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Chronic hyperglycemia is captured by A1c but not by FPG (even when repeated twice).
Microangiopathic complications (retinopathy) are associated with A1c as strongly as with FPG.
A1c is better related to cardiovascular disease than FPG.
Fasting is not needed for A1c assessment.
No acute perturbations (e.G, stress, diet, exercise, smoking) affect A1c.
A1c has a greater preanalytical stability than blood glucose.
A1c has an analytical variability not inferior to blood glucose.
Standardization of A1c assay is not inferior to blood glucose assay.
Biological variability of A1C is lower than FPG and 2-h OGTT PG.
Individual susceptibility to protein glycation might be caught by A1c.
A1c can be used concomitantly for diagnosing and initiating diabetes monitoring
Natural history of T2DM in Asia
Diabetes is a global epidemic which is out of control, but worse in Asian countries.
It is a huge and growing problem and costs to the society are high and escalating.
Five countries from Asia figure in the top 10 and account for most cases of diabetes globally.
Asian countries share similar risk factors.
There is an association between economic growth and diabetes.
Rapid urbanization and modernization obesogenic environment i.E. Physical inactivity, psychosocial stress and abundance of food
Asians are prone to developing diabetes at a lower level of obesity.
Diabetes has the potential to negatively impact economy and may bankrupt healthcare systems.
Cost effective interventions in healthy living and diet decrease the burden of diabetes and save on healthcare costs and lost productivity.
There has been a dramatic rise in the number of diabetic population in Korea: economic growth, greater exposure to risk factors (lifestyle and diet), demographic changes (childhood obesity, aging population).
Hypertriglyceridemia: The most difficult lipid disorder to evaluate and treat
Hypertriglyceridemia is the most difficult lipid disorder to evaluate and treat. Hypertriglyceridemic disorder in adults is not a single gene. We do not know if TGs by themselves are an atherogenic risk or is it because of the company they keep.
The intra-individual biological variability (diurnal and monthly) of lipids make it more difficult to define hypertriglyceridemia.
TGs are inversely associated with HDL-C, if high HDL-C levels, almost always TGs are low.
Dietary treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia: <5%, no alcohol, discontinue all TG-lowering drugs, monitor TG q 3 days until levels are below 1000, then restart treatment.
Fibrates do not reduce the CHD events in high risk patient groups. What impact hypertriglyceridemia has on CHD outcomes is not yet clear.
Lower fasting TG to less than 500 mg/dL; this will reduce the risk of pancreatitis.
Follow the current guideline recommendations to lower LDL-C.
The real value of Apo-B is in patients who do not have raised LDL-C (<100 mg/dL). In such patients it can be very informative and should be taken as an indicator of CVD risk.
Plasma apoB and the other cholesterol indexes are complementary rather than competitive indexes of atherosclerotic risk (Am J Cardiol. 2003 May 15;91(10):1173).
Baseline TGs are determinants of the response to bezafibrate (BIP trial).
Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in reducing CV risk (JELIS; Lancet 2007), especially in patients with high TG and low HDL-C (Atherosclerosis. 2008).
If fasting TG is >200 mg/dL and HDL-C <35 mg/dL, consider a fibrate or omega-3 fatty acid.
I am suffering from pain on the right side of my head. The pain was triggered after being exposed to a very loud surrounding for hours and it persists. Its dull pain and I suffer from bloating all the time.
Hello doctor help me I have high fever its almost kill me, please doctor help me and what should I do?
Sir, I have constipation and I want to know what is the balance diet to make my digestive system healthy?
What is Psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a common skin disease characterized by thickened patches of inflamed, red skin covered with thick, silvery scales. The elbows and knees are the most common areas affected by psoriasis. It will often appear in the same place on both sides of the body. The patches can range in size from smaller than a dime to larger than a hand.
Description of Psoriasis-
Normally, skin cells mature and shed after about a month. In psoriasis, the cell maturation speeds up, taking only three to four days. Because the lower layer of skin cells divide more rapidly than normal, dead cells accumulate in thicker patches on the skin's outermost layer called the 'Epidermis'.
Forms & Classifications-
Psoriasis occurs in a variety of forms that differ in their intensity, duration, location, shape and pattern of scales. The most common forms are:
- Plaque Psoriasis: Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis. It is characterized by raised, inflamed, red lesions covered with a silvery-white buildup of dead skin cells (scales). This is found primarily on the Body, elbows, knees, scalp and finger or toe nails.
- Guttate Psoriasis: Guttate psoriasis occurs most frequently in children and is characterized by numerous small, red, drop-like scaly macules that develop rapidly over a wide area of skin. This may appear following an infection, most frequently strep throat.
- Inverse Psoriasis: Inverse psoriasis occurs in the armpit, under the breast, in skin folds, around the groin, in the cleft between the buttocks and around the genitals. It is usually pink and irritated but lacks the thick scale seen in other forms of psoriasis.
- Pustular Psoriasis: Pustular psoriasis is a rare form characterized by small pustules (whitehead-like lesions) found all over the body or confined all over the body or confined to the palms, soles and other isolated areas of the body.?
- Palmoplantar Psoriasis: This type of Psoriasis are most likely to show up on the palms and soles. It can also appear on the tops of your feet, backs of your hands, and on knuckles and nails. It may be triggered by an injury to the skin, an infection, or another skin condition such as hand dermatitis. It may first occur during a period of psychosocial stress. Lesions are like cuts which bleed.
?Psoriasis - Homeopathic Treatment
The patient should be encouraged to expose maximum to sunlight and avoid trauma during the active phase.
Homeopathic treatment of psoriasis – Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach.
This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the signs and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat psoriasis but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned; several well-proved remedies are available for psoriasis treatment that can be selected on the basis of cause, location, sensation, modalities and extension of psoriasis. For individualized remedy selection and treatment, the patient should consult a qualified homeopathic doctor in person.