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Dr. Purnima Jain - Gynaecologist, Delhi

Dr. Purnima Jain

90 (15 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology

Gynaecologist, Delhi

21 Years Experience  ·  500 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
Dr. Purnima Jain 90% (15 ratings) MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology Gynaecologist, Delhi
21 Years Experience  ·  500 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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Videos (2)

Types and Causes of Infertility

Hello friends, myself Dr Purnima Jain, I am practising obstetrics and gynaecology for last 15 years. Today in this video we are going to discuss about infertility its causes and the basic investigation which are required to investigate an infertile couple. First of all, what is infertility? In India whenever two person decides to continue as a life partner then the whole family starts expecting that after some time the new family member will be added to our family. But in about 15% of patients, this dream is never fulfilled, this is called infertility and technically if we want to define infertility, infertility is when a couple is unable to conceive even after one year of regular and unprotected intercourse. Infertility can be of 2 types primary infertility and secondary infertility, primary infertility is when a couple has never complete irrespective of the duration of their pregnancy and secondary infertility is when a couple has a prior history of conception, whatever the outcome may be but after that there they are unable to conceive this is called secondary infertility. So what can be the causes of infertility in a couple, infertility is not a problem of only female or male it can be a problem of both so causes of infertility can be due to a female cause or male cause due to both. In about 30 to 35% cases it can be due to female factors in about 35% it can be due to male factors and in another 10 to 15% it can be due to problem in both male and female and in 10 to 15% there can be no reason, that is a and explaining infertility. Among causes of infertility in females it can be due to broadly they can be divided into three categories one there is a failure of ovulation or tubal blockage or failure of implantation. Failure of ovulation can be due to some hormonal imbalance or improper development of gonads and tubal blockage, the tubal blockage can be due to some infection like a pelvic inflammatory disease, genital tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. Thirdly, the failure of implantation, failure of implantation can be due to the thin endometrium and some blockage in the endometrium cavity due to a fibroid, polyp, asherman syndrome due to which the zygote is not able to implant in the endometrium. So these are the main three categories of female infertility, about male infertility again male infertility can be due to hypogonadism which leads to failure of production of sperm and it can be due to some genetic factors or due to maldevelopment of gonads or it can be due to hormonal imbalance or decrease hormones. Secondly, it can be due to obstruction in the outflow of sperm that is epididymis, vas deferens etc. If you want to investigate a couple about what can be the cause of infertility in this couple, then there are some basic investigation and some invasive investigation. Basic investigations can be some blood test like haemoglobin, blood group hormonal profile, serum TSH, serum follicular stimulating hormones, serum utilising hormone, serum prolactin and serum AMH and some viral markers like HIV, hepatitis B, anti-HCV and investigation for syphilis and then there are some tests for whether there is ovulation occurring or not, for it we are doing an ultrasound for follicular monitoring first or second day and then for eight and ninth day of cycle on alternate day to see whether the follicle is being developed or not. Then there can be investigations to see whether there is any tubal blockage or not for which there are three investigations available, first is HSG or Hysterosalpingography, in which a dye injected by a cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes and then an X-ray is done to see that whether the tubes are patent or not and second is saline sonography in which a saline is injected by a cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes and then ultrasound is done to see whether the tubes are patent or not. But if it is not clear by that, we can do laparoscopy which is an operative procedure and sometimes hysteroscopy is also done. For male infertility, we have to do a basic investigation which is Semen analysis, in which we see counts, morphology and motility of the sperms and if it is normal then it is ok but if it is abnormal then we have to further investigate. So these are the basic investigations which are required to investigate the infertile couple. Thank You.

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Hello viewers, I am Dr Purnima Jain. I am practising Obstetrics and Gynaecology from last 17 year...

Hello viewers, I am Dr Purnima Jain. I am practising Obstetrics and Gynaecology from last 17 years. In this video, I am going to talk about Pregnancy Care and the different investigations required during pregnancy.

