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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Hymenoplasty, a medical term for hymen repair surgery, is a procedure of reconstructing the thin skin membrane made of elastic and fibrous tissue known as the hymen. Colloquially termed as revirgination, the purpose of hymenoplasty is to reconstruct the hymen, which often gets torn due to injury or extensive exercise. In some countries, the surgery is illegal due to social and cultural reasons.
How is hymenoplasty performed?
The hymen may be torn while cycling or performing gymnastics. In some cases, it is seen that a woman’s hymen is torn even before the first intercourse. In this surgery, the edges of the torn hymen are stitched together to make it whole again. The tissues involved gradually grow back and take the appearance of a natural hymen. In some cases, the vaginal walls are also tightened for achieving a virgin-like form. The process typically takes around half an hour, and the area is coated with antibiotic ointment so that it heals within a short span of time. At times, there are no hymeneal remnants, or the available parts cannot be used. In such a situation, the surgeon reduces the opening of the vagina with the help of vaginal mucous tissue. When it becomes impossible to reconstruct the hymen, surgeons opt for hymen implantation, which functions in a similar way as that of a natural hymen.
What are the benefits of hymenoplasty?
For many women, hymenoplasty is nothing but a useless extravagance; but for some, this aesthetic surgery brings a host of benefits which may include making the first night of courtship special by regaining that symbol of virginity and possessing a sense of personal comfort and ownership. In some cultures as well as religious communities, a high value is imposed on virgins before marriage. In communities that consider hymen to be a proof of sexual status, rupture of the same can bring about a social disaster. In such situations, hymenoplasty can come to the rescue.
Who is a good candidate for hymenoplasty?
Women who are healthy enough and have realistic expectations about the surgery are the best candidates for hymenoplasty. Hymen reconstruction can help a woman to enjoy her virginity once again. In case the woman is suffering from any relationship crisis owing to rupture of the hymen, then experts suggest that she must consult with a family and a relationship counselor as well.
How long does it take it recover from hymenoplasty?
In most cases, patients can return to their usual routines the day following the surgery. But it is crucial to avoid strenuous work or exercise. If you have undergone dissolvable suture, then there is no need to remove it. Regardless of the type of stitch, it is critical to attend to the follow-up treatment to ensure a safe and effortless healing of the hymen. One must wait at least 3 to 4 weeks before indulging in sexual intercourse.
Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyoma or myoma, are benign growths on the uterus, occurring mostly during the years of childbearing. Few of the common symptoms of fibroids are leg pain or backache, constipation, difficulty in emptying the bladder, frequent urination, pain or pressure in the pelvic region, menstrual periods stretching over a week and excessive menstrual bleeding.
Certain genetic changes of the uterus which are different from the ones normally present in the muscle cells of the uterus can cause this disorder.
Substances which help the body maintain its tissues trigger fibroid growth as well.
Family history, excessive consumption of alcohol and red meat while going low on foods such as dairy products, fruits, green vegetables and vitamin D, obesity, usage of birth control pills and early onset of the menstruation cycle are other factors that may escalate the risks of one suffering from fibroids.
Be careful and take a closer look: Fibroids are fundamentally non-cancerous and they hardly interfere with pregnancy. Often, they do not exhibit notable symptoms and are prone to shrinkage after menopause. Hence giving them and yourself some time might be the best option.
Medications generally aim at the hormones controlling the menstrual cycle and treating symptoms such as pelvic pressure and excessive menstrual bleeding. However, they do not treat fibroids completely but work towards contracting them. They include-
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists to block estrogen and progesterone production
Progestin-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) to alleviate severe bleeding caused due to fibroids
Tranexamic acid to ease excessive menstrual periods
Progestins or oral contraceptives to regulate menstrual bleeding
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ease pain associated with fibroids
Surgeries to Treat Fibroids:
Depending on symptoms and whether medical therapy has failed, the patient may have to undergo surgery. The following surgical procedures may be considered:
Hysterectomy: removing the uterus. This is only considered if the fibroids are very large, or if the patient is bleeding too much. Hysterectomies are sometimes an option to prevent fibroids coming back.
Endometrial ablation: removing the lining of the uterus. This procedure may be used if the patient's fibroids are near the inner surface of the uterus; it is considered an effective alternative to a hysterectomy.
UAE (Uterine artery embolization): this treatment cuts off the fibroid's blood supply, effectively shrinking the fibroid.
Mifepristone: It, also known as RU-486, reduces heavy menstrual bleeding and imporves fibroid-specific quality of life. It competitively binds and inhibitsprogesterone receptors.
Ulipristal acetate: It is a progesterone receptor modulator that acts as a postcoital contraceptive. As progesterone promotes the growth of uterine fibroids, blocking its receptor may reduce their size.
