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My friend's father is suffering from Mouth Cancer. Everyday he is suffering from pain. Please let us know what would be the best way to get rid from it.
In the past, cancer was a disease that could not be cured. It was a threat to mankind. But as science has developed tremendously through all these years, today it is possible to fight cancer.
Cancer therapies have evolved with time. Until the late 90s, most of the drugs worked by killing the cancer cells. Some of the normal cells were also killed by them, but it was acceptable due to the huge effect on cancer cells.
In modern days, targeted therapies are being performed. Targeted therapy is a process of cancer treatment where instead of the cancer cells, the changes in the cells are targeted. Changes that help the cells grow, divide and thus spread cancer have been observed and so researchers can diagnose the right treatment that can block these affects and prevent cancer. This therapy uses drugs and it is different from traditional chemotherapy.
There are two types of Targeted therapy.
- Small-molecule drugs: These drugs are small so that they can enter cells easily and target the changes inside the cells. They are taken as pills. They work by keeping the tissue around the tumor and starve it by stopping blood vessels that bring it nutrients.
- Monoclonal antibodies: These are used to target the outer surface of cancer cells. They work like a plastic plug in an electric socket. They help chemotherapy and radiation therapy to cure cancer cells.
How It Works:
Targeted therapy can be used as a treatment option for cancer in the following ways:
- Destroy cancer cells: Cancer cells hide well from the immune system. This therapy points them out so that the immune system can destroy them. It also boosts the immune system to work better.
- Stop cancer cells growth: This therapy interferes with the proteins that divides the cancer cells and thus controls their growth.
- Kill the tumor: Blood vessels feed the cancer tumor. This therapy surrounds the tumor and stops the blood supply so that the tumor does not grow and remains small. And if the tumor already has blood supply, then it kills the blood vessels and causes the tumor to shrink.
- Deliver cell-killing substances: It delivers the cell-killing substances to the cancer cells. They are the monoclonal antibodies that are combined with chemotherapy drugs, toxins and radiation.
- Cause cancer cell death: Cancer cells avoid the dying process. These therapies cause them to go through the process.
Targeted therapies are less toxic than standard chemotherapy. So it is a better option but it still has some side effects.
- Liver problems
- Skin problems
- Problems with wound healing
- Difficulty with blood clotting
- High blood pressure
- Gastrointestinal perforation
Even though it has some side effects, it is still way better and much more effective than traditional chemotherapy. So, cancer patients are advised to go through this modern-day therapy.
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It's for my sister. She has developed a lump on her breast. It's not painful. It's a movable lump. Local doctors told to operate it. Please suggest what is it and what should be the correct steps for it. As it has been two months since that lump was felt by her.
I am married for last two month. My wife have a problem with her breast. She feels some kind of pain in her breast. When we having sex I pressed her boob sometime.
A Pap Smear is a screening test done to to test for occurrence of uterine cancer. Carried out in a quick and simple way to extract a sample, the sample is collected from the cervix area of a woman during a pelvic exam. The examination of the sample takes place under a microscope thereafter to find abnormalities that can point towards cancer and pre cancer changes.
There are many reasons why women should get a pap smear screening done:
- Women who are HIV positive should get this test done regularly so as to detect any anomalies in the cervix. This condition usually comes with higher risk of infections and cancer, which is why regular screening is required.
- Age is also another factor and women over the age of 30 should go through an annual screening on a compulsory basis. This is also true for women who have been through pregnancy and childbirth.
Preparing for a Pap Smear: To prepare for a pap smear test, you need to ensure that you are not menstruating at the time. Also, you may want to avoid sexual activity just before the test so as to get the most accurate readings. During the process, remember to stay calm and relax your body physically.
Procedure: The pap smear procedure is a quick one that might be only slightly uncomfortable. This test is usually carried out on the examination table at the gynecologist's clinic. The legs will need to be spread and placed in stirrups. The doctor will insert a speculum to hold open the vaginal opening so that the spatula can be inserted easily to take a sample from the area. This sample of the cells will be tested in a lab after due preservation.
Test Results: The test results can either be normal or abnormal. An abnormal result does not point at the presence of cancer. Rather it can simply mean that abnormal cells exist in the cervix. The doctor may ask you to go through these tests and screening more frequently so as to study the anomalies in a more detailed manner.