Pregnancy is the most happiest period of a women's life but at the same time, women goes through various emotional conflicts during this epriod. So, she is happy about her pregnancy but at the same time, she is worried about the various ailments which affect during pregnancy. Also, she is scared about various investigations and scans which are being done repeatedly. So, she should be explained and informed and explained about various things which are required during pregnancy.

I am tyelling you the things which are commonly practised by all the gynaecologist. There may be different view of different doctors but the goal of all is same, that is, to have a healthy abby and a healthy mother at the end of pregnancy. And to achieve this, I think that the patient should be well informed because a well informed patient will enjoy her pregnancy and after the period is over, she will have a better outcome.

How to calculate the expected date of delivery?

The first question which patient asks is when will be the delivery date. So, we should know that how to calculate the expected date of delivery. Usually the duration of pregnancy is about 40 weeks or 280 days and it is calculated from the last day of periods. It is a simple method of calculation is, from last menstrual period + 9 months + 1 week gives the expected date of delivery. Suppose your Last month od periods was 10th.oct, 2016 then the expected date of delivery will be 17th.july, 2017.

Secondly, we divide pregnancy into 3 trimesters.

1st Trimester is from 1- 12 weeks.

2nd Trimester is from 12-28 weeks.

3rd Trimester is from 29-40 weeks.

The division of these three trimesters is necessary because problems during different period are different and care during different period are different.

In 1st Trimester, as soon as you diagnose your pregnancy, one should visit a gynaecologist and get registered with the gynaecologist because at this time, we need to get certain investigations done and patients usually have some problems like vomiting and most frequent problem during 1st trimester is problem of abortion. The routine investigation which are done during 1st trimester are Haemoglobin, serum TSH level, blood group, HIV, Hepatitis B surface antigens, BDRL, blood sugar levels, routine urine test, microscopic examination, IGM levels and if required HPMC level.

Ultrasound scan is usually done on 6th week for the confirmation of pregnancy, viability and in the later time for dating of pregnancy.

2nd trimester is usually healthier period. Patient usually suffer least problems. But during the 2nd trimester, at 16th week, we give first tetanus toxoid injections. And on 18th week, we do anomaly scan and triple or quad test. On 20th week, 2nd dose of tetanus toxoid is given. On 24th week, we do blood sugar test fastinga nd after meals. On 22nd week, if required a Fetal echo is done. If required means, if there is a malformation history of previous child or if the mother is suffering from hypertension, heart failure etc. Duering 2ns trimester, irona nd calcium supplementations are usually started and diet counselling is done.

During 3rd trimester, on 28th week, a color doppler test is done to see fetal growth and well being. On 32nd week, routine check up is done. And on 36th week, a repeat ultrasound for fetal representation is done.

After 36th week, a patient should visit gynaecologist every week to avoid complications.

For further information, please contact me through Lybrate.

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Personal Statement

My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them....more
My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them.
More about Dr. Purnima Jain
Dr. Purnima Jain is an experienced Gynaecologist in Shalimar Bagh, Delhi. You can visit her at Samyak Hospital in Shalimar Bagh, Delhi. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. Purnima Jain on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 42 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Delhi and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

Info

Education
MBBS - Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Ajmer - 1997
MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology - Pt. B D Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak (Haryana) - 2000
Languages spoken
English
Hindi
Professional Memberships
Indian Medical Association (IMA)
Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI)

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Samyak Hospital

BM - 7, East Shalimar BaghDelhi Get Directions
  4.4  (30 ratings)
500 at clinic
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Medlife Hospital

Main Road Burari, Near Sarvodya Gils SchoolDelhi Get Directions
  4.5  (15 ratings)
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7 Old-Fashioned PMS Cures!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
7 Old-Fashioned PMS Cures!

Technology and science have advanced to a great level and there are now several cures for so many diseases and illnesses. However, when it comes to curing menstrual or premenstrual cramps, there are certain old-fashioned cures that have proven to be the most effective.

