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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Are there any long-term effects associated with taking ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) medications? If so, what are they and what medications are implicated?
Gastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. It is well known that H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Helicobacter pylorus was discovered by Warren and Marshal in 1983. H. pylori has some unique characteristics:
It defied its detection by scientists for centuries.
It survives in the stomach, an organ which is devised by the nature to kill all bacteria.
85% of the population hosts this organism asymptomatically.
It persists in the gastric mucosa for decades.
It does not penetrate the gastric mucosa for decades.
It reduces the risk of oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, in the infected individual.
Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.
In the histology of normal gastric mucosa, inflammatory cells – neutrophils are spare and lymphoid tissue is absent.
ACUTE GASTRITIS is diagnosed endoscopically in the presence of hyperemia, intermucosal hemorrhages, and erosions in the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa.
Erosions are flat, or elevated white based lesions with an erythematous margin, and are frequently seen in the antrum.
Histology shows marked surface epithelial degeneration and heavy infiltration with neutrophils, but it is rarely performed.
CHRONIC GASTRITIS may be classified as chronic active, non-atrophic (superficial), atrophic and pernicious anaemia.
On histology of the gastric mucosa, there is a predominant increase in the chronic inflammatory cells – lymphocytes, plasma cells and an occasional lymphoid follicle may be present.
Presence of numerous neutrophils indicates activity (chronic active gastritis).
The vast majority of chronic gastritis patients are asymptomatic. Non colicky pain in upper abdomen within 15 minutes after ingestion of a spicy meal and absence of pain on delaying or omission of a spicy meal are considered suggestive of chronic gastritis. Heaviness in upper abdomen immediately after a meal is also not an uncommon symptom. With a fiberoptic gastroscope a definite diagnosis of chronic gastritis is easy with biopsy from the body mucosa and the antrum. H.pylori causes chronic gastritis in all subjects. H.Pylori colonizes normal antrum and may extend into the body mucosa causing corpus gastritis. Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori slowly progresses over a few decades from the superficial to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.
H. pylori was earlier responsible for more than 80% of chronic gastritis but its prevalence is decreasing in countries with improved sanitation.
H.PYLORI AND PEPTIC ULCER
The patients. with duodenal ulcer may present with dull aching pain in the epigastrium, occurring daily on an empty stomach or at midnight relieved soon after the ingestion of antacid, milk or non-spicy food. Nearly half of the numbers of patients with typical history of duodenal ulcer do not show any ulcer on endoscopy. The popular multi-factorial theory of stress and spices causing duodenal ulcer, died its natural death, with the discovery of H.pylori in 1983.
A major breakthrough in understanding of the etiology of duodenal ulcer was the discovery of H.pylori in the antral mucosal biopsy of humans, on upper gastrodudenal endoscopy- as; H.pylori is present in the antral mucosal biopsy of >90 % of duodenal ulcer patients., following the eradication of H.pylori from the gastric mucosa, annual duodenal ulcer recurrence reduced to less than 10% compared to 80%. Failure to eradicate H. pylori results in a higher recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection of the antral mucosa increases the risk of duodenal ulcer by 3-6 folds.
Pt. with benign gastric ulcer does not have any classical pattern of symptoms for a clinical diagnosis. Pt. may complain of dull aching pain in upper abdomen soon after food intake, nusea, heaviness, heamatemesis or symptoms of anemia.
Benign gastric ulcer is rare in Indian population, it may occur with ch.gastritis due to H.pylori or following ingestion of aspirin or NSAID. H. pylori increases the risk of benign gastric ulcer by 3 folds.
Gastric mucosal Biopsy
Gastric secretion: Acid, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor
Co vita B12 excretion test
Fasting serum pepsinogen,serum gastrin
Parietal cell, intrinsic factor, helicobacter pylori antibody
H.pylori detection : invasive ,non invasive methods
THE HOMOEOPATHIC APPROACH
Abdominal pain and inflammation present difficulties in diagnosis for even the most experienced physician. All cases of dynamic diseases, acute or chronic even when resulting from mechanical or psychological injuries, are amenable to homoeopathy. The homoeopathic medicine works quite well in the treatment of an acute abdomen often averting the need for surgery in many of cases. The problem may range from entrapment of gas, to constipation, perforation of the bowel which results in sever inflammation and sepsis which may result in death. Any acute onset of abdominal pain should be considered a medical emergency.
By carefully applying the law of similars, the physician will observe that all cases of curable dynamic disease are curable with homoeopathy. To achieve this, the physician must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of homoeopathy as taught in the ORGANON and must know how to make the use of materia medica.
Repertories are used as essential links between the patient’s symptoms and the vast materia medica.
