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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Gastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. It is well known that H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Helicobacter pylorus was discovered by Warren and Marshal in 1983. H. pylori has some unique characteristics:
It defied its detection by scientists for centuries.
It survives in the stomach, an organ which is devised by the nature to kill all bacteria.
85% of the population hosts this organism asymptomatically.
It persists in the gastric mucosa for decades.
It does not penetrate the gastric mucosa for decades.
It reduces the risk of oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, in the infected individual.
Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.
In the histology of normal gastric mucosa, inflammatory cells – neutrophils are spare and lymphoid tissue is absent.
ACUTE GASTRITIS is diagnosed endoscopically in the presence of hyperemia, intermucosal hemorrhages, and erosions in the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa.
Erosions are flat, or elevated white based lesions with an erythematous margin, and are frequently seen in the antrum.
Histology shows marked surface epithelial degeneration and heavy infiltration with neutrophils, but it is rarely performed.
CHRONIC GASTRITIS may be classified as chronic active, non-atrophic (superficial), atrophic and pernicious anaemia.
On histology of the gastric mucosa, there is a predominant increase in the chronic inflammatory cells – lymphocytes, plasma cells and an occasional lymphoid follicle may be present.
Presence of numerous neutrophils indicates activity (chronic active gastritis).
The vast majority of chronic gastritis patients are asymptomatic. Non colicky pain in upper abdomen within 15 minutes after ingestion of a spicy meal and absence of pain on delaying or omission of a spicy meal are considered suggestive of chronic gastritis. Heaviness in upper abdomen immediately after a meal is also not an uncommon symptom. With a fiberoptic gastroscope a definite diagnosis of chronic gastritis is easy with biopsy from the body mucosa and the antrum. H.pylori causes chronic gastritis in all subjects. H.Pylori colonizes normal antrum and may extend into the body mucosa causing corpus gastritis. Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori slowly progresses over a few decades from the superficial to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.
H. pylori was earlier responsible for more than 80% of chronic gastritis but its prevalence is decreasing in countries with improved sanitation.
H.PYLORI AND PEPTIC ULCER
The patients. with duodenal ulcer may present with dull aching pain in the epigastrium, occurring daily on an empty stomach or at midnight relieved soon after the ingestion of antacid, milk or non-spicy food. Nearly half of the numbers of patients with typical history of duodenal ulcer do not show any ulcer on endoscopy. The popular multi-factorial theory of stress and spices causing duodenal ulcer, died its natural death, with the discovery of H.pylori in 1983.
A major breakthrough in understanding of the etiology of duodenal ulcer was the discovery of H.pylori in the antral mucosal biopsy of humans, on upper gastrodudenal endoscopy- as; H.pylori is present in the antral mucosal biopsy of >90 % of duodenal ulcer patients., following the eradication of H.pylori from the gastric mucosa, annual duodenal ulcer recurrence reduced to less than 10% compared to 80%. Failure to eradicate H. pylori results in a higher recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection of the antral mucosa increases the risk of duodenal ulcer by 3-6 folds.
Pt. with benign gastric ulcer does not have any classical pattern of symptoms for a clinical diagnosis. Pt. may complain of dull aching pain in upper abdomen soon after food intake, nusea, heaviness, heamatemesis or symptoms of anemia.
Benign gastric ulcer is rare in Indian population, it may occur with ch.gastritis due to H.pylori or following ingestion of aspirin or NSAID. H. pylori increases the risk of benign gastric ulcer by 3 folds.
Gastric mucosal Biopsy
Gastric secretion: Acid, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor
Co vita B12 excretion test
Fasting serum pepsinogen,serum gastrin
Parietal cell, intrinsic factor, helicobacter pylori antibody
H.pylori detection : invasive ,non invasive methods
THE HOMOEOPATHIC APPROACH
Abdominal pain and inflammation present difficulties in diagnosis for even the most experienced physician. All cases of dynamic diseases, acute or chronic even when resulting from mechanical or psychological injuries, are amenable to homoeopathy. The homoeopathic medicine works quite well in the treatment of an acute abdomen often averting the need for surgery in many of cases. The problem may range from entrapment of gas, to constipation, perforation of the bowel which results in sever inflammation and sepsis which may result in death. Any acute onset of abdominal pain should be considered a medical emergency.
By carefully applying the law of similars, the physician will observe that all cases of curable dynamic disease are curable with homoeopathy. To achieve this, the physician must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of homoeopathy as taught in the ORGANON and must know how to make the use of materia medica.
Repertories are used as essential links between the patient’s symptoms and the vast materia medica.
Clinical guides such as below mentioned, provide a synopsis of the most characteristic symptoms of the leading remedies in a given condition. Their objective is to give assistance only. While using it one has to be aware of two general drawbacks. One, it may fail because of its incompleteness as only leading remedies in given a given condition can be presented, and the symptomatology of each remedy presented is limited to only the leading characteristic symptoms.
