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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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My son he is 12 years old. The problem is about not growing his height and weight. He is too weak. Suggest me about his improvement.
My daughter is 5. 5 months old her weight is just 5.5 please help me I am really worried birth weight 3.3.
My son age is 2.9 years but he is not gaining the weight currently he is only 10 kg.what should i do?
My two months old son has increased his feed demands and diet, but he vomits extra semi digested milk, after few feeds and does potty 2-3 times a day. Is it all fine or his growth is being interrupted? Kindly help.
Hello doctor i'm planning for a baby, my period was 1 to 5, my doc told me to intercourse from 12 to 19, now my doubt is that how I come to know that egg got form, exactly I don't know what word to use but I hope you can understand. Please reply me to good opinion. Thank you.
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.
My daughter is 3 years old & she use to suck her thumb. Due to which her weight is not increasing. Pls tell me how this problem can be resolved. She doesn't eat so much.
I have a daughter who is 8 month, 1 week old. My baby has not started teething yet. At present, I have only included brown rice kheer, rawa kheer, dal rice, chikoo and cerelac in her diet. I want to introduce her to new food stuff and want to know what else I can possibly include which will be more nutritious. 1. Are babies also suppose to have a breakfast, lunch, dinner pattern like adults? If yes, then what should be given during these times? 2. What should be the time gap between the three meals? 3. Should we give babies some snacks between the three meals? If yes, then what needs to be given? 4. Can I start her on chicken soup or mutton soup or should I give only vegetable soups for now? 5. If possible could I get a baby growth chart from you which can help me track her growth?
My wife is unable to produce milk for my baby. Kindly suggest with other options between cow milk and Lactogen.
I am 3 months 2 days pregnant. However my pregnancy is through IVF 1st cycle. I am on duphaston & sustain (insert one), frolic acid, iron & calcium tablet. Still my doctor says to continue all 3 for 1 more month and later will see. I am confused. How long I have to take these many medi.
My son, 5 years old, is suffering from recurring cough n cold. After every 2-3 months the symptoms repeats. Starting with running nose, it turns in dry cough, chest congestion n vomiting tendency. Please advise.
My child who is 6 years complete in Oct 2015. And his weight is 17 kg. But he is taking meals with so much force. Breakfast also same. Nd I am employee. So day by day I loss my patience about my child. Any medicine. Pls help me. Male child.
My baby is 6 months old and is suffering from chronic constipation from last two months. In start we tried natural remedies like cotton insertion and sugar water but see no improvement. At last we visited his paediatrician and he advised to give him Glycerine suppository for 3 days and after that to continue adult PICLIN Laxative 6 ml per day (3 ml twice) to cure his constipation. So, we are giving him above medication from his 6th month start and now he passes stool after 2 or 3 days with less difficulty. We tried stopping giving him PICLIN after his 6th month completion but after that baby can’t poop and also decreases his feed intake. His current weight is 6.1 KG and he is teething as well. Regarding his diet, he is completely on breast feed and we have started giving him yellow dalpani from last one month. We have tried 20-25 ml of water intake and 2 tablespoon of pear puree from last 3 days but it does not help. To continue on PICLIN we have some worries and doubts as follows: 1. Is it safe to give PICLIN (Adults) 6 ml daily to baby of just 6 months and any side effects that it can cause when baby grows? 2. For how much time we should continue giving him above medicine? 3. What can be the reason of his severe constipation? 4. Is there any natural remedy to cure his constipation rather then giving him medications? 5. Any other suggestion/medication to cure his constipation? 6. Is glycerine suppository is better than PICLIN? It would be very helpful for any of suggestions.
Infants often suffer from certain diseases which need proper care and timely treatment for quick recovery. At times, it can be difficult to communicate with an infant and understand his/her needs and problems but with a close observation you will surely be able to detect any alteration in the baby's behavior and sense it when he/she is ill. Here are some of the most common diseases infants are susceptible to and what you can do about them.
1. Abdominal distension
It is normal for a baby's belly to stick out after he/she has been fed, but if between feedings there is swelling in the abdomen or it feels hard, it can be an indication of a problem. If this symptom is accompanied by vomiting and absence of bowel movements for more than two days, your baby may be suffering from abdominal distention. This condition may have been caused by swallowing of extra air by the baby while crying or feeding. In such a situation, a pediatrician should be consulted for proper diagnosis and treatment.
It is common among newborns to develop mild forms of jaundice as the undeveloped liver is often not able to eliminate the chemical bilirubin from the blood. Mostly, this situation proves to be harmless till the level of bilirubin reaches a certain limit. After that, the disease must be properly treated to avoid damage to the baby's brain or nervous system.
3. Rsv infection
Rsv or respiratory syncytial virus is responsible for causing respiratory problems among infants. Rsv infection usually affects the bronchial passage and shows symptoms like cough, runny nose and mild fever which may even lead to bronchitis. Moreover, this infection may also develop into viral pneumonia, which makes it more important to consult a pediatrician if your baby shows any of the above symptoms.
Infants are susceptible to watery bowel movements due to the action of virus, allergens, specific medications or bacteria. If you observe that your baby is passing stools more often than usual and it is watery, then it may be a case of diarrhea. Sometimes, these symptoms are accompanied by high fever, abdominal pain, lethargy, vomiting, dry eyes and mouth etc. In this situation you should consult your pediatrician and focus on replacing the fluids your baby has lost, to prevent dehydration.