These are as follows:

  1. Apply a castor oil pack: To make a castor oil pack, soak three layers of cotton wool or a cloth in castor oil till the material is totally wet, but not trickling. Put it over your lower belly and cover it with plastic and place a container with boiling hot water or a warm cushion on top. Relax with your pack for 30 to 45 minutes.
  2. Chasteberry: A herb that can treat PMS is Chasteberry (otherwise known as Chaste-Tree Berry or Vitex). The herb works by directing the pituitary gland, which adjusts the levels of the hormones produced by the ovaries: estrogen and progesterone.
  3. Have an orgasm: An orgasm can mitigate strain in the pelvic muscles and help in relaxing the muscles.
  4. Stick cold cabbage in your bra: Cabbage has calming properties. It functions as a mitigation agent and helps the delicate breasts. Chilled cabbage leaves can also treat and bring down stomach pain when placed on the stomach.
  5. Relax and detoxify: When you have cramps, try to relax. De-stressing and detoxifying are the most ignored systems for relieving excruciating pain. However, they are the easiest and most efficient of all solutions. Going for a walk or listening to music can also help.
  6. Brew and drink some herbal teaHome-brewed teas and edibles have been a go-to solution for hundreds of years. Herbal tea, as its name proposes, has for quite some time been a solid treatment for issues as its oils help in resolving muscle fits or cramps. Red raspberry leaf is a sweet tasting and an exceedingly effective spasm cure when taken as a tea. You can make your own tea from the dried leaves; there are many other tea options possible.
  7. Make a homegrown tincture to limit the bleedingWomen with troublesome periods, particularly those who have issues like fibroids, blisters, endometriosis, and different conditions that can influence bleeding, may want to regulate their stream. You can take a mitigating herb and mix it in a very little amount of alcohol to keep the blood flow warm and avoid clots.


In case the bleeding goes on for more than seven days, or in case you bleed more than you are supposed to in one day, the bleeding could be an indication that something is not exactly right. Take care of your body and see a specialist if your period is reliably strange.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3458 people found this helpful

Acne In Pregnancy - How To Deal With It?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Acne In Pregnancy - How To Deal With It?

Many women experience acne during pregnancy. It is most common during the first and second trimester. During pregnancy our body produces an increased amount of hormones called androgens which can cause the glands to grow and produce more oil. This oil leads to bacteria, inflammation, and breakouts. This is natural, and nothing to worry about from a health perspective. There is often no way to prevent acne during pregnancy as it is not possible to control the hormonal changes that lead to the problem. However, you can take following precautions to check its outbreak:

  1. Use a mild, soap-free face wash or cleanser to clean your face daily. You should cleanse your face not more than twice a day.
  2. Pat your skin dry after each wash as rubbing with towels or washcloths can irritate the facial skin, leading to the problem.
  3. Use oil-free moisturizers, face wash and makeup.
  4. Use an oil-free sunscreen lotion whenever going out during daytime.
  5. Wear full-sleeve clothes to avoid exposing your skin to direct sunlight.
  6. Wash your hair regularly especially if you have oily hair.
  7. Maintain proper hygiene. Wash and clean your towels, pillowcases and hats regularly.
  8. Drinking lots of water to flush to keep the skin hydrated.
  9. Have a balanced diet containing plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables which are rich in vitamins A, E and B complex and fibre.
  10. Avoid oily, greasy foods and fast foods.
  11. Have adequate sleep and practice some relaxation techniques to avoid fatigue and stress.
  12. Stop touching your face that often as bacteria from your fingers can pass on to your face.
  13. Buy makeup products after utmost diligence.
  14. You should also take zinc supplements to prevent acne.

If you still get acne despite following the above mentioned tips, then you should take appropriate medicine as prescribed by the dermatologist. Medicines like Clindamycin e.g. Cleocin T, Clindagel, Azelaic acid (Finacea, Azelex) and Erythromycin are considered safe during pregnancy. You can also apply the medicine only as recommended as most products are intended for daily or twice-daily use only. Also try some home remedies like apply a mixture of honey and ground oatmeal to your face and rinsing off gently. Massage gently with a plain carrier oil such as argan oil or olive oil. You can also consider applying aloe vera gel to cure acne. These treatments will not be as effective as taking medicines though.

