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Breast Cancer is cancer that develops in the cells of the breasts. In the United States, breast cancer happens to be the second most common cancer diagnosed in women. General signs and symptoms of breast cancer include, a lump in the breast, noticeable change in breast shape, liquid oozing out from the nipple, there might be a newly inverted nipple or a red patch of skin. Before going into the treatment and most importantly see how can this be prevented from affecting women, we will look closely into the causes, which lead to breast cancer.
Prevention of breast cancer
Doctors do not guarantee that breast cancer can be prevented. Still, women can be cautious and through reviewing the risk factors, that lead to development of cancerous cells or increase the chances of them getting affected, can go a long way in minimizing the risk.
Some of the preventive measures are:
- Keeping a good body weight is a must. Being overweight increases the risk of breast cancer.
- Risk of breast cancer can be reduced through medicines like tamoxifen and raloxifene. Both these medicines block the effects of estrogen on breast tissue.
- Aromase inhibitors, as medications, can be used to prevent the production of small amounts of estrogen, which are usually produced in women during post menopause period.
- Group of patients, who have a very high risk of breast cancer, removal of breasts through surgery is an options which doctors consider to prevent this from happening.
- Having healthy diet is a must. Taking more of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts is desirable if you want to keep yourself away from this dreaded disease.
Also known as slipped disc, herniated disc or sciatica. The discs are the shock absorbers of your spine. When they are injured the inner soft part of the disc can protrude out through a tear in the outer lining of the disc. This disc material can press on the nerves in the spinal column, injuring them through direct pressure and causing inflammation.
The most common age to develop a disc prolapse is between the ages of 30-50 years., twice as many men as women are affected. Prolpased discs occur mainly in the low back (lumbar) spine. Less than I in 20 cases of back pain are due to a disc prolapse, most are due to mechanical back pain. (see section back pain).
A slipped disc is characterised by sudden, severe back pain that is often made worse by movement and which can usually be eased by lying down flat.
Nerve root pain (sciatica) can also occur because a nerve is trapped or irritated by a prolapsed disc. Although the problem is in the back, patients experience pain along the course of the nerve, for example, down a leg to the calf or foot.
With a prolapsed disc, the sciatic nerve is most commonly affected. The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that is made up from several smaller nerves that come out from the spinal cord in the lower back and travels down each leg. The irritation or pressure on the nerve may also cause pins and needles, numbness or weakness in part of a buttock, leg or foot.
In rare cases, cauda equina syndrome can occur. This is a disorder where the nerves at the very bottom of the spinal cord are trapped. It can cause low back pain as well as problems with bowel and bladder function and weakness in one or both legs. These symptoms need urgent medical treatment to prevent permanent damage to the nerves that supply the bladder and bowel.
A large number of people can have a prolapsed disc without any symptoms if it doesn’t trap or irritate the nerve.
A doctor will normally be able to diagnose a prolapsed disc from the symptoms and by examining the patient.
In most cases, no tests are needed, as the symptoms often settle within a few weeks.
Tests such as x-rays or scans may be advised if symptoms persist. In particular, an MRI scan can show the site and size of a prolapsed disc. This information is needed if surgery is being considered
I have disc herniation of 7.8 mm. It has been 6 months but getting no relief. Doctors say it need surgery. Will the surgery for this be safe?
I have diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS, in right breast (in biopsy report, triple negative (ER-negative, PR-NEGATIVE, HER 2-NEGATIVE). The tumor measures 4 cm* 3 cm mammographically. After giving 3 no. Of chemo My doctor suggest me for modified radical mastectomy. Please tell me if I go for complete breast removal & subsequent chemotherapy Radiotherapy is must or optional?
Dilation and curettage procedure which is commonly referred to as D&C is a minor surgical procedure where the cervix is dilated while a special instrument is used for scraping out the lining of the uterus. It is important to know what you can expect before, after and during the process so that you can stay ahead of unnecessary worries and help the process to be smooth and fruitful.
When do doctors recommend dilation and curettage process?
