Book Clinic Appointment
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Treatment of Fertility
In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf) Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Fibroids
Treatment of Azoospermia
Treatment of Male Infertility or Impotency
Management of Surrogacy
Sperm Donor Program
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Treatment of Infertility in Women
Natural Cycle Ivf Treatment
In Vitro Fertilization (Test Tube Baby) Procedure
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Treatment of Ovarian Failure
Egg Donation Procedure
Submit a review for Dr. Nalini GuptaYour feedback matters!
Patient Review Highlights
Dr is professionally sound n goes into minute details of treatment process, unlike others she always try n explain the basis behind her decisions, always give nice,patient hearing n remembers details about the patient...
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Nalini Gupta to be very helpful and well-reasoned. Thanks for response and positivity
Hi Mam u r such a wonderful Dr and good nature .very thankful to u give me good life experience.
It is no hidden fact that miscarriages hurt you deeply. The trauma that comes with it is unbearable, but you will have to get through it. Don’t blame yourself for the situation, you may not know it but miscarriages are quite common. Doctors have said that one out of four pregnancies ends up in a miscarriage. If you have experienced more than two consecutive miscarriages then you are suffering from a recurrent miscarriage. If you are going through recurrent miscarriages then there are some medical conditions to blame.
Is miscarriage the end?
A recurrent miscarriage may sometimes complicate things a little, but don’t think that it is the end. As the medical research has progressed, there are several ways for you to get pregnant or have a child. There is in vitro fertilization or IVF which is one of the best ways to cope with a miscarriage. Even if you are having some problem with your fallopian tube IVF can solve your problems and fertilization will be done in the lab and the embryo will be implanted.
How to cope with the emotional stress?
Miscarriages are hard in itself, and you need to deal with the post-miscarriage situation with the utmost maturity to keep your psychological and physical state under complete care. Emotionally good health will go a long way and let you think clearly about your options. If the stress and sadness of the miscarriage have brought you down, then seek the counseling of psychiatrist. Don’t feel ashamed to share your feeling and never suppress them. Talk about them and if needed join a support group that will help you to get through the tough situation.
Remember one thing that if you are emotionally aggrieved and suppress your feelings then that will take a toll on your relationship with your partner. With IVF becoming so developed, there is no need to lament about miscarriage.
How can I improve my fertility?
You may be suffering from recurrent miscarriages, but you should not lose your hope. Keep on trying and you may succeed. You never know. Visit the specialists and let them know your medical history. With special care, IVF can solve all your problems.
But only IVF would never work. Opt for a healthy lifestyle by doing exercises, eating healthy foods, quit smoking, and reduce your alcohol and caffeine intake. You should take a multivitamin rich in folic acid every day. You should also restrict your exposure to environmental chemicals and toxins. It is advisable that you leave behind any kind of heavy lifting, strenuous physical exercises, and any dangerous contact sports. Try not to take stress by taking up yoga or tai chi. And most importantly, try to maintain a healthy sexual relationship with your partner and contact your doctor to know when can you get pregnant again. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an IVF Specialist.
I had ivf recently. Last period start: 2 August Egg collection: 18th (19 eggs) Embryo transfer: 22nd (got 16 embryos, transferred 3) I did blood test on 9th September - hcg was 438.20 Second hcg on 11th September- hcg was 579.40 My hcg has not doubled in 48 hours. Is this normal. I am trying to be hopeful. I am taking gestone injection and progesterone tablets. I did not get period or spotting. I am feeling normal. Is it positive for me?
I am 28 year old male. My current lifestyle is hectic and most of the time goes behind computer and mobile. In near future, we're planning for a baby. Kindly advise preconceptions guidance to give a birth of a healthy and smart baby.
Now-a-days, the entire world along with the inhabitants have become so fast-paced that the most common matter which affects almost everyone is stress. Getting stressed is not only unhealthy for your body and has an impact on every aspect of life including fertility. You might be wondering that how stress can affect your fertility as they sound unrelated. Read on to understand. Till date, though no direct correlation between stress and infertility has been established, it has been observed that if a couple who is trying their best to conceive is under stress, there appears to be a problem. Now, have a look at few of the impacts that stress has on fertility.
How stress affects fertility?