However, avoid hormone therapy including anti-androgens like spironolactone, flutamide and estrogen as these can lead to major developmental changes to the foetus. Oral tetracycyclines and topical retinoids should also be avoided. Accutane also leads to increased risk of miscarriage, hence do not even consider it.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3773 people found this helpful

Why Should You Visit A Gynaecologist?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Why Should You Visit  A Gynaecologist?

A gynecologist is a doctor who deals with the health and well-being of the female reproductive system as a whole. These doctors usually deal with problems relating to all the organs of the reproductive system and issues faced while having a baby.

The most common reasons to visit a gynecologist are enlisted below.

  • Menstrual irregularities - The menstrual health of any person is directly related to the overall health of that person. Ideally speaking, your menstrual cycle should have a regular and constant pattern. The common signs of having menstrual irregularities are periods lasting for more than 7 days, abrupt delay in the occurrence of periods, having extremely heavy or light bleeding during periods, missing a period, and such other issues.
  • Breast problemsThe breast problems which you might face at any point of time in your life may also be connected to having abnormal menstrual conditions. The common abnormalities seen by women in their breasts include breast discomfort during periods, abnormal breast changes, breast discharges, lump formations in breasts, and such others.
  • Lower abdominal pain - Lower abdominal pain refers to any sensations of irritation and discomfort in the area above the pelvic region. The most common examples of this type of pain are menstrual cramps in the abdomen, lumps in the abdomen and abdominal pain during sexual intercourse. So if you see visible signs of discomfort and pain, then you should go to a gynecologist at the earliest opportunity.
  • Pre-pregnancy counseling - A gynecologist is the most appropriate person you need to visit before you plan to have a baby. The doctor mostly recommends a complete health checkup so that you have a smooth pregnancy without any complications.
  • General well-being - Gynecologists also take care of your overall vaginal health. It is very essential to have a healthy vagina for women, to ensure that it may not cause further health complications. Additionally, you may also visit gynecologists if you have breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer or if you are experiencing symptoms of menopause.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3509 people found this helpful

Dilation And Curettage (D&C) - Know About The Procedure!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Dilation And Curettage (D&C) - Know About The Procedure!

Dilation and curettage procedure which is commonly referred to as D&C is a minor surgical procedure where the cervix is dilated while a special instrument is used for scraping out the lining of the uterus. It is important to know what you can expect before, after and during the process so that you can stay ahead of unnecessary worries and help the process to be smooth and fruitful.

When do doctors recommend dilation and curettage process?
You may be required to undergo the dilation and curettage procedure for one of many reasons. It can be used for removal of tissues in the uterus during or after an abortion or miscarriage or to remove little pieces of placenta after delivery. This process aids in preventing infection as well as heavy bleeding. On the other hand, it can help in diagnosing and treating abnormal uterine bleeding including polyps, fibroids, hormonal imbalances and even uterine cancer. A sample of the tissues in the uterus is tested under a microscope to check if there is any abnormal cell present.

What can you expect during the dilation and curettage process?
The D&C procedure is a minor one and takes about 15 minutes even though you will have to spend about 4 to 5 hours in the healthcare facility. Before the procedure, your doctor would check complete history, and at this point, you should tell your doctor if you suspect that you are pregnant, you are sensitive to latex or any medicines or if you have a history of bleeding disorders. You will then be given anesthesia so that you don’t feel any pain or discomfort during the procedure. Before this procedure, you will have to empty your bladder.

The D&C procedure comprises two main steps, dilation, and curettage.
Dilation involves opening of the lower part of the uterus or the cervix for allowing insertion of a slender rod. This is done to soften the cervix so that it opens and allows curettage to be performed. Curettage involves scraping of the lining and removal of the uterine contents with the help of a spoon-like instrument known as a curette. This may cause some amount of cramping, and a tissue sample would be taken out for examination in the laboratory.