You may be required to undergo the dilation and curettage procedure for one of many reasons. It can be used for removal of tissues in the uterus during or after an abortion or miscarriage or to remove little pieces of placenta after delivery. This process aids in preventing infection as well as heavy bleeding. On the other hand, it can help in diagnosing and treating abnormal uterine bleeding including polyps, fibroids, hormonal imbalances and even uterine cancer. A sample of the tissues in the uterus is tested under a microscope to check if there is any abnormal cell present.
What can you expect during the dilation and curettage process?
The D&C procedure is a minor one and takes about 15 minutes even though you will have to spend about 4 to 5 hours in the healthcare facility. Before the procedure, your doctor would check complete history, and at this point, you should tell your doctor if you suspect that you are pregnant, you are sensitive to latex or any medicines or if you have a history of bleeding disorders. You will then be given anesthesia so that you don’t feel any pain or discomfort during the procedure. Before this procedure, you will have to empty your bladder.
The D&C procedure comprises two main steps, dilation, and curettage.
Dilation involves opening of the lower part of the uterus or the cervix for allowing insertion of a slender rod. This is done to soften the cervix so that it opens and allows curettage to be performed. Curettage involves scraping of the lining and removal of the uterine contents with the help of a spoon-like instrument known as a curette. This may cause some amount of cramping, and a tissue sample would be taken out for examination in the laboratory.
After the completion of the procedure, you may experience slight bleeding and cramping. In some rare cases, adhesions or scar tissues may start forming inside the uterus, and this condition is termed as Asherman’s syndrome which can cause changes in the menstrual cycle along with infertility. This problem, if arises, can be solved with the help of surgery and therefore, you should report any abnormality in your menstrual cycle to your doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.
Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:
- Abnormal blood vessels
- Blood clots in the brain
- When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
- Due to nerve damage
- Parkinson's disease
- Any kind of pressure after an injury
- Skull fractures
- In case of stroke and tumors
A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.
Types of brain surgeries:
- Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
- Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
- Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
- Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:
- Allergic reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clot formations
- Swelling of the brain
- A state of coma
- Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
- Problems in memory
- Strokes and seizures
- Infections in the brain
A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
With the modernization of all economies around the world, one health hazard that has become one of the largest perils within both developed and developing nations is the incidence of cancers of the female reproductive system, especially cervical and breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the formation of malignant tumors within the breast tissues of a woman. Usually, breast cancer affects women in the age range of 40 to 50, but there have been many reports of it occurring earlier. About 48 % percent of the Indian women having breast cancer have been reported to be under 50. This is an almost 17 percent jump compared to figures 25 years earlier.
Alarming Signs of Breast Cancer:
- The most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded.
- Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
- Skin irritation or dimpling
- Breast or nipple pain
- Nipple retraction (turning inward)
- Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
- Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
Screening Guidelines for Breast cancer:
- Mammography: US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography once in every 2 year for females between age group 50-75 years. Women with a family history has a benefit of starting at age 40 years. After 75 years there are insufficient evidence of benefit of screening mammography.
- Breast Self Examination and annual Clinical examination: breast self examination is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist.
- For High Risk/ Genetic risk factors: screening should start by age 25 or 10 years earlier of youngest relative affected. Annual mammogram and MRI or Doppler ultrasound alternating at 6 month interval can be considered.
Some of the common treatment options for breast cancers are:
- Breast conservation surgery - This is where the tumors are removed without cutting out too much of the surrounding breast tissue.
- Mastectomy - If the cancer has spread too far then large amounts of breast tissue has to be removed along with the tumor to stop its spread any further.
- Sentinel lymph node Biopsy - it's part of both surgical procedures, it decreases morbidities of lymph node dissection first draining lymph nodes only are removed in patients with clinically negative axilla. If negative on frozen section further axillary dissection is avoided. It avoids the morbidity of complete axillary clearance.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Renal cancer is also known as hypernephroma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma. The kidneys are organs in your body that dispose off waste, while additionally regulating fluid balance. There are small tubes in the kidneys called tubules. These filter the blood, help in discharging waste, and make urine. RCC happens when cancer cells start to grow out of control in the lining of the tubules of the kidney. Renal cancer is a progressive disease that spreads to the lungs and the organs around it.
