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HIV is a systemic disease which affects all parts of the body. The oral cavity also has some tell-tale symptoms which indicate HIV / AIDS. A careful examination and detailed history of symptoms is essential. In some cases, the oral manifestations could be the area where HIV is suspected. This can help in reducing morbidity and improves prognosis. The oral lesions that occur in HIV patients can vary and differ significantly in children and adults. While there are a variety of oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals, listed below are some common infections seen in HIV patients. These are a combination of fungal, viral and bacterial infections.
- Candidiasis: Candida is an opportunistic fungus that is normally present in the oral cavity and with reduced immunity of HIV, recurrent bouts of the infection begins to show up. It can be in the form of regular thrush which is whitish and cannot be scraped off (pseudomembranous candidiasis), hyperplastic candidiasis (white patches which can be scraped off) or erythematous (reddish patches). Candida can involve any part of the oral mucosa including the pharynx and the palate.
- Herpes Simplex: This is the most common viral infection seen in patients with HIV/AIDS. There could be primary or secondary infection of herpes virus, especially inside the mouth and the vermillion border of the lips.
- Herpes zoster: This virus, when already present in the body, can be reactivated with HIV/AIDS and with oral herpes. The distinction with herpes simplex is from their distribution. These are unilateral, along the distribution of the maxillary or mandibular nerve. The lesions appear both on the facial skin and the oral mucosa. While the facial ones break open and form crusts, the mucosal ones coalesce to form larger lesions.
- Hairy Leukoplakia: This is present in about 20% of asymptomatic HIV patients. Onset of hairy leukoplakia is an indication of rapid progression of HIV with increased CD4 counts. The typical lesion is a non-movable, hairy lesion along the side of the tongue and can spread to the top and the undersurface of the tongue. There are large amounts of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) identified from biopsies of hairy leukoplakia.
- Cytomegalovirus: If the ulcers have a necrotic base with a halo surrounding it, it is CMV infection, usually seen on any oral mucosal surface.
- Periodontal disease: This is one of the bacterial infections that manifests itself in HIV patients. It can take two forms such as Linear Gingival Erythema (LGE) which can subsequently lead to Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis (NUP). The oral hygiene is generally good with minimal plaque and there is rapid bone loss and soft tissue reddening and swelling. The, mouth, therefore is certainly a window to one’s health.
Diagnosing HIV with Western Blot Test-
It is a series of blood screenings are performed to test for HIV. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also known as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), is the first test that your healthcare provider will order to screen for HIV. ELISA, like the Western blot test, detects HIV antibodies in your blood. Antibodies are proteins your immune system produces in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses. If you test positive for HIV on the ELISA test, your provider will order the Western blot test to confirm HIV infection. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Eat hard foods such as popcorn, nuts with care so as they may damage your teeth. Make an appointment with your if you have a cracked tooth.
I am 24 years old. When I do brush. My teeth blooding, my brush colour in blood, and apple also, what I should to do?
I have often troubling with mouth ulcer in my mouth. It is roughly coming about 5to 8 different spots in different areas in mouth. Give me a solution for this issue.
My mouth is not opening properly due to chewing gutka & pan masala. Kindly suggest what medication to be done to get my mouth opening to its original shape & size.
I have teeth browning and look ugly. All my upper tooth were capped.In the lower side except 4 in the front all were capped. But now in the capped teeth there is pain in both sides and difficult to chew even light food. I as using a tooth paste O32. But also could not help much. Because almost all teeth were capped I am worried to do chemical cleaning. I even worry to clean hard the front teeth because there is a vertical extra structure is added to the teeth. The other thing is the foul smell in the mouth. Whenever I take some meat particles will go inside teeth and even though I take it out immediately it smells foul. Also if I skip food in the morning and eventhough very perfectly I clean teeth my mouth has very foul smellcan I deal the issues and to keep my mouth healthy.
I have a problem with my teeth its seeking when I drinking of any alcohol like water, pepsi anything please give me a solution.
I didn't have 1 moral because of cavities I removed from doctor in earlier age 15 and one have lot of cavities what I do which teeth feeling is best dental implant is good?
I am troubling with ulcers inside of my mouth it's comes in every month for four to five days please any suggestions.
They say a smile is your best accessory and to maintain your smile, regular dental checkups are essential. However, your smile isn’t the only reason to visit a dentist. The condition of your teeth is also a window into your overall health.
Here are 5 reasons you must visit your dentist at least twice a year
Regular Cleaning: Regular brushing and flossing aren’t enough to clean your teeth thoroughly. Plaque and bacteria can build up between teeth and in other hard to reach areas. Only a dentist will be able to clean these areas. This is also because over time, plaque hardens and becomes difficult to remove. If left alone, this could also lead to the development of cavities and other oral problems.
Prevent Tooth Loss: The later a cavity is treated, the lower the tooth’s chances for survival. Regular dental checkups can ensure that cavities that identified in their early stages for easier treatment. Early identification of gum infections and periodontal disease at regular dental checkups can also help prevent tooth loss.
Oral Cancer Screening: The earlier oral cancer is detected, the earlier it can be treated and stopped from spreading further. Early detection can lower the chance of this cancer spreading by 90%. The symptoms of oral cancer include persistent sores, change in texture of part of the mouth or tongue, pain or numbness and white or velvety re patch on any part of the mouth.
See Hidden Dental Problems: It is only in the later stages of a cavity that we experience a toothache. Regular dental visits can identify these cavities much earlier. An X-ray that is part of your dental check up can also help identify hidden problems like impacted wisdom teeth or a shift in your teeth due to an overbite or jaw problem.
Unhealthy Teeth, Unhealthy Oral Cavity: Unhealthy teeth can also be a sign of other diseases and conditions such as heart problems, diabetes, endocarditis and osteoporosis. Dental checkups are also essential for pregnant women as gum disease has been linked to premature birth and low birth weight. A visit to the dentist can also help treat sleep apnea.
In addition to the above, visits the dentist regularly also helps from developing any kind of diseases. This is because identifying and treating oral problems in their early stages prevents complications like root canals and tooth extractions that can be quite expensive. So, stop making excuses and schedule your dental checkups today.
I have mouth ulcer problems. Due to which I am unable to eat any food and it gives me tremendous amount of pain. So kindly suggests any solutions for me.
rotate in both directions and pulsate are the most effective.
They are particularly useful for people with limited movement, such as disabled or elderly people, who often find that using a manual toothbrush does not allow them to clean thoroughly.