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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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In pregnancy if female is suffering from fever & throat problem occurs which medicine is given to them.
The cyclical change in the uterus and ovaries of the female reproductive system is called the menstrual cycle. It includes changes in the physiology of the uterus along with the change in hormones as well. This cyclical change is what allows a woman to get pregnant. This cycle allows the formation of ovocytes and helps to prepare the uterus for implantation.
The commencement of period is called the menarche. It normally starts from the age of twelve to fifteen years. The time between the first day of the period and the first day of the next one is usually twenty one to forty five days in young adults and twenty one to thirty five in older women. The entire cycle is mainly governed by hormones like oestrogen, progesterone, Luteinizing Hormone etc.
Hormonal changes play a big role in the menstrual cycle. It consists of three phases
- Menstrual stage (1-7 days)
- Proliferative stage
- Secretory stage
In the menstrual stage, the thick endometrial lining of the uterus will start to shed and will come out of the vagina in the form of blood and mucous. This may last from four to seven days. The levels of both progesterone and estrogen remain low in this phase.
In the second stage, i.e, the proliferative stage, the amount of oestrogen gradually rises and the menstrual flow reduces and eventually stops. The Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) is produced in the brain that stimulates your ovaries to produce mature eggs. The eggs are present in a follicular bag, which allows the secretion of oestrogen. Hence the amount of oestrogen is the least on the first day and increases gradually. At the same time, the uterine lining starts to thicken. This is the phase in which the egg is produced and in the presence of sperm, gets fertilised.
You may notice a thin slippery discharge around these days that makes it easier for the sperm to travel and survive in the uterus. You are most fertile in this stage, around on the 14th day of the cycle when ovulation occurs. The egg survives for around 24 hrs, whereas sperm can survive for about 2-3 days.
In the secretory phase, if the egg is not fertilised, the levels of oestrogen and progesterone fall. The thick lining that has been produced starts to shed and that commences the menstruation. If the egg is fertilised, then it may implant itself to the uterine wall and produce the pregnancy hormone called human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG).
How much it cost for Diagnostic laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy (ovarian drilling) for PCOD problem in chennai?
B. cereus is able to persist in food processing environments due to its ability to survive at extreme temperatures as well as its ability to form biofilms and spores.
B. cereus has been recovered from a wide range of foods, including rice, dairy products, spices, bean sprouts and other vegetables.
Fried rice is an important cause of emetic–type food poisoning associated with B. cereus.
The organism is frequently present in uncooked rice, and heat–resistant spores may survive cooking.
Cooked rice subsequently at room temperature can allow vegetative forms to multiply, and the heat-stable toxin that is produced can survive brief heating such as stir frying
Two distinct types of toxin-mediated food poisoning are caused by B. cereus, characterized by either diarrhea or vomiting, depending on which toxin is involved. The diarrheal toxin is produced by vegetative cells in the small intestine after ingestion of either bacilli or spores. The emetic toxin is ingested directly from contaminated food. Both toxins cause disease within 24 hours of ingestion.
The emetic syndrome is caused by direct ingestion of the toxin.
The number of viable spores and vegetative bacteria that produce diarrheal toxin is reduced by heating, although spores associated with emetic toxin are capable of surviving heat processing.
Cereulide is heat stable and resistant to gastric conditions.
The ingested toxin itself may therefore cause disease despite sufficient heating to kill B. cereus.
The emetic syndrome is characterized by abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Diarrhea also occurs in about one–third of individuals. Symptom onset is usually within 1 to 5 hours of ingestion, but it can also occur within half an hour and up to six hours after ingestion of contaminated food.
Symptoms usually resolve in 6 to 24 hours.
Rice–based dishes in particular have been implicated in emetic toxin mediated disease, usually as a result of cooling fried rice dishes overnight at room temperature followed by reheating the next day.
The infective dose of cereulide required to cause symptoms is 8 to 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.
I had protected sex with my fiance on 18th Dec but we found that the condom got removed somehow after or during sex, it was having some serum in it so we are pretty sure it got removed due to the shrinking. It was 6th day of my period but still I took Ipill as precautionary measure. I got some withdrawal bleeding on 29th dec that lasted till 31st. It was just some blood spots not a normal bleeding. Now I am awaiting my periods which ideally should have come on 13th Jan, could you please suggest if there is any chance of pregnancy, I am having some white secretion also now days.
I'm married an year ago and trying to conceive since we got married. I have pcod so it was not successful and I took clomid100 5months ago but I didn't even get my periods. Now I started treatment in a fertility centre. I am asked to come on 2nd day of my next periods to start treatment. Will I get preg in the first month of trying with fertility medicines?
Leucorrhoea, vaginal discharge is a universal problem of all women. It is seen more in married women as compared to unmarried women. It’s also common to have more vaginal discharge during pregnancy period.
Female genitals are very much prone to infections since they are moist, sweaty and covered. The white vaginal discharge with foul smell makes it embarrassing to get into social gatherings and even engage in personal affairs. The affected women needs reassurance; prevention from infections and some counseling as most of the women health problems are psychosomatic. The amount of vaginal secretion varies throughout the menstrual cycle, peaking at ovulation and also increasing when under emotional stress.
What is leucorrhoea (white discharge)?
