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Adolescent Problems Treatment
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Can you please help in interpreting Perkin Elmer & NT Scan Test results. Down Syndrome Final Risk- 1: 55129. Edwards' Syndrome Final Risk-1: 10. Patau's Syndrome Final Risk-1: 10.
Swine flu effected and mylieties effect for a 5 year old boy. Due to breathing problem, ventilator Arranged. How to control breathing problem?
My daughter (7 years) is suffering from adenoids. We found this problem in the age of 3-4 years and suggested to wait for another two years. She had no problem during these 2 years. From last month onwards she was suffering from ear pain and now doctor says to go for surgery. Request you to kindly suggest is there a remedy without surgery or still shall we wait for some years?
My son age is 2 month from last 2 days he is crying daily in evening however he never demand for milk please suggest what is the reason and he is having hernia, I am very much worrying about my child please help.
My son was doing white clay color potty from past 3 days and had gone to the doctor and has told to take usg abdomen, lft, cbc as he suspects liver haemangioma because he has haemangioma in half of his face. Physically he checked and wrote as enlarged spleen and liver is this a major issue. Kindly help as its very tensed.
My kid is facing motion problem from last one month and also dejection is very less. Can you suggest what will be solutions for this. Thanks
My 21 months daughter had constipation problem from past 1 year, she used to pass the motion for every 4 to 5 days, is there any solution for this?
My girl child aged 5.1 years not taking food on its own and always hesitate to take food for that his weight is less. So please suggest some tips to increase his appetite. Thank you.
My 5 years old daughter having continue cough and khansi. How we can be sure she is asthmatic or not. My mother have asthma for last 30 years.
My baby is of 2 years (preterm baby) and she's under weight. Her weight is 10 kg only, and she refuses to eat anything, her milk intake is also very less. Please suggest how do I put her on some weight.
Croup or ‘Kali Khansi’, as it is called in local parlance, is recognized by a loud cough that often sounds like the barking of a seal. It can cause rapid or difficult breathing, and sometimes wheezing. Croup is thought to be caused by a virus, but reflux acidity has been suggested as a possible trigger.
In gastroesophageal reflux disease, stomach acid causes swelling and inflammation of the larynx, which narrows the airway. It can trigger more swelling with any kind of viral or respiratory infection.
Identifying children with gastroesophageal reflux disease could help treat and improve recurring croup. It is unusual for a child to have three or more bouts of croup over a short period of time. These children need to be evaluated.
The same is true for adults also. Patients with non responding asthma should be investigated for underlying acidity as the cause of acute asthma.
YOu can ask me privately in any doubts
Seasonal changes can be very exciting for most people. Each season brings with it a new set of colours and nature takes a new turn. However, for people with seasonal allergies, a seasonal change also comes with a set of allergies. From skin rashes to wheezing to breathing difficulties, the list of symptoms can be quite long. Asthma is the most common problem, and the attacks can be quite bothersome with wheezing attacks and breathing troubles.
With advancements in the field of medicine, there is a lot of relief for asthma patients. A little understanding on how asthma attacks happen will help in understanding how to control it. Asthma is an allergic reaction caused by narrowing of the airway with thick mucus, which makes breathing difficult. During an attack, the person can have a dry cough, face shortness of breath and wheezing.
Asthma is often triggered or worsened by some factors, and being aware of these can help prevent or manage an attack:
- Common allergens like pollen, mites, ticks, furs of animals, bird feathers, specific foods (peanuts, milk products, eggs, etc.) and mold spores appear during change of season.
- Environmental chemicals like cigarette smoke, car fumes, dust, etc., can also trigger an attack.
- Attacks of cold or flu can lead to an asthma attack.
- Workout during cold weather can be problematic, but exercise can also help control asthma attacks. Lung function improves sufficiently, but an exercise regime should be drawn up for the patient based on his condition.
- Stressful emotions like anger and anxiety can also lead to an attack or make it worse.
- Some medications like aspirin, beta blockers, glaucoma drops can aggravate attacks of asthma.
Once you know the triggers, here are some common measures that can help prevent and relieve the wheezing.
- The preventers reduce the inflammation in the airway tube and the swelling. While they do not provide immediate relief during an attack, using these in the long term helps avoid attacks. These are low-dose inhaled corticosteroids such as beclomethasone, fluticasone, and budesonide. Doctors would advise their usage even when there are no symptoms, as asthma attacks can be triggered when they are not taking these medications for a while. Newer drugs include leukotriene antagonists like montelukast and zafirlukast. Relievers are used for symptom relief and include Salbutamol (short acting) and Salmeterol/Formoterol (long acting). Peak flow meter may be useful in acute attacks, wherein the peak flow rates can be reduced.
A good strategy is to use preventers regularly and rely on relievers during an attack. The first one helps build resistance and so reduces the incidence of attacks. Reach out to a doctor if a severe attack ensues (lasts more than 3 hours).
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.
Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan.
The management of ADHD includes consideration of two major areas: non-pharmacological (educational remediation, individual and family psychotherapy) and pharmacotherapy.
I personally support Psychotherapy. Specialized educational planning based on the child’s difficulties is necessary in a majority of cases. Since learning disorders co-occur in one-third of ADHD youth, ADHD individuals should be screened and appropriate individualised educational plans developed. Educational adjustments should be considered in individuals with ADHD with difficulties in behavioral or academic performance. Increased structure, predictable routine, learning aids, resource room time, and checked homework are among typical educational considerations in these individuals. Similar modifications in the home environment should be undertaken to optimize the ability to complete homework. For youth, frequent parental communication with the school about the child’s progress is essential.
