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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Treatment of Childhood Infections
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Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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hello doctor, my name is sanjay kumar singh and I am having a girl child of 2 year and 7 months. She is a pre mature child and born on the seventh month from the expected. As soon she was born she has been transferred to the nursery for 21 days, so she was not able to take the birth milk from her mother. Her weight was 850gm when she was born. Sir, she is now 2.7 year but she is not able to walk. Also she can't balance her body. She is having a lump of nerves on her right leg. Earlier we were scared that it was a cancer but doctor said it's only lump of nerves which will get dissolve as she will grow up. We had consulted a pediatric for my kid and also asked him for the problem of her balancing. That doctor told us that my kid has some problem regarding to her brain development and he has referred us to neurologist and physiotherapist. Now, my kid is going through physiotherapy and slight changes has been noticed. As she is ready to walk after holding my fingers but as I leave my hand from her. She got disbalnced and fell down. Before physiotherapy she cross her legs while walking but now this problem has been resolved. She us naughty and active baby but didn't speak full sentences. Only didi, mummy, jai ho, papa and so many small words.
Fever remains the most common concern prompting parents to present their child to the emergency department. Fever has traditionally been defined as a rectal temperature over 100.4 F or 38 C. Temperatures measured at other body sites are usually lower. The threshold for defining a fever does vary significantly among different individuals, since body temperatures can vary by as much as 1 F. Low-grade fevers are usually considered less than 102.2 F (39 C).
Fever itself is not life-threatening unless it is extremely and persistently high, such as greater than 107 F (41.6 C) when measured rectally. Risk factors for worrisome fevers include age under 2 years (infants and toddlers) or recurrent fevers lasting more than one week. Fever may indicate the presence of a serious illness, but usually a fever is caused by a common infection, most of which are not serious. The part of the brain called the hypothalamus controls body temperature. The hypothalamus increases the body's temperature as a way to fight the infection. However, many conditions other than infections may cause a fever.
Fever in Children - Causes:
Causes of fever include:
- Bacterial infections
- Viral infections, like influenza (the "flu")
- Illicit drugs
- illnesses related to heat exposure
- Rarely, inflammatory diseases
When to seek medical care:
- The child is younger than 6 months of age (regardless of prematurity).
- One is unable to control the fever.
- One suspects a child may become dehydrated from vomiting, diarrhea, or not drinking (for example, the child has sunken eyes, dry diapers, tented skin, cannot be roused, etc.).
- The child has been to a doctor but is now getting worse or new symptoms or signs have developed.
Although you may have done your best to care for your child, sometimes it is smart to take your child to the emergency department. The child's doctor may meet you there, or the child may be evaluated and treated by the emergency doctor.
Take a child to an emergency clinic when any of the following happen:
- One has serious concerns and is unable to contact the child's doctor.
- One suspects the child is dehydrated.
- A seizure occurs.
- The child has a purple or red rash.
- A change in consciousness occurs.
- The child's breathing is shallow, rapid, or difficult.
- The child is younger than 2 months of age.
- The child has a headache that will not go away.
- The child continues to vomit.
- The child has complex medical problems or takes prescription medications on a chronic basis (for example, medications prescribed for more than two weeks' duration)
Home Remedies for Fever in Children:
The three goals of home care for a child with fever are to control the temperature, prevent dehydration, and monitor for serious or life-threatening illness.
- The first goal is to make the child comfortable by reducing the fever below 102 F (38.9 C) with medications and appropriately dressing the child. A warm water bath can also be helpful .
- To check a child's temperature, one will need a thermometer. Different types of thermometers are available, including glass, mercury, digital, and tympanic (used in the ear).
- Glass thermometers work well but may break, and they take several minutes to get a reading.
- Digital thermometers are inexpensive and obtain a reading in seconds.
- Oral temperatures may be obtained in older children who are not mouth breathing or have not recently consumed a hot or cold beverage.
- Monitoring and documenting the fever pattern is achieved using a thermometer and a handmade chart.
- Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are used to reduce fever.
- Follow the dosage and frequency instructions printed on the label.
- Remember to continue to give the medication over at least 24 hours or the fever will usually return.
- Children should not be overdressed indoors, even in the winter.
- Overdressing keeps the body from cooling by evaporation, radiation, conduction, or convection.
- The most practical solution is to dress the child in a single layer of clothing, then cover the child with a sheet or light blanket.
- A sponge bath in warm water will help reduce a fever.
- Such a bath is usually not needed but may more quickly reduce the fever.
- Put the child in a few inches of warm water, and use a sponge or washcloth to wet the skin of the body and arms and legs.