Too much stress has an impact on the proper functioning of the hypothalamus. It is that part of the brain which has the responsibility of sending as well as receiving all type of signals from the reproductive system. The menstrual cycle is one of the most complex communicating systems between the brain and ovaries, and thus stress may affect the fertility cycle. In this manner, stress may delay the ovulation, and in severe cases, it may also prevent the women from ovulating.
Another point that needs to be mentioned is that due to stress fewer mature eggs may be available. Some of the studies focus on the point that the women, who were stressful as well as anxious regarding their IVF (In-Vitro Fertilization), possessed approximately twenty percent fewer eggs than they usually could produce that are viable for fertilization.
Dealing with stress
Different women have their way of dealing with stress. Thus, the impact this unwanted issue has on a woman might not be similar to the reactions of another woman. Many people start to gain weight in such stressful periods while some lose a lot of fat. A fact is sure that stress is not at all healthy and good for an aspiring mother.
So, now that you are aware of stress and infertility and how stress affects your fertility, the best possible course is to eliminate stress from your life as much as possible in a systematic manner. To reduce stress, you must have an adequate amount of sleep and also practice exercise on a regular basis. You may also opt for other habits like practicing yoga, meditation, prayer, seek counseling, etc.
Thus, the bottom-line is, if you are trying to get pregnant, either naturally or through IVF due to genetic or medical reasons, relieving yourself from stress is crucial. If you are willing to know more about stress and infertility and how stress affects your fertility, then you may consult with your physician who would guide to adopt necessary measures.
Helo doctor, I want to pregnant. I married before 3 years, but not getting pregnant. So in this I will try it. How do I know my ovulation day. When last month aug 26 have my periods, my mensuration cycle length 31 days every month. So suggest me when my ovulation day exactly pls.
I am 32 years old married 9 months back I am planning for baby now what all food need to taken more at this point?
Pregnancy is not simple as you think. IVF is a result of various factors acting together. The most important requirements for an IVF to be successful are a functional sperm, healthy egg and a uterus that has the capability for the embryo to get implanted in it. Although these are the biological factors, there are several other technical factors too that contribute to the success of IVF.
These include the use of proper techniques, a clean and proper environment in the lab and the quality of the specialist. Only when all these factors are perfect and unquestionable that IVF becomes successful. Here are some of the factors that lead to IVF failure.
Abnormalities in the egg: The human egg has a tendency to get destroyed with time. It is because in women, with age the spindle apparatus is damaged which leads to unequal distribution of the chromosomes in the egg. Thus the eggs become abnormal. Another reason is that the oocyte is very sensitive. It easily gets affected by the presence of free radicals. Even the presence of reactive species of oxygen can lead to a damage of the oocyte. Not only this, but other metabolic products also create the same effect on the oocyte thus producing a non-viable embryo. According to a research, a huge number of oocyte ranging from 25 to 40% usually get damaged.
Abnormalities in the sperm: The sperm has various characteristics that add to the success of the IVF. The first and foremost thing is the sperm has specific receptors at its head because of which they can bind to the egg. If the receptors are not present the action of binding would not be possible and the sperm would be unsuccessful to fertilize the egg. Even if the sperms have bound properly and have injected its contents into the egg, a chromosomal mixing takes place at this stage. This chromosomal mixing would not be possible if the sperm is abnormal. And it has been proven that sperms have a tendency of being more genetically abnormal than eggs.
The wrong Embryo being selected: Sometimes IVF ends up as a failure due to the selection of the wrong embryo. Medical science has still not developed to that range where it can distinguish between and abnormal and a normal embryo and due to this very reason the embryo selected may turn out to be abnormal leading to the failure of IVF.
Apart from what has been mentioned above, lab conditions do play a very important role. If the pH, humidity, and other factors like light are not up to the mark then IVF is bound to be a failure. Fertilization being such a delicate process can be influenced even by the slightest alterations. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Women are blessed with the power to bear babies in their womb for nine long months and giving birth to them. But due to certain reasons, many women are not able to conceive a baby. But with the advent of the medical science, even if you are suffering from infertility issues, you can use donor eggs for In Vitro Fertilization process to have a child.
What is Donor Egg IVF?