Medical experts do not know the exact cause behind renal cancer. It is most commonly found in men between the ages of 50 and 70. There are some risk factors and signs that indicate one’s possibility of having renal cancer and these are as follows
- Family history of renal cancer
- Dialysis treatment
- Hypertension or high blood pressure
- Smoking cigarettes
- Polycystic kidney disease (a condition that causes cyst formation in the kidneys)
At a point when renal cancer is in its initial stages, patients might not see any symptoms. The symptoms are mainly seen in the later stages. Some of the most common symptoms are as follows:
- Blood in urine: Blood in urine is called hematuria. As indicated by the Renal Cancer Association, hematuria is the most widely recognized indication of kidney cancer. In case you have blood in your urine, you may see pink, rust or even a red staining.
- Lower back pain: The vast majority does not encounter pain until cancer is in later stages. Pain from renal cancer is felt on one side of the flank, the region over the pelvis, and beneath the ribs in the abdomen. This pain can go from a dull yearn to a sharp wound, frequently leaving the area blue. In case you have any sudden pain that continues for more than a couple of days, you need to see a specialist.
- A mass or lump: A mass or protuberance in the abdomen can be an indication of renal cancer. Kidney knots might be hard to feel since they are somewhere down in the abdomen. Once a bump is found, your specialist may arrange symptomatic tests such as an ultrasound or a CT scan. These tests may diagnose what your knot might be.
- Iron deficiency and fatigue: Weakness and a fall in your iron levels are the most common symptoms of any type of cancer. Cancer exhaustion is not quite the same as simply feeling tired.
- Weight reduction, loss of appetite and fever: Another normal side effect of cancer is sudden and startling weight reduction. This happens quickly without any excessive workouts or dieting. A person diagnosed with cancer can also face a loss of appetite. In fact, even their most loved food items can get to be unappealing. Frequent fever is yet another common symptoms among most cancer patients.
In case your specialist suspects that you may have renal cancer, they will take some information about your and family’s medical history. They will then do a physical exam. Discoveries that can show renal cancer include swelling or irregularities in the stomach area. In case of men, augmented veins in the scrotal sac (varicocele) may be found. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Breast cancer prevention begins from the adoption of healthy habits, which include limiting the consumption of alcohol, performing regular exercises and so on. When you are worried about breast cancer, you may be wondering what steps you could take for its prevention. The good news is that little changes in lifestyle can aid in reducing the risk factors, even when you have a family history of breast cancer, which cannot be altered.
Steps to minimize the risk of breast cancer
Lifestyle alterations have been proven to reduce the chances of breast cancer even in women with high risk. You can take the following steps for the prevention of breast cancer.
- Limit the consumption of alcohol: The more alcohol you drink, the higher is the risk of developing breast cancer. The general recommendation is therefore, limiting it to even less than 1 serving per day as even the smallest quantity can contribute to increasing the risk of breast cancer.
- Stop smoking right away: There is an evident link between smoking and the risk of having breast cancer, especially for premenopausal women. Plus, staying away from smoking is one of the best things you could do for maintaining your overall health.
- Try to maintain a healthy weight: When you are overweight or obese, it can invariably increase your risk of having breast cancer in the near future. This is of immense significance, if you suddenly gain weight after menopause.
- Take part in regular exercising: Physical activity can help you to have a healthy weight, which in turn aids in preventing the chances of breast cancer. The Department of Health and Human Sciences advises each and every individual to take part in 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise in a week or 75 minutes of moderate activity coupled with 30 minutes of strength training exercise at least twice a week.
- Breastfeeding can protect you: The longer you breastfeed, the greater is your protection against breast cancer.
- Avoid excess exposure to radiation as well as pollution: Though it is not in your hands, but you should try to limit your exposure to environmental pollution. Medical imaging procedures, like computerized tomography scan, make use of high-intensity radiation. There are numerous researches that show that there is an evident link between breast cancer and radiation exposure.
Follow these few tips to reduce your risk of developing breast cancer and lead a healthy life. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!