Symptoms in children and teenagers
The symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers are well defined, and they're usually noticeable before the age of six. They occur in more than one situation, such as at home and at school. The main signs of each behavioural problem are detailed below:
Inattentiveness: having a short attention span and being easily distracted making careless mistakes – for example, in schoolwork appearing forgetful or losing things being unable to stick at tasks that are tedious or time-consuming appearing to be unable to listen to or carry out instructions constantly changing activity or task having difficulty organising tasks
Hyperactivity and impulsiveness: being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings constantly fidgeting being unable to concentrate on tasks excessive physical movement excessive talking being unable to wait their turn acting without thinking interrupting conversations little or no sense of danger
These symptoms can cause significant problems in a child's life, such as underachievement at school, poor social interaction with other children and adults, and problems with discipline.
Related conditions in children and teenagers
Although not always the case, some children may also have signs of other problems or conditions alongside ADHD, such as:
anxiety disorder – which causes your child to worry and be nervous much of the time; it may also cause physical symptoms, such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating and dizziness
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) – this is defined by negative and disruptive behaviour, particularly towards authority figures, such as parents and teachers
conduct disorder – this often involves a tendency towards highly antisocial behaviour, such as stealing, fighting, vandalism and harming people or animals
sleep problems – finding it difficult to get to sleep at night, and having irregular sleeping patterns
autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) – this affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour
epilepsy – a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated fits or seizures
Tourette’s syndrome – a condition of the nervous system, characterised by a combination of involuntary noises and movements called tics
learning difficulties – such as dyslexia Symptoms in adults In adults, the symptoms of ADHD are more difficult to define. This is largely due to a lack of research into adults with ADHD.
ADHD is a developmental disorder; it's believed that it can't develop in adults without it first appearing during childhood. But it's known that symptoms of ADHD often persist from childhood into a person's teenage years, and then adulthood. Any additional problems or conditions experienced by children with ADHD, such as depression or dyslexia, may also continue into adulthood. By the age of 25, an estimated 15% of people diagnosed with ADHD as children still have a full range of symptoms, and 65% still have some symptoms that affect their daily lives. The symptoms in children and teenagers, which are listed above, is sometimes also applied to adults with possible ADHD. But some specialists say that the way in which inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness affect adults can be very different from the way they affect children. For example, hyperactivity tends to decrease in adults, while inattentiveness tends to get worse as the pressure of adult life increases. Adult symptoms of ADHD also tend to be far more subtle than childhood symptoms.
Some specialists have suggested the following list of symptoms associated with ADHD in adults:
carelessness and lack of attention to detail
continually starting new tasks before finishing old ones
poor organisational skills
inability to focus or prioritise
continually losing or misplacing things
restlessness and edginess
difficulty keeping quiet and speaking out of turn
blurting out responses and often interrupting others
mood swings, irritability and a quick temper
inability to deal with stress
taking risks in activities, often with little or no regard for personal safety or the safety of others – for example, driving dangerously
Additional problems in adults with ADHD As with ADHD in children and teenagers, ADHD in adults can occur alongside several related problems or conditions. One of the most common conditions is depression. Other conditions that adults may have alongside ADHD include:
personality disorders – conditions in which an individual differs significantly from an average person, in terms of how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others
bipolar disorder – a condition that affects your moods, which can swing from one extreme to another
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – a condition that causes obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour
The behavioural problems associated with ADHD can also cause problems such as difficulties with relationships, social interaction, drugs and crime. Some adults with ADHD find it hard to find and stay in a job. If you notice any of the above in your child or yourself , it is worth making the effort and spending some time and money to have your child and or yourself assessed on a priority basis as ADHD causes neural changes in the brain. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychologist.
I have a 4 months old baby girl she sleeps too less during day she hardly sleeps 15-30 mins and during night she sleeps 1 hr and wakes up then sleeps again for around 30 min and wakeup again and then sleeps again after 15-20 mins and continues same thing till morning. She gets proper feed. What can be the reason and solution for this so she can get proper sleep?
Migraine Clinical Picture
What Symptoms Occur During a Migraine Attack? •
Migraineurs have recurrent, severe, and disabling attacks of headache, often unilateral and pulsating, along with symptoms of sensory disturbance, such as light, sound, and odor sensitivity. Nausea and neck stiffness are other common symptoms, and symptoms can be aggravated by movement.
• Some patients experience dizziness during attacks.
• About 20–30% of patients experience aura and neurological symptoms (e.g., visual disturbances), which usually precede the headache phase of an attack.
• Premonitory symptoms such as yawning, irritability, tiredness, cravings, and difficulty concentrating sometimes precede headache onset.
What Is Migraine Aura, and What Symptoms Can Occur?
• An aura is any neurological symptom that occurs shortly before the headache attack. Visual symptoms (e.g., flickering lights or zigzag phenomena), somatosensory symptoms (e.g., paresthesias), speech problems, and rarely, motor symptoms can occur during aura.
• Symptoms usually last >5 and <60 minutes.
• Before migraine can be diagnosed, other possible neurological deficits must first be excluded.
• Cortical spreading depression (see below) is thought to be the pathophysiological cause.
What Can Trigger a Migraine?
• Shortness of sleep, irregular sleep, or too much sleep
• Stress (or in some patients, relaxation from stress)
• Alcohol (e.g., red wine)
• Caffeine (e.g., coffee, chocolate)
• Foods containing glutamate or aspartame
• Vasodilating drugs (e.g., nitrates) Epidemiology
How Many People Are Affected by Migraine?
• Women: about 13–18% of the population
• Men: about 5–10% of the population
• Numbers may be lower in Asian populations Chronic Migraine About 4% of the adult population experiences chronic headache, i.e., headache on 15 or more days a month. About half of this group has chronic migraine, and the other half has chronic tension-type headache Disorders/Abnormalities That Can Be Comorbid with Migraine
• Back pain
• Stroke and cardiac disease
• Childhood vomiting
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