It is the process of the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) where the eggs used are from a donor. The donor may be within your relatives or friends, or you can also select a donor from a pool of egg donors available. Moreover, if you want to go for an IVF with frozen egg, then you have a choice of donors across the nation, and in case you only want to go for fresh donor egg IVF, then choose the donor locally. Fertility clinics and the hospitals are there to help you with the entire process.
What is the process?
IVF with a donor egg is a time taking process but it worth the time. Firstly, the fertility clinics ask for donor selection, if you already have someone from your close group, who is willing to donate her egg, it becomes quite simple. Otherwise, you can choose from the donors already registered with the fertility clinic.
- Once you have decided on the donor, the next step is to match both of your menstrual cycles. This is done by providing daily injections and medications to the donor to suppress her menstrual cycle and to match with yours. Moreover, this drug also improves the egg production so that the chances of receiving a healthy egg increase.
- Then the recipient’s womb is prepared for the embryo transfer. You would be provided with injections to boost your hormonal levels so that your uterus lining can grow thicker to receive and keep the embryo safe and healthy in it.
- Once you are prepared for the embryo transfer, the doctors after continuous monitoring of the donor decide on when to retrieve the egg. Once the donor produces the egg, it is extracted and processed for further procedure.
- Once the egg is retrieved, it is fertilized with the sperms of your partner in a lab. Fertilization and the embryo formations take few days after the egg retrieval process. Once the doctor becomes assured of the embryo is healthy, it is implanted in your uterus.
After successful embryo implantation, the physician will monitor the growth of the fetus on a periodic basis; you need to go for monthly follow-ups. It is little difficult at the beginning but keeps in mind the success rate; it is regarded as a boon for women who want to feel their baby in their womb even after having fertility issues. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an IVF Specialist.
We are planning for baby so At the time of sex, when I enter my sperm to my wife vagina, its comes out quickly approx 80% so that she didn't conceive it from last 2 months. I did test my sperm its 38 million per ML and report results are very good so please suggest me and give me solution for this.
The little bundle of joy in your arms! Holding your baby for the first time indeed is an experience every couple craves. Having a baby is a blessing. Who doesn’t want to have their child but do certain medical factors make it hard to conceive?
With treatments such as IVF and IUI, the chances of conceiving have increased. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) are two most commonly used fertility treatment methods. These accelerate a couple’s probability of becoming parents.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is the most common and most efficient type of assisted reproductive procedure which includes fertilizing an egg in a laboratory dish outside the body, and then implanting it in a woman's uterus.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) on the other hand is a fertility treatment that requires placing sperm inside a woman's uterus to promote fertilization. The purpose of IUI is to focus on increasing the sperm count that reaches the fallopian tubes and eventually raises the possibility of fertilization.
Opting for IVF over IUI
- It depends on the patient’s decisions. Some patients do understand that their problem is not big enough and do not want to go through multiple IUI sessions. So for them, IVF is best. Some prefer to try IUI several times and then may finally opt for IVF. There are also some factors regarding women’s conceiving issues that determine if she is fit for IVF.
- If a lady’s age is 35 and above, and she is trying for more than five years but is still unable to conceive yet, IVF is best suited for her. Also, IVF can offer a better chance for patients who have Endometriosis. It is a phenomenon which affects the number of eggs, decreasing the count and also affects the Fallopian tubes. Thus the rate of conceiving is much higher with the IVF as compared to other fertility treatments.
- IVF is an excellent option if you have blocked, scarred, damaged or missing Fallopian tubes, as the IVF process avoids the Fallopian tubes solely.
- Women who have been unsuccessful so far with other fertility treatments, including fertility medications and IUI (intrauterine insemination), for them IVF can be the last resort rely upon as IVF often gives hope where other treatments have failed.
When to Opt for IUI?
It is best to choose this method of treatment when there is male infertility, especially with low sperm count and erectile dysfunctions. Also, IUI is cheaper. A woman’s possibilities to get pregnant are increased by 20% in every IUI treatment cycle.
Be it IVF or IUI. Irrespective of the treatment you opt for, stay with patience and belief. With the advancement in medical technologies conceiving a child is now possible than ever. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an IVF Specialist.
An IVF treatment has a lot of factors which need to be fulfilled for it to be successful. All these factors culminate together to give a successful IVF treatment. The entire process includes many elaborate steps including countless vaginal ultrasounds, several injections, multiple blood draws and egg retrieval. Only if all these procedures are completed successfully that the IVF is successful. Among these one thing is for sure. These procedures cannot be successful if the right doctor is not undertaking it. If you are still baffled with the role of the doctor and how should you choose him then here it is listed in detail.