- The water itself does not cool the child. The evaporation of the water off the skin cools the child. So, do not cover the child with wet towels, which would prevent evaporation.
- Contrary to the popular folk remedy, never apply alcohol in a bath or on the skin to reduce fever. Alcohol is usually dangerous to children.
- The second goal is to keep the child from becoming dehydrated. Humans lose extra water from the skin and lungs during a fever.
- Encourage the child to drink clear fluids but without caffeine (and not water). Water does not contain the necessary electrolytes and glucose. Other clear fluids are chicken soup, other rehydrating drinks available at the grocery or drugstore.
- A child should urinate light-colored urine at least every four hours if well hydrated.
- If diarrhea or vomiting prevents one from assessing hydration, seek medical attention.
- The third goal is to monitor the child for signs of serious or life-threatening illness.
- A good strategy is to reduce the child's temperature below 102 F (39 C).
- Also, make sure the child is drinking enough clear fluids .
- If both these conditions are met and the child still appears ill, a more serious problem may exist.
- If a child refuses to drink or has a concerning change in appearance or behavior, seek medical attention.
My daughter is 2&half year old she was very active and walking and running well but from past 1 month she is Unable to walk, stand even Unable to talk we have done mri but of no use.
We are in singapore here where we are staying there is lots of ants and small insects. My 9 month old baby is having small red patches on his body. I don't understand whether it is chickenpox or because of any insects.
My grand daughter 5 & 1/2 months old has suddenly developed disinterest towards her bottled milk feeds. Her weight is 6.30 kgs. She is being given nestle man pro 1. Her regular intake was approx 130 to 140 ml 5 to 6 times a day, but she could take only 2 feeds of 130 ml each & 4 feeds of 80 ml in last 24 hours. Some sort of irritation is also a new kind of development, in her otherwise pleasant mood. She is not being breastfed. Her birth weight was 1.680 kgs only. Kindly suggest appropriate treatment/ directions.
My kid is born as premature and now he is 1.9 Years old and weighing about 9.3kg. Please suggest how to increase his weight. We live in Hyderabad.
My daughter 2 year old she understands every thing she also follow our actions nd babbles wid expressions nd speaks very few words nd keep on watching YouTube nd doest speaks what to do.
Develop good study habits. Proper study habits and preparation are the keys to cutting out exam fear
Keep your mind and body healthy by getting enough sleep, eating well and exercising.
Meet with your instructor to aid in focusing your study sessions.
Practice positive self-talk as you prepare for the test. Create a mantra to help you calm your test anxiety. Repeat a phrase, such as" I just need to do my best" or" I will be prepared for this test"
Relax the night before your test. A last-minute review can help you remember facts, but fretting over last-minute studying is likely to cause you more anxiety.
Beat the morning rush by waking up early. Give yourself time to eat a nutritious breakfast that won't weigh you down or feel greasy in your stomach.
Manage your anxiety with relaxation exercises as you wait for the test to start.
Scan the test to find questions that are easy. Answer those test questions to give yourself a confidence boost.
Understand that you are not alone and ask for help as necessary. Exam fear is normal.
Reward yourself after the test is over. The reward gives you the break you deserve after all of your studying. Treating yourself also helps you stop thinking about the test and analyzing every little mistake you may have made.
Please consult a psychologist for counseling and valuable tips.
My mother is 68 years she has been diagnosed for lung fibrosis she was taking lumenac 600mg 3 times + iveprid 10mg for last 2years no progression in disease but her saturation was 90 later fell to 60 on excretion now she is taking prifenex 800mg a day and Benz for cough her saturation is 84 while sitting and 65 while walking she is on 2lpm oxygen also her feet and face is swelling but her echo test is normal . We like to know the below questions: 1. Why is her feet and face swelling 2. Can she take both lumenac and prifenex together 3. Her pft test are excellent but still saturation is not returning. Why? 4. Her X-ray shows only each lung is 35% white shading rest looks black. Please answer our question. Regards Imthiyas Ahmed
Sir, my daughter is 11 yrs. Old, weight 28 kg and of average height. Wo bahut kam khaana khati hai. Bahut mushkil se khilana padta hai. Usko bhookh nahi lagti hai. Kewal meetha khana chahti hai. Worms ke lie Noworm kai baar dia hai lekin baat wahi ka wahi hai. Jaldi jaldi bimaar pad jaati hai aur digestion bhi poor hai. Please appetite ke lie aur digestion ke lie kuch suggest kare. Regards.
