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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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I am 30 years old. I have 15 months old baby. Hez on my feed too. Since last month there is a change in my monthly cycle. Last month it got a day before n now its 3 days before d due date. Is it normal? I was eating eggs regularly since a week.
My daughter is now 2 Years old, but her weight is 9.5kg. Is it normal? And now she does not want to eat food properly. So in this moment what I have to do?
My cousin is 7 years old. She keeps on scratching her urinary area in a cloth only at night till sleeping (for past 2-3 years). Why is the child doing like that? What is the reason? Does she have any infection? We have used dettole but still no use.
Birthmarks in Infants
A baby's skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby's age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health. Some of these differences are just temporary. Others, such as certain birthmarks, may be permanent.
What are birthmarks?
Birthmarks are areas of discolored and/or raised skin that are present at birth or within a few weeks of birth. Birthmarks are made up of abnormal pigment cells or blood vessels.
Although the cause of birthmarks is not known, most of them are harmless and do not require treatment. Babies with birthmarks should be examined by your child's health care provider, especially if they are:
- Located in the middle of the back, along the spine (may be related to spinal cord problems)
- Large birthmarks on the face, head or neck
- Interfering with movement of activity, for example a birthmark on the eyelid that may interfere with vision
Some common birthmarks include:
- Stork bites
- Angel kisses
- Salmon patches
These are small pink or red patches often found on a baby's eyelids, between the eyes, upper lip, and back of the neck. The "stork bite" name comes from the marks on the back of the neck where, as the myth goes, a stork may have picked up the baby. They are caused by a concentration of immature blood vessels and may be the most visible when the baby is crying. Most of these fade and disappear completely.
Congenital dermal melanocytosis (also known as Mongolian spots)
Congenital dermal melanocytosis refers to areas of blue or purple-colored, typically on the baby's lower back and buttocks. These can occur in darker-skinned babies of all races. The spots are caused by a concentration of pigmented cells. They usually disappear in the first 4 years of life.
This is a bright or dark red, raised or swollen, bumpy area that looks like a strawberry. Hemangiomas are formed by a concentration of tiny, immature blood vessels. Most of these occur on the head. They may not appear at birth, but often develop in the first 2 months. Strawberry hemangiomas are more common in premature babies and in girls. These birthmarks often grow in size for several months, and then gradually begin to fade. They may bleed or get infected in rare cases. Nearly all strawberry hemangiomas completely disappear by 9 years of age.
A port-wine stain is a flat, pink, red, or purple colored birthmark. These are caused by a concentration of dilated tiny blood vessels called capillaries. They usually occur on the head or neck. They may be small, or they may cover large areas of the body. Port-wine stains do not change color when gently pressed and do not disappear over time. They may become darker and thicker when the child is older or as an adult. Port-wine stains on the face may be associated with more serious problems. Skin-colored cosmetics may be used to cover small port-wine stains. The most effective way of treating port-wine stains is with a special type of laser. This is done when the baby is older by a plastic surgery specialist.
These common moles (less than 3 inches in diameter) occur in about 1 out of every 100 newborns. They increase in size as the child grows, but usually don't cause any problems. Your child's health care provider will watch them closely as rarely they can develop into a cancerous mole.
My son who is 5 years gets lot of burps and has gas. Occasionally complaints of stomach pain. Any home remedy please.
Coughing is one of the most common health problems. When there is a blockage or irritant in your throat or upper air passages, your brain thinks a foreign element is present and tells your body to cough to remove that element. Coughing can also be due to a viral infection, common cold, flu, and smoking or health problems such as asthma, tuberculosis, and lung cancer.
Some of the symptoms of a cough are itchy throat, chest pain, and congestion. Instead of using over-the-counter cough syrups, you can try some natural cough treatments using readily available ingredients in your kitchen.
My son gets frequent cold and cough, running nose? He is 2 years 9 months. What medicine do you prescribe? We don't give him cold water, or cold drinks/ice cream etc. Please advise.
Pls advice names of probiotic probiotic with zinc sachets which can be given to 2.5 years old toddler to control quick food transit.
Baby is 28 months old, now he is gasping a lot, breaths too fast and not eating and not active, if we wake him up then he resists to have medicines or eating, he watches Tv but not active, doctor gave him nebulizer morning and afternoon, still he is breathing so fast and he is very tired to do anything.
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.
My daughter is passing stool multiple times a day for last couple of weeks. She passes the same without realising in under garment. This happens specifically after eating something. She is active and takes normal diet. I have consulted pediatricians, homeopaths, Ayurved etc with no success. I had given her Norfloxacin+metrogyl for 5 days but that helps only till effect of medicine lasts. Stool test was normal. Please help.
My son is 9 months old past 6 months his head is becoming heat then and then what may be the reason?
The treatment will depend on how severely the tooth was damaged.
Breaks can range from small chips to major fractures, so you might need a major procedure, a minor adjustment or no treatment at all.
A tooth has three layers: the enamel is the hard outer shell, the dentin is found under the enamel, and the pulp, which is the nerve centre, is at the core.
Minor chips are common, and involve loss of some enamel. Usually, little or no pain is felt,
But if enough tooth enamel is lost the dentin may be exposed which might cause sensitivity to cold.
The most severe breaks expose the pulp, which can cause extreme pain and even bleeding.
If you have a small chip in your tooth, make a routine dental appointment, and try an over the counter pain medicine for sensitivity as long as it is safe for you to take it.
