampicin and dapsone is used to make the MDT.

Doctors even prescribe more than one antibiotic at a time. They may also give you an anti-inflammatory medicine such as aspirin, prednisone, or orthalidomide. Thalidomide is not recommended in pregnancy cases as it can lead to various birth defects.

Multidrug therapy (MDT) was first brought to notice by WHO in 1984. Soon it became the standard remedy for treating leprosy and WHO started supplying it free of cost to all countries prone to the disease. 

Complications

Leprosy is a disease that grows very slowly and the symptoms may appear for 20 years. If detected in the early phase, there are minor complications. But if treatment is delayed or the disease is diagnosed late, the complications can become severe. Some of the major complications witnesses are:

- loss of sensation in extremities

- nervous impairment 

- weakened muscles

- continued disfigurement (such as loss of eyebrows, disfigurement of the toes, fingers, and nose)

Risk Factors

People living in endemic areas are at a higher risk of contracting the disease. The disease is widespread in various parts of India, Nepal, Japan, Egypt, China and other areas across the world.

Those people who are in regular contact with infected persons for a sustained period of time have greater chances of getting the infection.

Some studies even provided evidence of the fact that genetic defects like region q25 on chromosome 6 may lead some people to have more possibilities of contracting the disease. Moreover, certain animals are known to carry the bacteria (such as sooty mangabey, armadillos, African chimpanzee, and cynomolgus macaque). People in contact with these animals are also at risk of being transmitted with the bacteria causing leprosy.

Myths

Myth #1: Leprosy does not exist anymore

Every two minutes, a person is diagnosed with leprosy. There are millions with the disease that are left undiagnosed every year. About two million people across the world have been already disabled by leprosy. The social stigma linked to the disease keeps people away from getting the right treatment, thus leading to life-term deformities in their body organs. Therefore, it is very important to do away with this prejudice associated if we want to end leprosy forever.

Myth #2: Leprosy cannot be cured

Leprosy is 100% curable through a multi-drug treatment, which involves a combination of two or more drugs.  Once treatment is started in an infected person, chances of spread of the infection become very less or is completely ruled out.

Myth #3: Leprosy may lead to loss of fingers, toes, and limbs

Leprosy does not lead to loss of body organs. However, it can cause deformities or disabilities in the body organs due to nerve damage, especially in the areas like face, hands and feet. The nerve damage leads to sensory loss in these areas and sometimes, motor function or movement of limbs is compromised. A person may not be able to blink, move their hands and fingers or get hold of objects.  

Small lesions may lead to ulcers and infection. This causes shortening of digits not falling off or completes loss.  With severe forms of leprosy, walking and moving abilities may also be crippled. When facial nerves are affected, it might lead to eye damage or blindness.

Myth #4: Leprosy affects the elder population

Since leprosy has a long incubation period, symptoms appear very late in life causing people to think so. Whereas the fact is that leprosy has no relation to age and recent cases that have come to light consist of 10% children.

Myth #5: Leprosy is the consequence of sins of past life or immoral character

This is just a superstition. Leprosy is caused by bacterium Myobacterium leprae.

Myth #6: A person infected with leprosy should be isolated

Not really. A person undergoing treatment will not transmit the disease as the bacterium is killed with antibiotic drugs and the infection is no longer contagious. Thus, the infected person under treatment does not need to be isolated from the rest.

Important Facts of Leprosy:

- Leprosy is a contagious disease that develops slowly and damages the skin and the nerves.

- Leprosy is caused by bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.

- Early signs appear in skin extremities with loss of sensation.

- Symptoms of leprosy are painless ulcers, skin sores, muscle weakness, and eye damage.

- In later stages, ulcers grow large, fingers and toes are clawed, and facial disfigurement is seen.

- The infection is transmitted via human mucus or nasal droplets.

- Leprosy is rarely spread through animals like chimpanzees, armadillos, mangabey monkeys.

- Some genetic abnormalities may also lead to leprosy in a person.

- Antibiotics and Multi-drug Therapy are used to treat leprosy.

FAQS

1. Leprosy is an old disease, does it still exist?

Ans: Yes – about 200,000 plus new people are diagnosed with leprosy every year across the world. And there are 3 million people living with permanent disabilities due to leprosy.

2. Does leprosy cause claw hand and can it be treated?

Ans: Yes, leprosy may cause claw hands or toes. Since leprosy first damages the small nerves in the skin's extremities, it spreads to other areas with large nerves like in the knee, elbow, wrist, and ankle when anti-leprotic drugs are not given on time. This further leads sensory loss in the hands and feet. Muscles are paralyzed, causing clawed hands and toes.

It can be treated by reconstructive surgery that corrects the deformities in the hands and feet. Motor function can be restored through a muscle transfer technique. Physiotherapy also helps to strengthen the muscles.