After the completion of the procedure, you may experience slight bleeding and cramping. In some rare cases, adhesions or scar tissues may start forming inside the uterus, and this condition is termed as Asherman’s syndrome which can cause changes in the menstrual cycle along with infertility. This problem, if arises, can be solved with the help of surgery and therefore, you should report any abnormality in your menstrual cycle to your doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3377 people found this helpful

Know More About Infertility

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Play video

Hello friends, myself Dr Purnima Jain, I am practising obstetrics and gynaecology for last 15 years. Today in this video we are going to discuss about infertility its causes and the basic investigation which are required to investigate an infertile couple. First of all, what is infertility? In India whenever two person decides to continue as a life partner then the whole family starts expecting that after some time the new family member will be added to our family. But in about 15% of patients, this dream is never fulfilled, this is called infertility and technically if we want to define infertility, infertility is when a couple is unable to conceive even after one year of regular and unprotected intercourse. Infertility can be of 2 types primary infertility and secondary infertility, primary infertility is when a couple has never complete irrespective of the duration of their pregnancy and secondary infertility is when a couple has a prior history of conception, whatever the outcome may be but after that there they are unable to conceive this is called secondary infertility. So what can be the causes of infertility in a couple, infertility is not a problem of only female or male it can be a problem of both so causes of infertility can be due to a female cause or male cause due to both. In about 30 to 35% cases it can be due to female factors in about 35% it can be due to male factors and in another 10 to 15% it can be due to problem in both male and female and in 10 to 15% there can be no reason, that is a and explaining infertility. Among causes of infertility in females it can be due to broadly they can be divided into three categories one there is a failure of ovulation or tubal blockage or failure of implantation. Failure of ovulation can be due to some hormonal imbalance or improper development of gonads and tubal blockage, the tubal blockage can be due to some infection like a pelvic inflammatory disease, genital tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. Thirdly, the failure of implantation, failure of implantation can be due to the thin endometrium and some blockage in the endometrium cavity due to a fibroid, polyp, asherman syndrome due to which the zygote is not able to implant in the endometrium. So these are the main three categories of female infertility, about male infertility again male infertility can be due to hypogonadism which leads to failure of production of sperm and it can be due to some genetic factors or due to maldevelopment of gonads or it can be due to hormonal imbalance or decrease hormones. Secondly, it can be due to obstruction in the outflow of sperm that is epididymis, vas deferens etc. If you want to investigate a couple about what can be the cause of infertility in this couple, then there are some basic investigation and some invasive investigation. Basic investigations can be some blood test like haemoglobin, blood group hormonal profile, serum TSH, serum follicular stimulating hormones, serum utilising hormone, serum prolactin and serum AMH and some viral markers like HIV, hepatitis B, anti-HCV and investigation for syphilis and then there are some tests for whether there is ovulation occurring or not, for it we are doing an ultrasound for follicular monitoring first or second day and then for eight and ninth day of cycle on alternate day to see whether the follicle is being developed or not. Then there can be investigations to see whether there is any tubal blockage or not for which there are three investigations available, first is HSG or Hysterosalpingography, in which a dye injected by a cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes and then an X-ray is done to see that whether the tubes are patent or not and second is saline sonography in which a saline is injected by a cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes and then ultrasound is done to see whether the tubes are patent or not. But if it is not clear by that, we can do laparoscopy which is an operative procedure and sometimes hysteroscopy is also done. For male infertility, we have to do a basic investigation which is Semen analysis, in which we see counts, morphology and motility of the sperms and if it is normal then it is ok but if it is abnormal then we have to further investigate. So these are the basic investigations which are required to investigate the infertile couple. Thank You.

2694 people found this helpful

5 Causes Of Missed Periods!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
5 Causes Of Missed Periods!

It's anything, but difficult to make a hasty judgment when you understand your period is late. In case you're attempting to conceive, you may have this feeling of incredulity. In case you're not, you may feel frustrated or disarrayed in the event that you know it is highly unlikely you could be pregnant. The truth of the matter is, however, the vast majority naturally consider pregnancy, at the time of a late period, it may be the case that or one of numerous different conceivable outcomes.