More serious fractures should be evaluated immediately. Rinse your mouth out with warm water, cover the break with a piece of clean gauze to protect it, and see the dentist as soon as possible. Apply an ice pack to minimize swelling if your mouth or lips were injured, and avoid using aspirin for pain because as it increases the risk of heavy bleeding.
Even if your tooth is only slightly chipped, the dentist is probably going to take an x-ray of the damaged tooth and recommend being gentle with it for a few days.
A minor chip can often be smoothed out or repaired with white filling material, often without anesthetic.
Even when a break is severe, a tooth can almost always be saved with a permanent crown if the pulp is not damaged.
Postponing a crown or replaced filling that has been recommended can place the tooth at risk for a much more serious fracture- perhaps one that cannot be repaired. On those occasions when a tooth must be removed after a fracture, there are several options available for replacing the missing tooth – an implant is often the ideal choice for many people because it provides a permanent solution with a natural appearance.
Hi mere 4 years daughter k near potty area chote chote massa h jo nhi incr ho rahe h n hi decr, skin specialist ko dekhiya wo bol rahe h surgery karene parege pls help it is neccassary or not.
Hi Doc, I'm writing for my 6 months son. He has intermittent dry cough and cold for past 2 weeks. Residing in Middle East. Was on medication ascoril & T manic. Still he hasn't recovered completely. Nebulization with normal saline was given. Please suggest a remedy.
Choosing a career is a serious concern for students soon after completing 10th standard when one is required to make a choice of subjects for 11th grade. While still very young, many of us hardly know what is good for us and which field is best. For most of us, choosing a career is not a serious affair until 12th grade. However, once a student is done with 12th, he rethinks - “Did I make the right choice of subjects in class XIth?” I had always wanted to go in this field after school, but nobody guided me about subjects required for it in class XIth and XIIth. So, after completing school one feels very sad and frustrated that interest lay in A–field but wasted 2 school years doing B-Field, a totally different course of study.
Therefore, when selecting subjects in XIth, it is very necessary to have a career goal in place keeping the market in mind. In addition to this, selecting the right education institution in XIth is equally important. Eg. “I am interested in Fine Arts but my school offers only Science and Commerce.” So, the child takes one of these only and loses track of what he wants, sowing the seeds for future distress in the field thrust upon him. Unfortunately, not many students are able to discover their potentials and interests at this stage and end up making wrong choices.
In this scenario, seeking the help of an experienced and qualified career counselor becomes absolutely necessary who can assist in discovering your potential and aptitude and accordingly suggest the right course. Career counselor usually employs testing of three factors – aptitude, interest and personality. These aspects help the counselors in deciding the right career path for a student. With an increase in the number of opportunities in the market, the importance of career counseling has also increased manifold. People have begun to realize the fact that not all can become engineers or doctors and started exploring other fields depending on their talent and interest in alternate domains.
Sound guidance will depend on the qualifications, training and experience of the professional. It is always a good idea to first know about the professional expertise of the counsellor/psychologist on whom you depend for making a life-long career choice. Generally speaking, school counsellors are post-graduates with about 9 months diploma in counselling and guidance with a focus on school children. They may or may not have done M.Phil, or Ph.D to qualify as a doctor. Similarly, anybody with just a graduation degree in Psychology can self-proclaim as a Counsellor/Psychologist and offer guidance and counselling, charging much less a fees. For any professional you choose, the higher the educational qualifications, more the number of practical trainings from reputed institutes, and the greater the professional experience, more dependable will be the advice given by them.
Vocational guidance for students and adults is one of the best ways to choose the right career path. With a plethora of career choices out there, sound career counselling plays a pivotal role in ensuring that right career choices are made. This is rewarding, considering that an individual can choose the right career path as per the strengths and talents he possesses. Right counselling not only helps the person to grow in the job quickly but gives ample room to learn in his desired field.
Here is a list of some major benefits of vocational guidance and career counselling:
- Right assessment of weakness and strength: Career counselling is typically conducted by expert professionals with years of experience behind their back. They assess a candidate based on various aptitude tests. The test results rightly portray the strength and weaknesses of a candidate. This information plays a key role in determining the right career choice for a candidate. A person can ensure that he refrain from choosing a wrong career that leads to frustration and low work satisfaction.
- Right goal setting leads to better choice: A counsellor can help a candidate choose the right goal and help him to outline the process of achieving it. Furthermore, an experienced counsellor can help a candidate lay down a plan to reach the goal. A step by step blueprint of reaching the goal in a realistic manner helps a candidate to achieve his dream career faster. With right goal setting, a person can attend career success over a very short period of time.
- Explore various career choices: There are vast career choices that a person can explore that are available within the scope of a person’s expertise. A career counsellor can throw light on these choices and help a person focus on the right option. This ensures that a person saves a lot of time and energy while figuring out the best possible career choice that is out there. This is particularly true in cases where a person is trying to make a mid-career switch.
- The right guidance and support: An experienced career counsellor can guide a candidate to get hold of the right set of skills and expertise that may be required to achieve a particular career. This ensures that a candidate is adequately prepared before the big opportunity knocks on the door. Right guidance not only cut down the preparation time, it increases the chances of success as well.
- Search Support: While the job search is on, a good counsellor can help a candidate prepare in terms of resume preparation, cover letter, video introduction etc. They can also help a candidate with the right kind of networking to land that dream job.
To conclude, the crux of career counselling is to get the necessary guidance from a qualified professional that would help the student/adult in making the right choice regarding his career. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Psychologist.