In clinical practice the patient will most of the time present some symptoms that can only be found in a more complete materia medica. Second, there is the inevitable temptation to associate remedies with a given disease. The practice of homoeopathy consists of constant individualization. – The more we understand this science the more we individualize. Frequent follow up to monitor the patient’s condition is a must.
Gnawing, hungry faint feeling at the epigastrium
Burning and distension of stomach with palpitation
Tendency to eat far beyond the capacity for digestion
Great appetite, craving for meat, pickles, radish, turnips, coarse food
Flatulence disturbs the heart’s action
Wants to lie down all the time
Pain in stomach always comes on after eating
Sensation as if a hard-boiled egg had lodged in the cardiac end of stomach
Great craving for food at noon and night
Dyspepsia of the aged, after tea or tobacco
Constitution – Pale, lean, emaciated persons.
Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains as of an ulcer
Cancer of stomach
Vomits every kind of food
Heartburn and water brash
Concomitants – Profuse salivation
Intense burning thirst
Haemorrhage from bowels
ALSO MANY REMEDIES ARS.ALB. , SULPH, CAL.CARB.ETC
Nursing improperly often becomes a big reason for tooth decay and caries in babies. The way out is to get the baby tooth cared for from the very first day. This form of tooth decay is associated with nursing, when the baby sucks the pacifier, or takes other sugary juices or drinks, or formula milk from a nursing bottle.
The main causes of nursing bottle caries:
The babies are often fed in nursing bottles or feeding bottles, and the bottle nipple often stays in the mouth for long; sometimes overnight also if not taken care of. Again, the babies are pacified with pacifiers, which are often dipped in honey or a sugar solution, and this again brings in more reasons for dental caries. In any of the situations described, the baby's newly formed teeth which are susceptible to all forms of decay and damages while being gentle and new can get cavities. The sugary liquids and milk can form a coating on the teeth which brings in cavities.
How to prevent the nursing caries:
The best option to prevent is not to leave the baby with the bottle or pacifier for long. Again, the pacifier or the bottle should be always washed properly, sterilized and not left in the mouth of the baby uncared, especially during sleep time, when the baby sleeps while sucking onto them.
There are some steps to follow to prevent the early tooth decay and maintain baby dental hygiene. They are:
1. Even before the first tooth comes out, massage and clean the baby's gums with a clean washcloth or soft cotton everyday, and after every long feeding.
2. You don't need toothpaste to start brushing the first few new teeth that come out. Just brush without a toothpaste and use a very soft gentle brush to form the habit. In areas where no tooth has come up, brush and massage the gums only.
- When all the teeth have come up, start flossing everyday
- Try to take the baby for a dental checkup at least every year if not every six months.
- Try to cut down on the consumption of extra sweet beverages. Add some water to the fruit juice to dilute the concentration and sweetness.
All these steps mentioned are great to start healthy and good dental care and hygiene, and if you follow them well, then dental caries will be away.
टीएनज एक ऐसी अवस्था है जिसमे बच्चो में शारीरिक और मानसिक बहुत सारे बदलाव होने लगते है जिसके के कारन बच्चो के बेहेवियर में कई तरह के बदलाव अचानक होने लगते है अगर समय रहते हम इन बदलाओ को पहचान के कुछ जरूरी कदम उठाले तो हम बच्चो की अच्छी पेरेंटिंग कर सकते है
गुस्सा - बच्चो में हर बात पे गुस्सा और चिड़चिड़ाहट होना टीनएज का पहला बड़ा लछड़ होता है बच्चो को बिना किसी बात के गुस्सा आने लगता है और वो जल्दी परेशान हो जाते है ऐसे समय जब बच्चा बहुत गुस्से में हो तो उससे ज्यादा बात करने को कोशिश न करे और उसे कुछ समय के लिए अकेला छोड़ दे और जब वो रिलैक्स हो जाये तब ही उससे बात करे , और परेशानी का कारन पूछे
फैशन पे ज्यादा धयान देना - उम्र बढ़ने के साथ साथ बच्चो का शारीरिक और मानसिक विकास होने लगता है इसमें वो अपने पढ़ाई से ज्यादा फैशन से जुडी चीजो के बारे में जानकारी लेना और इस्तेमाल करना शुरू कर देते है और बहुत ज्यादा कॉस्मेटिक खरीदने लगते है ऐसे में बच्चो को फैशन के बारे में बताये उनको नए कपडे खरीदने में मदद करे और साथ ही साथ उन से बातचीत करते रहे और उनकी राय लेते रहे