Here's a summary of the common causes behind a missed period:

  1. Preganancy: Sometimes when you miss your period, the cause maybe exactly what you think you could be pregnant! The initial symptoms of pregnancy such as bloating of the stomach, cramping of stomach, and tenderness in breasts can resemble the feeling that you get before your periods; may create confusion whether you are actually pregnant or if your periods are a little delayed. If your periods are delayed for over 10 days, then it is better to take a home pregnancy test.
  2. StressStress can have several effects on your body such as headaches, acne, weight gain and other issues. Stress can also make you miss your periods. When you are stressed, your body synthesizes stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. These elevated levels force your brain to differentiate between essential and non-essential functions of the body. The blood supply to the muscles of the body can increase while systems such as the digestive system or the reproductive system can be subdued. This results in delayed period.
  3. Excessive exercise: Working out and maintaining fitness is a great thing to do; although when you overdo it, it restricts your body from producing enough oestrogen, the hormone that helps in completing your menstrual cycle. Thus professionals such as ballet dancers, athletes and gymnasts face a higher chance of suffering through amenorrhea (missing periods) for 3-4 months. Also if you work out too much without consuming enough calories, it can cause disruptions.
  4. Illness: When your body is battling a disease such as common cold or even fever, your brain starts concentrating on the functions that are important for the body. This can contribute to missing your period.
  5. Weight: If you lose excessive amount of weight without maintaining a good diet, you can deprive your body from producing oestrogen that helps build up the uterine lining. The same thing happens with eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia. On the contrary, if you are obese, it can result in over production of oestrogen that can stop your ovulation in totality. This may lead to heavy, irregular periodsConsult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
4981 people found this helpful

Pregnancy Care

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Play video

Hello viewers, I am Dr Purnima Jain. I am practising Obstetrics and Gynaecology from last 17 years. In this video, I am going to talk about Pregnancy Care and the different investigations required during pregnancy.

Pregnancy is the most happiest period of a women's life but at the same time, women goes through various emotional conflicts during this epriod. So, she is happy about her pregnancy but at the same time, she is worried about the various ailments which affect during pregnancy. Also, she is scared about various investigations and scans which are being done repeatedly. So, she should be explained and informed and explained about various things which are required during pregnancy.

I am tyelling you the things which are commonly practised by all the gynaecologist. There may be different view of different doctors but the goal of all is same, that is, to have a healthy abby and a healthy mother at the end of pregnancy. And to achieve this, I think that the patient should be well informed because a well informed patient will enjoy her pregnancy and after the period is over, she will have a better outcome.

How to calculate the expected date of delivery?

The first question which patient asks is when will be the delivery date. So, we should know that how to calculate the expected date of delivery. Usually the duration of pregnancy is about 40 weeks or 280 days and it is calculated from the last day of periods. It is a simple method of calculation is, from last menstrual period + 9 months + 1 week gives the expected date of delivery. Suppose your Last month od periods was 10th.oct, 2016 then the expected date of delivery will be 17th.july, 2017.

Secondly, we divide pregnancy into 3 trimesters.

1st Trimester is from 1- 12 weeks.

2nd Trimester is from 12-28 weeks.

3rd Trimester is from 29-40 weeks.

The division of these three trimesters is necessary because problems during different period are different and care during different period are different.

In 1st Trimester, as soon as you diagnose your pregnancy, one should visit a gynaecologist and get registered with the gynaecologist because at this time, we need to get certain investigations done and patients usually have some problems like vomiting and most frequent problem during 1st trimester is problem of abortion. The routine investigation which are done during 1st trimester are Haemoglobin, serum TSH level, blood group, HIV, Hepatitis B surface antigens, BDRL, blood sugar levels, routine urine test, microscopic examination, IGM levels and if required HPMC level.

Ultrasound scan is usually done on 6th week for the confirmation of pregnancy, viability and in the later time for dating of pregnancy.