What are the best Diagnostic tests for examining hearing loss in a child at 5 y old age. Secondly if a child is diagnosed with auditory nerve damage or cochlear tiny hair cells damage it can be treated with medication or there is no cure or hearing add machine can be set. Last thing child with hearing loss at 50 to 60 DB will need to set hearing add machine on both ear if the loss is in both ears and machine will set all the lifetime. Thanks.
My two year old daughter has lack of immunity. She very often falls sick. She gets fever two or three times in a month. Everybody says chawanprash will increase immunity. Is it true? Can I give my two year old daughter chawanprash for immunity?
This is regarding my son. His dob iis 25/03/2002. Bt according to his age his growth is not satisfactory. His height is 139 cm. My wife n my height is 5" ft. I already visit to a doc in gangaram hospital. He took so many test n told tat there is no problem and his height will increase after adulteration. Can you suggest nythmg else.
My kid is 7 years old and diagnosed with autism. Doea acupuncture wil help him in curing his abnormality. Plzz suggest treatment for him. He looks very normal but he cannot speak and is very hyper. Plzz help.
My son was doing white clay color potty from past 3 days and had gone to the doctor and has told to take usg abdomen, lft, cbc as he suspects liver haemangioma because he has haemangioma in half of his face. Physically he checked and wrote as enlarged spleen and liver is this a major issue. Kindly help as its very tensed.
Chronic hyperglycemia is captured by A1c but not by FPG (even when repeated twice).
Microangiopathic complications (retinopathy) are associated with A1c as strongly as with FPG.
A1c is better related to cardiovascular disease than FPG.
Fasting is not needed for A1c assessment.
No acute perturbations (e.G, stress, diet, exercise, smoking) affect A1c.
A1c has a greater preanalytical stability than blood glucose.
A1c has an analytical variability not inferior to blood glucose.
Standardization of A1c assay is not inferior to blood glucose assay.
Biological variability of A1C is lower than FPG and 2-h OGTT PG.
Individual susceptibility to protein glycation might be caught by A1c.
A1c can be used concomitantly for diagnosing and initiating diabetes monitoring
Natural history of T2DM in Asia
Diabetes is a global epidemic which is out of control, but worse in Asian countries.
It is a huge and growing problem and costs to the society are high and escalating.
Five countries from Asia figure in the top 10 and account for most cases of diabetes globally.
Asian countries share similar risk factors.
There is an association between economic growth and diabetes.
Rapid urbanization and modernization obesogenic environment i.E. Physical inactivity, psychosocial stress and abundance of food
Asians are prone to developing diabetes at a lower level of obesity.
Diabetes has the potential to negatively impact economy and may bankrupt healthcare systems.
Cost effective interventions in healthy living and diet decrease the burden of diabetes and save on healthcare costs and lost productivity.
There has been a dramatic rise in the number of diabetic population in Korea: economic growth, greater exposure to risk factors (lifestyle and diet), demographic changes (childhood obesity, aging population).
Hypertriglyceridemia: The most difficult lipid disorder to evaluate and treat
Hypertriglyceridemia is the most difficult lipid disorder to evaluate and treat. Hypertriglyceridemic disorder in adults is not a single gene. We do not know if TGs by themselves are an atherogenic risk or is it because of the company they keep.
The intra-individual biological variability (diurnal and monthly) of lipids make it more difficult to define hypertriglyceridemia.
TGs are inversely associated with HDL-C, if high HDL-C levels, almost always TGs are low.
Dietary treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia: <5%, no alcohol, discontinue all TG-lowering drugs, monitor TG q 3 days until levels are below 1000, then restart treatment.
Fibrates do not reduce the CHD events in high risk patient groups. What impact hypertriglyceridemia has on CHD outcomes is not yet clear.
Lower fasting TG to less than 500 mg/dL; this will reduce the risk of pancreatitis.
Follow the current guideline recommendations to lower LDL-C.
The real value of Apo-B is in patients who do not have raised LDL-C (<100 mg/dL). In such patients it can be very informative and should be taken as an indicator of CVD risk.
Plasma apoB and the other cholesterol indexes are complementary rather than competitive indexes of atherosclerotic risk (Am J Cardiol. 2003 May 15;91(10):1173).
Baseline TGs are determinants of the response to bezafibrate (BIP trial).
Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in reducing CV risk (JELIS; Lancet 2007), especially in patients with high TG and low HDL-C (Atherosclerosis. 2008).
If fasting TG is >200 mg/dL and HDL-C <35 mg/dL, consider a fibrate or omega-3 fatty acid.