Mucous membranes and glands in our body produce a lot of secretions, which have their own separate functions. The secretions protect our body by forming a thin lining over the skin or mucous membrane. It also helps to keep the mucous membrane or skin moist and flexible. The best example to understand is saliva in the mouth. If this secretion becomes very low, everyone will feel the dryness. The skin may crack thus paving way for infections. Similarly, vaginal glands also secrete some secretions to keep the organ moist, flexible and to prevent it from infection by its acidic nature. At ovulation time, the acidic nature of the secretion gets altered to alkali nature by hormones to allow the male sperm to survive for fertilisation. If not, the sperms will find it difficult to thrive and reach the ovum. Also, secretions of the vagina help in lubrication during the sexual act.
Leucorrhoea is a medical term for white discharge which is an excessive secretion from the female reproductive tract especially from the vagina or cervix or both. It is very common in females nowadays. It could be embossing, painful and may cause lot of discomfort, stress and even affect the sexual preferences and libido. It may be mild to severe, and varies from person to person.
Types of leucorrhoea
Leucorrhoea is mainly classified into two types:
1. Physiological leucorrhoea
It is an excessive discharge or secretions of a normal vagina. It generally occurs among teenage girls due to hormonal imbalance during puberty, at the time of ovulation period of the menstrual cycle and before periods. In case of adults, it occurs during the course of sexual excitement and pregnancy.
2. Pathological leucorrhoea
It is a discharge occurring due to disease or malfunction of the female reproductive tract. It needs immediate attention, cleanliness and treatment. Ignoring pathological leucorrhoea may lead to serious problems like infertility and complications of uterus. The nature of discharge varies from thin to thick bloody discharge with foul smell. This condition is commonly present in both the cases of vaginitis and cervicitis.
Causes of leucorrhoea
- From fungus: candida albicans can easily flourish in moist circumstances and is commonly promoted by synthetic undergarments and poor hygienic condition.
- From parasites: protozoa - trichomonas vaginalis causes the trichomoniasis which spreads usually through sexual intercourse and moist clothes.
- From bacteria: gardnerella vaginalis and chlamydia are the prime causes in bacterial infections. Also, it is frequently seen in venereal diseases like gonorrhoea, syphilis, and aids.
Injury to the vagina or cervix or womb during childbirth, abortion, or excessive sexual indulgence can cause erosions and infections with discharges.
3. Poor hygienic conditions
Non hygienic measures, especially during periods, can create infection and cause leucorrhoea.
4. Diabetes and anaemia
May provoke infections due to weakened immunity among many females.
5. Irritation of iucd
If irritation persists at iucd, (intra uterine contraceptive device) it can cause pain and discharges.
6. Sprays and jellies
Used by males for provoking sexual act and jellies and drugs taken by females to kill sperms to avoid conception can also irritate and initiate the infective process.
Symptoms of leucorrhoea
Mostly there won’t be any symptom other than discharge. Discharge may be slim, viscid to dark coloured or even bloody with a foul smell. In some cases, the accompanying symptoms are:
- Lower abdominal pain
- Painful sexual act
- Backache and pain in the leg, especially thigh and calf muscles
- Intense itching with oedema of vagina
- Soreness and burning in the genital tract
- Burning urination and frequent urge to pass very little urine
- Irritability and lack of concentration in work due to consciousness of discharges
- Digestive disturbances like constipation or diarrhoea or vomiting
- General tiredness due to loss of vital fluids as discharges
- Soreness and dryness
- Strong smell or frothy discharge
- Dark coloured discharge
- Rashes or sore spots on the genitals.
Leucorrhoea is generally found to be hormonal. The occurrence, time and nature of the discharge also points out the diagnosis. Mostly, it can be easily differentiated as physiological or pathological leucorrhoea by physical examination. It is essential to identify the inflammation and help identify and confirm the type of infection.
Also, sometimes blood tests may be recommended by the doctors. Routine blood test gives some idea about the infection. And, finally, urine test is also a must to rule out the spread of infection.
Complications of leucorrhoea
• in case of chronic infection, and if left untreated, the infection spreads inward into the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, etc, causing congestion of the uterus or ovary or pelvis, leading to heavy menstrual flow in the forthcoming period.
• it acts as a precursor of pelvic inflammatory diseases, salphingo-oophoritis (infection of fallopian tube and ovaries) which mostly result in pelvic adhesions like peritoneal adhesions and fallopian tube adhesions which obstruct tubes and may cause infertility.
• white discharges in late fertile period or after menopause should always be analysed completely to rule out cervix cancer which is the second commonest site of cancer in females after breast cancer.
• urinary tract, reproductive tract and the adjacent organs are often caught in the spread of infection simultaneously since the urethra, vagina and anus lie very close.
- Wash genitals everyday
- Wear clean garments every day
- Always wear cotton underwear to avoid moisture.
- Do not stop treatment when symptoms disappear – taking full course of treatment is very important.
- Abstain from sexual intercourse during treatment to avoid irritation of tissues, which are in the process of healing.
- Sprays, deodorants, and strong perfumed soap and bath products
- Stress since it may affect the hormonal level and may increase secretions
- Sharing towels and garments
- Synthetic or nylon garments which cause dampness of genital organs
- Sexual intercourse during heavy discharges
- Nutritious diet, especially food rich in vitamins a, b, c, e, magnesium and zinc, to improve general health
- Plenty of water and juices to avoid urinary tract infection and its spread to the vagina or cervix.
- There are few medicine for like hydrastis, alumina, borax, pulsatilla, thuja, sulphur, kreosote etc.
- But before taking this medicine please consult your homoeopathic doctor.