2nd trimester is usually healthier period. Patient usually suffer least problems. But during the 2nd trimester, at 16th week, we give first tetanus toxoid injections. And on 18th week, we do anomaly scan and triple or quad test. On 20th week, 2nd dose of tetanus toxoid is given. On 24th week, we do blood sugar test fastinga nd after meals. On 22nd week, if required a Fetal echo is done. If required means, if there is a malformation history of previous child or if the mother is suffering from hypertension, heart failure etc. Duering 2ns trimester, irona nd calcium supplementations are usually started and diet counselling is done.

During 3rd trimester, on 28th week, a color doppler test is done to see fetal growth and well being. On 32nd week, routine check up is done. And on 36th week, a repeat ultrasound for fetal representation is done.

After 36th week, a patient should visit gynaecologist every week to avoid complications.

For further information, please contact me through Lybrate.

2973 people found this helpful

3 Ways To Treat Recurrent Pregnancy Loss!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
3 Ways To Treat Recurrent Pregnancy Loss!

Recurrent pregnancy loss refers to the situation when three consecutive pregnancy loss takes place. A pregnancy loss is a clinically defined pregnancy which ends before twenty weeks.

Causes of recurrent pregnancy loss

  1. Major cases of pregnancy loss occur due to genetic abnormalities and chromosomal abnormalities. The abnormality may occur from the sperm, egg or the early developed embryo.
  2. Recurrent pregnancy loss may occur in a woman due to ascending maternal age. This happens because of poor quality of the egg, which further leads to chromosomal abnormalities. In some cases, the pregnant mother or the father can have some gene irregularities. In such cases, the would-be-born infant is affected, and this causes pregnancy loss or miscarriage.
  3. Uterus abnormalities also lead to recurrent pregnancy loss. This may happen because of poor supply of blood to the uterus. Abnormalities in the uterus are in-born in some women and in others these may develop over time.
  4. Women having a poor immune system are likely to suffer pregnancy loss. Abnormalities in hormone secretion like thyroid or diabetes may also cause pregnancy loss in women.
  5. If a woman suffers from abnormalities in blood clotting, the chances of miscarriage are enhanced.

Testing for recurrent pregnancy loss
Several tests and examinations should be carried out for detection of pregnancy loss. 

  1. Karyotype analysis of the woman and her male partner has to be conducted. Karyotype refers to the genetic or chromosomal constituents of an individual and this test is carried out to detect abnormalities in genes and chromosomes of the parents, which cause miscarriage when passed on to the developing infant.
  2. Another test includes the evaluation of the uterus and the uterine cavity. This is done by ultrasound, saline ultrasound, MRI, hysterosalpingogram X –ray or by hysteroscopy. These tests help to get information on the uterus shape, about fibroid presence, detect abnormalities within the uterus and observe the opening and closing of the tubes. Tests to detect the functioning of hormones are also carried out.

Treatment
The treatment for women with recurrent pregnancy loss depends upon the underlying causes of the pregnancy loss.

  1. In case of patients with karyotypic abnormalities, genetic counselling is recommended, where a specialist is consulted to know about chromosomal abnormalities.
  2. Prenatal genetic studies are carried out by some couples to know about the offspring’s genetic make-up. This is done with chorionic villus sampling or with amniocentesis. A process known as in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be carried out.
  3. In case of uterine abnormalities, a surgery may be performed and medications for reducing blood clot are used if antiphospolipid syndrome is detected.

Recurrent pregnancy loss may happen due to various reasons and proper tests, and treatment procedures should be carried out for curing pregnancy loss. This phenomenon affects a woman and her partner deeply. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4981 people found this helpful

6 Symptoms Of Endometriosis!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
6 Symptoms Of Endometriosis!

The abnormal growth of the endometrium tissue outside the uterus is known as endometriosis. Ideally, the abnormal tissue is supposed to break down and exit the body. However, in this condition, the tissue is unable to pass out of the body. As a result, the surrounding tissue tends to get irritated and leads to the formation of scar tissues.