Clinical guides such as below mentioned, provide a synopsis of the most characteristic symptoms of the leading remedies in a given condition. Their objective is to give assistance only. While using it one has to be aware of two general drawbacks. One, it may fail because of its incompleteness as only leading remedies in given a given condition can be presented, and the symptomatology of each remedy presented is limited to only the leading characteristic symptoms.
In clinical practice the patient will most of the time present some symptoms that can only be found in a more complete materia medica. Second, there is the inevitable temptation to associate remedies with a given disease. The practice of homoeopathy consists of constant individualization. – The more we understand this science the more we individualize. Frequent follow up to monitor the patient’s condition is a must.
Gnawing, hungry faint feeling at the epigastrium
Burning and distension of stomach with palpitation
Tendency to eat far beyond the capacity for digestion
Great appetite, craving for meat, pickles, radish, turnips, coarse food
Flatulence disturbs the heart’s action
Wants to lie down all the time
Pain in stomach always comes on after eating
Sensation as if a hard-boiled egg had lodged in the cardiac end of stomach
Great craving for food at noon and night
Dyspepsia of the aged, after tea or tobacco
Constitution – Pale, lean, emaciated persons.
Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains as of an ulcer
Cancer of stomach
Vomits every kind of food
Heartburn and water brash
Concomitants – Profuse salivation
Intense burning thirst
Haemorrhage from bowels
ALSO MANY REMEDIES ARS.ALB. , SULPH, CAL.CARB.ETC
My 2 months baby suffering from cold since one week, Dr. prescribed wikoryl AF n rhinoclear drops ,my baby crying for nose drops, I am giving steam too, she making sounds tru throat ,she vomiting frequently due to cold. Hw to get rid of cold n frequent vomit.
Hello. Mere baby boy ku 1 month se cough problm hai Doctr koforest & senerest b use kiya my ne Doctr ne hi Diya thai ab my kounsi drop use karo jis se cough door hojae my baby age 5 months runig doctor. Sporidox drop b use kya but cough vaisa hi hai.
How often should a new born baby be fed. My wife tends to feed our 2 month old daughter overtime she cries. Which I think is not correct. Pls explain regarding this. Thank you all.
Hi I am 26 years old female, my baby is 23 months and I had delivered my baby through c section and recently in the month of February 2016 I had inserted copper t actually before that also I was suffering from shoulder, neck, lower back and middle back pain but after the month of February I am suffering from these almost all days or alternate days, so please tell me the veg diet and exercises to ease from these pains and I want to know that why these pains occur what is the reason behind it? Please help.
My son is 33 months old and he is not eating well, and he weigh 10, 2 kgs. Please give me some suggestions for him to get on.
Hi, I've a 5 month baby. I think that my breast milk supply is not enough for my baby. So I want to know how I can increase my breast milk supply. Means what food I should take or anything else to increase breast milk?
My infant is of 4 months and I feel that he feel's pain while peeing. Sometimes in sleep he shivers and stop peeing or he cries alot before and while peeing. Please prescribed me beast for my infant .
I have 6 month girl baby. Last 4-5 weeks she has completely avoid the milk. She used to drink 100 ml per feeding at 9 times a day but now she drinks only 40-50 ml per feeding. She just suck 4-5 and then refused the bottle. She does difficulty getting wind up this 50 ml. I have started solid food to her. I will give solid fopd at morning 10 am and gives at 3 pm daily. But she is not interest. Previous day she did wets cloth frequently but now she does less time but goes to motion daily. There is no changes for her playing activity always be in active. Is it normal to refused milk? Does she gained weight or lose her weight? please sir tell me.
Iron deficiency is a common condition in children. It occurs when there is a scarcity of iron in the child's system due to malnutrition. Iron is an extremely important mineral that is required for growth and development in young ones. It is used in transporting oxygen through the bloodstream and is essential for the functioning of the muscles. If the child's diet lacks iron then the condition might worsen and turn into anemia.
Children need different levels of iron intake at different ages for proper development of all mental and physical faculties. As the child gets older and reaches the age of puberty, the requirement of iron and other minerals also increases. Deficiencies can lead to various nutritional disorders that may cause severe complications.
The primary cause of iron deficiency in children is an improper diet which leads to a lack of nourishment. There are a number of other causes of the problem, some of which are as follows:
- Low birth weight
- Excessive intake of cow's milk at less than 2 years of age
- Feeding exclusively on breastmilk beyond 6 months of age
- Lead poisoning
- Pure vegetarian diet with insufficient sources of iron such as green vegetables
- Gastrointestinal disease or infection
- Improper diet of the mother during pregnancy
- Chronic diarrhea
- Infestation of parasites in the digestive system.
If the problem arises due to dietary deficiency, it can be easily solved by making simple modifications to the child's diet plan. If the condition stems from other factors or diseases, the child must be taken to a doctor immediately for a medical diagnosis and remedial treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pediatrician.