3. Do fingers and toes disassociate from the body due to leprosy?

Ans: No. Due to nerve damage, there is sensory loss in a person’s areas like hands and feet. Many a times, people injure themselves due to loos of sensation in their body parts leading to loss or shrinkage of tissues. Bones of fingers and toes become shortened, thus making them appear lost or removed.

4. How does leprosy spread?

Ans: Leprosy is mainly spread through contact with the nasal mucus of an infected person, either while sneezing or coughing. A person with close and persistent contact with an infected person who is not being treated with MDT can acquire the disease. 

5. Is leprosy highly infectious?

Ans: Around 95% of the world population is naturally immune to the disease. The chances and rate of infection is very less due to the same fact.

6. What if a pregnant women catches leprosy?

Ans: It has been observed that women with leprosy deliver normal babies and the disease is not found to be transmitted from the mother to the baby. Pregnant mothers with leprosy are given MDT thereby nulling any chances of transferring the disease to their babies.

I have no sleep in seven days. And I feel so tired and my head and my full body are paining so badly what I do.

BAMS
Ayurveda, Bangalore
I have no sleep in seven days. And I feel so tired and my head and my full body are paining so badly what I do.
Hi, Please follow these tips: Don't get too worried and anxious. Relax well. Avoid drinking coffee or tea after 7 PM, Take hot water bath before going to bed. Have light food and drink a glass of warm milk at night. Listen to soothing music or read some magazines while you are on bed. Keep your mobile in silent mode at night. Do not work on your laptop on the bed or watch TV till late night. Sleep in a dark and silent room.
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My mother has trouble walking, but she refuses to get a walker or cane. I worry about her. How can I convince her to get some sort of walking aid?

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Bangalore
My mother has trouble walking, but she refuses to get a walker or cane. I worry about her. How can I convince her to ...
Dear lybrate user, * ask your family doctor to convince her. He will the best person to make her understand the advantages of using a walking aid. Once she knows the benefits, she will go for it. * make her talk to some one who is of her age and already uses the walker/cane. * tell stories of people falling and how they became housebound, but could have prevented a fall by using a walker/cane. * do not force her. Let her take her own time, but keep on convincing her in a more positive way. Regards!
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I have a problem of fever. And also my body is paining continuously. Also feel sickness during whole day.

BHMS
Homeopath, Faridabad
I have a problem of fever. And also my body is paining continuously. Also feel sickness during whole day.
Hello, Take Schwabe’s Alpha-CF and Biocombination-11, both after every 2 hourly for 4 days. Management: -Sponging or bathing with tepid water. The use of a fan or air conditioning may somewhat reduce the temperature and increase comfort. If the temperature reaches the extremely high level of hyperpyrexia, aggressive cooling is required. -Take rest and drink plenty of fluids. -Take light, bland, properly cooked home-made healthy food only.
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I have weakness always. L have very less haemoglobin. Severe body pain always. What should I do to fine and healthy?

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Ahmednagar
I have weakness always. L have very less haemoglobin. Severe body pain always. What should I do to fine and healthy?
Hello lybrate user your weekness and other compalints are result of low haemoglobin level. Just start some haematinic tablet or syp daily. Also eat beet, palak, methi and khajur fruits. It help to increase hb level and as your hb become normal other complaint will reduce gradually.
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Mujhe sardi, khasi, sir dard, badan dard, aankho me itching, gale me kharash hai aur jhukaam bhi he.

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
Mujhe sardi, khasi, sir dard, badan dard, aankho me itching, gale me kharash hai aur jhukaam bhi he.
For relief take over the counter medicines i.e. take tab. Sinarest sos after meal. Gargle with warm water, Use nasal spray otrivin for sneezing or running nose. drink warm water, juice,green veg., veg. Soups, lquid diets, dalia, protein diets, tulsi leaf in tea or warm water, geloy juice, A avoid cold area, dust area, cold things .i.e. ice creams, take bed rest , feel high cold then cover body with warm cloths, avoid dust area, clean body, change cloths daily, change bed sheet daily, Cold sponging in high fever . If symptoms occurs again go for tests..cbc, blood c/s. X-ray PNS, X-ray chest. After tests give me all details I give you best advise. Get well soon .
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I met an accident and after check up found out that I am having a hairline fracture on my right feet. I am facing severe pain and swelling. What should I do now? Please help.

MBBS, MD - Anaesthesiology, FIPM, Fellowship in palliative medicine, certificate in interventional pain management, Multidisciplinary pain management course
Pain Management Specialist, Pune
I met an accident and after check up found out that I am having a hairline fracture on my right feet. I am facing sev...
1. Avoid weight bearing on fracture limb. 2. Take over the counter available anti inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen round the clock for decreasing pain and swelling. 3. Keep limb elevated while sleeping, by keeping it on a pillow. 4. Consult your local orthopaedician for detailed evaluation and management.
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