The various causes of endometriosis include:

  1. Immune system disorder: Complications in the immune system might render it incapable of destroying the endometrial tissue that grows outside the uterus.
  2. Surgical scar implantation: Certain surgeries such as a C-section may result in the attachment of endometrial cells to the incision area.
  3. Embryonic cell transport: These cells may be transported to other parts of the body by the blood vessels which may lead to endometriosis.
  4. Retrograde menstruation: Instead of passing out of the body, under this condition, the blood flows back into the pelvic region via the fallopian tubes. When these cells attach themselves to the pelvic cavity, it causes endometriosis.

Symptoms
1. Pain during sexual intercourse
2. Pain during periods including pelvic pain, especially during periods, lower back pain and abdominal pain.
3. Excessive bleeding during periods
4. Fatigue
5. Constipation
6. Bloating

The major complication that results is fertility problems. Endometriosis may prevent the combination of the egg and the sperm and thus, impairs your ability to conceive. It is recommended not to delay pregnancy if you have endometriosis. This disorder also tends to increase the risk of ovarian cancer in some women.

How can it be treated?

Endometriosis is usually done using surgery or medications. 

  1. Medication: It usually involves painkillers.
  2. Hormone therapy: Some of the hormonal therapies include:
    1. Hormonal contraceptives
    2. Progestin therapy
    3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists
  3. Conservative surgery: If a patient wants to become pregnant, surgery is done as much as possible without harming the uterus and ovaries. Suggested procedures include laparoscopy and traditional abdominal surgery.
  4. Assisted reproductive technologies: An example of this form of treatment is In Vitro Fertilization.
  5. HysterectomyUnder severe circumstances, total hysterectomy is conducted in order to facilitate the removal of cervix and uterus. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
4248 people found this helpful

How To Diagnose Sores And Swelling In Vaginal Area?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
How To Diagnose Sores And Swelling In Vaginal Area?

Are you experiencing swelling, bump and lesions in your vaginal area? These might be an indication of female vaginal sores. They may be itchy, quite painful, are usually tender and may also produce discharge. The sores usually develop because of skin disorders. Most cases of genital sores are symptoms of some kind sexually transmitted infection (STI). 

Diagnosis of female genital sores
A physical examination is undertaken for finding out the exact cause of genital sores and swelling in women. A pelvic test may also be carried out and you will be required to provide your doctor with your medical history reports. Blood tests, including blood work and a culture of the sore are also used for diagnosis. A culture is referred to as the method of taking a sample from your genital sore and testing it for the detection of bacteria. An ideal treatment method is suggested by your doctor after proper diagnosis. 

Self Care 
Based on the symptoms you experience and observe, you can cure vaginal sores by using simple self-care methods before consulting a doctor. A sitz bath is effective for getting relief from pain and discomfort. You can prepare a sitz bath at home by filling your bathtub with warm water and adding a saline solution or baking soda to the water in the bathtub. The water should be up to your hips when you get into the bathtub. You may even purchase a small basin meant for a sitz bath, which is available at all drug stores. 


Treatment
There are various ways of treating vaginal sores and the exact treatment depends on the cause of the sores. Here is a list of the most common treatment methods:

  1. Use certain oral and topical medicines for treating the sores and getting relief from pain.
  2. Try other medicines which include pain relievers, antibiotics, corticosteroids, antiviral medications, and certain anti-itch medicines for treating vaginal sores. 
  3. Some forms of genital sores do not require treatment, but you can get rid of them if they are bothering you. A noncancerous cyst is such a type of sore.  
  4. The long term outlook for vaginal sores depends on the cause. Sores accompanied by swelling occur due to chronic skin conditions, which are likely to affect you again in the future. You should get an existing STI treated for avoiding the recurrence of vaginal sores. 
  5. The best way to keep away from vaginal sores is to have safe sex using protection, such as condoms. This will prevent the infection from being transmitted to your sexual partners. You must not hide the fact that you are having vaginal sores to avoid harassment, and should always open up and seek proper treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
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