Bleeding during pregnancy is relatively common and doesn’t always mean there is a problem. It can be daunting and scary. However contrary to common beliefs, bleeding need not be a necessary harmful to a pregnant woman. However, it is important to take bleeding seriously at any stage of the pregnancy.
What are the possible causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy?
Causes of vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy include
- Implantation bleeding: It is a harmless light bleeding that often occurs around the time your period would have been due. It occurs when the developing embryo implants itself in the wall of the womb.
- Cervical changes: Cervical changes due to pregnancy may sometimes cause bleeding specifically after sex.
- Miscarriage: During early pregnancy vaginal bleeding can be a sign of miscarriage. About 1 in 5 pregnancies miscarry and usually, the cause is in the fetus and not the mother or the partner. At the same time, it is important to note that many women who bleed at this stage of pregnancy go on to have normal and successful pregnancies.
- Ectopic pregnancy: An ectopic pregnancy is when fertilized egg implants outside the womb, for example in the fallopian tube. It can cause bleeding and is dangerous.
Early detection and appropriate management is a must in this case, so as to prevent any life-threatening complication. Other less common causes are molar pregnancy (a mass that forms inside the uterus that does not result in a baby) and problems with the cervix such as a cervical growth or cervical or vaginal infections. Vaginal bleeding might also occur during the later second or third trimester of the pregnancy.
- Placenta praevia (low lying placenta): This is when the placenta is attached in the lower part of the womb, near to or covering the cervix. Bleeding from a low lying placenta can be very heavy and put you and your baby at risk
- Placental abruption: It is a serious condition in which the placenta starts to come away from the womb wall.
- Vasa praevia: A rare condition where baby’s blood vessels run through the membranes covering the cervix. When your water breaks, these vessels are torn and cause vaginal bleeding.
Vaginal bleeding towards the end of the pregnancy is normal. Often bleeding mixed with mucous (which is called show) can be a sign of the starting of the labor.
When to visit a doctor?
It is important to keep the doctor informed about any bleeding that may have occurred at any stage of the pregnancy. A woman should carefully note details such as the type of bleeding, its texture, whether it included any tissue or clots, other symptoms such as pain and dizziness To work out what is the causing the bleeding, you may need to have a vaginal or pelvic examination, an ultrasound scan or blood tests and according to the cause and how many weeks pregnant you are it would be advised whether you need to be admitted to hospital or not and further treatment would be planned and advised.
Irregularity in the menstrual cycle is one of the most common issues to be fixed since the hormones responsible for the menstrual cycle is affected by several factors and systems of the body. According to a report published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in 2011, it came to the fore that frequent missing of periods over an extended period is a common problem affecting over 5 percent of women at any given time. But what’s more important is that most women suffer from irregular periods all through the reproductive span of their life.
LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) produced by pituitary gland stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone and will cause the release of the egg. When there are fluctuations in LH, FSH, estrogen, and progesterone, the menstruation cycle gets irregular. For successful treatment of irregular periods, it is crucial to determine the cause. A few predominant causes of irregular periods are:
- High levels of stress: When you are stressed out for a long time, your body learns to save energy by stopping ovulation. If you experience a traumatic event or you undergo excessive day to day stress, it can suddenly cause the adrenals to work hard which can interrupt the production of estrogen, thyroid hormones, and other reproductive hormones. Restrictive eating and over-exercising can also lead to hypothalamic amenorrhea, a condition wherein the menstruation stops for several months altogether.
- Poor diet: If your daily diet lacks antioxidants, vitamins, protein, and minerals, then there could be an adverse effect on the thyroid levels and the adrenal glands. Fried and processed foods along with sugary items can raise the adrenal fatigue and cortisol which, in turn, hinders the functionality of other necessary hormones. If you are suffering from irregular periods, you should take foods rich in antioxidants, proteins, and antioxidants.
- Extreme loss of weight: When the body mass index or BMI reaches below 18, you will start missing your periods due to low body fat. Body fat is crucial for creating estrogen, and lack of this hormone also causes issues such as anorexia and bulimia. But it is important to note here that not all women suffering from irregular periods are underweight.
- Thyroid disorders: The fluctuations of thyroid hormones often cause an irregularity of periods. According to some experts, thyroid problems are one of the leading causes of irregular menstruation. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause symptoms like alterations in cortisol and estrogen levels.
- Food allergies: If you are sensitive to gluten or have celiac disease which has remained undiagnosed, it can cast an impact on the hormone levels. As these conditions may cause nutrient deficiencies, it can affect the gut health and add stress to the adrenal glands. As a result, all these together disrupt the secretion of sex hormones and cause irregular menstruation.
Several treatments are available to treat the causes that would slowly bring back your menstruation cycle to normal.