सोशल मीडिया का इस्तेमाल - आजकल हर बच्चा सोशल मीडिया और फेसबुक का इस्तेमाल कर रहा है तो इसे में बच्चो पर इन सब सोशल मीडिया की चीजो को इस्तेमाल करने से न रोके पर सोशल मीडिया इस्तेमाल करने से पहले उनकी ट्रेंनिंग करे उनको बताये की सोशल मीडिया का क्या सही इतेमाल है और उससे किस किस तरह की परेशानियां हो सकती है
मोबाइल का ज्यादा इस्तेमाल - आज हर बच्चा मोबाइल का इस्तेमाल करता है ऐसे में बच्चे मोबाइल का इस्तेमाल मनोरंजन में ज्यादा करने लगे है वो मोबाइल में गेम खेलते है , इन्टरनेट इस्तेमाल करते है और रात में ज्यादा बात करते है इसके लिए पेरेंट्स कुछ सावधानिया रक्खे बच्चो को बहुत छोटी उम्र में स्मार्ट फ़ोन न दे , मोबाइल फ़ोन ज्यादा इन्तेमाल न खुद करे और बच्चो को भी शिखाएं की मोबाइल का जरुरत पड़ने पर ही इस्तेमाल करे और बच्चो को रात में मोबाइल पे बात करने से रोके
अपोजिट सेक्स के लिए आकर्षण - बढती उम्र में बच्चो को अपोजिट सेक्स के लिए आकर्षण होने लगता है ऐसे में बच्चा बहुत ज्यादा अकेला रहना पसंद करते है और अपनी बातो को छुपाना पसंद करते है ऐसे में माता पिता बच्चे से सेक्स education को लेकर बात करे और अगर बच्चा किसी तरह के पर्सनल रिलेशन में है तो उस पर रिलेशन छोड़ने का ज्यादा दबाव न बनाये और बच्चे से अपनी बातचीत बनाये रक्खे
कुछ बातो का विशेष धयान रख्खे -
- बच्चो के सामान की जासूसी न करे
- गुस्से में बच्चो को गलत शब्द न कहे बच्चो के खाने पीने का विशेष धयान दे
- बच्चो का दूसरे बच्चो से तुलना न करे
- बच्चो की आदर दे कर बात करे
- बच्चे की आदतों का ध्यान रख्खे
- किसी भी हालात में बच्चे से बात करना न बंद करे
- बच्चो की पढ़ाई में रूचि का धयान दे
- बच्चो के साथ सामाजिक कार्यक्रमो में जरूर जाये
- बच्चो उनकी हॉबी के अनुसार अपना काम करने दे
My 4 years old son is allergic to cold things. I hv given him lot of treatment but no effect. He is fond of curd lassie banana. But as he take cough and cold starts. What should I do for him.
My daughter is not gaining weight. She is one years old 9 kg. She refuses to eat anything. Can you help me. What to give her. So that she can gain weight. Can I give her chawanprash. Or any health drink with milk.
Hi my baby is 7 month. He was having green slight runny stool 5 6 times a day. We consulted doctor and he asked for stool test and also prescribed lepicol probiotic capsules half at a time 2 times a day. Later when the stool test results came doc said its normal and to continue with probiotic for 6 days. Everything else is NIL in the result .But RBC is 0-1/hpf and pus cells is 1-2/hpf. So I am still concerned on this. Need second opinion on this. Pls help.
My wife blessed with girl baby last month. While breast feeding milk is very in low quantity how to increase milk so baby gets proper milk.
It is the first vaccine that the doctor will ask your child to get if he/she gets wound. Tetanus is a rare but severe condition which occurs when bacteria enter into an open wound. It can turn fatal if left untreated, so you need to follow the vaccination schedule in order to control the infection. Indulging in substance abuse (especially the ones that require injecting with syringes) increases the risk of tetanus.
This disorder is caused by the bacteria called ‘Clostridium tetani’. The bacterium is known to survive for an extended period outside the body, and is found in places such as soil and the manure of cows and horses. The bacteria enter the body through a wound, multiply rapidly and then release a toxin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, thus affecting your nerves. The bacteria can enter the body through cuts, burns, animal bites, body piercings and eye injuries. However, this disorder is not contagious.
The symptoms of this disease can take 5-20 days to develop fully in the body. Your child may experience symptoms such as a rise in the body temperature, sweating, rapid heartbeats, muscle spasms and stiffening of the jaw muscles. These symptoms will worsen if left untreated, eventually leading to cardiac arrest or suffocation in some cases.
If your child has a wound, the first step is to administer an injection of tetanus immunoglobulin. Tetanus immunoglobulin contains antibodies that effectively kill the tetanus bacteria. In case the symptoms start, then the child might need to be admitted to a hospital. Here, antibiotics and muscle relaxants are administered and breathing support may also be provided if required.
The preventive measure of this disorder is to be vaccinated against the ‘tetanus’ bacteria. The vaccine consists of five injections that are administered in a specific order. Once the entire course has been completed, it usually provides lifelong protection against the tetanus bacteria. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.