Make sure the doctor is experienced
Proper transfer of embryo determines the fate of IVF to a great extent. If the embryo is not transferred successfully the entire procedure may fail. Transferring the embryo involves putting it at the right location and ensuring that the embryo stays there. To achieve this, several progesterone injections are required to be given. These injections stop any form of uterine contractions. Ultrasound imaging is used to make sure that the catheter is placing the embryo at the right place. It is known that a proper guidance on the ultrasound and the manner of using the catheter influences the success of IVF and all this can be done only by an experienced doctor.
Don’t give a single doctor too many chances
If you have attempted for several times, and it has not been successful even after the first few tries, then don’t be afraid to ask your doctor questions regarding the IVF procedure. If the doctor doesn’t seem satisfactory to you don’t hesitate to change the doctor as it is a matter of your life. You can see for 2-3 times or maximum for a number of 4 times, after that you must definitely take a decision and change your doctor.
Take recommendations from friends and relatives
It is true that IVF is not always successful. So why take chances? If you have a friend or a relative who has already gone through the IVF procedure and has had successful IVF, then approach them for a proper guidance relating the doctors. But don’t forget to do some of your own research too. Choosing the right doctor is very crucial and when you have someone advising you on that stance why wastes that chance? Take advice and don’t regret later.
There is nothing to worry too much if you have gone to a doctor you hadn’t heard before. Give them a chance but if you feel it’s not working don’t hesitate and change your doctor at once. IVF has many factors contributing to it and a good doctor is just one of them.
If you want to discuss any other problem, Consult IVF Specialist.
In a normal pregnancy, the egg that the ovaries release enters the fallopian tube. If a sperm fertilises it, the fertilised egg attaches itself inside the uterus. However, sometimes the fertilised egg can attach itself outside the uterus. This condition is called ectopic pregnancy.
Ectopic pregnancy can be detected in the first few weeks of the pregnancy itself. If your doctor does discover ectopic pregnancy, you would need immediate medical attention. Ectopic pregnancies can be sad and scary. Fortunately, one ectopic pregnancy doesn't mean you can never conceive again. Many women who lost their first baby to ectopic pregnancy have been able to have a healthy and normal pregnancy the second time around.
The causes of ectopic pregnancy include:
- An inflammation or infection of the fallopian tube can lead it to become entirely or partially blocked.
- Scar tissue from a surgery or an infection of the fallopian tube may also hinder the movement of the fertilised egg.
- Surgery in the tubes or pelvic areas in the past might cause adhesions.
- Birth defects or abnormal growths can cause anomalies in the shape of the tube.
These causes are usually followed by certain risk factors, such as:
- Age (The age group of 35-44 especially)
- An ectopic pregnancy in the past
- Previous abdominal or pelvic surgery
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Several prompted abortions
- Conceiving with an intrauterine device in place
- Endometriosis (growth of uterus lining tissues outside the uterus).
- Fertility treatments.
The signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy include:
- Minimal vaginal bleeding
- Vomiting and nausea with pain
- Pain in the lower abdomen
- Sharp cramps in the abdomen
- Localised pain (Pain concentrated on one side of your body)
- Pain in your neck, rectum or shoulder
- Rupture of the fallopian tubes can cause fainting due to the bleeding and pain
The treatment of ectopic pregnancy can be any one of the following:
- If the pregnancy has not progressed too far, methotrexate will be administered. This absorbs the pregnancy tissue and can save the fallopian tubes.
- The tubes may be removed if they have ruptured or stretched, and have started bleeding.
- Laparoscopic surgery (operations performed by making minor incisions) may be performed to remove or repair the tubes and recover the ectopic pregnancy. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an IVF Specialist.
Infertility is the incapability of a couple to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex multiple times over a long period. It can also be referred to as the biological inability of a man to cause conception or a woman to conceive as well as being unable to carry the pregnancy for the whole duration. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases.
Causes of infertility in include:
Ovulation Disorders – This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to conditions like PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), Premature ovarian failure, poor quality of eggs, overactive or underactive thyroid gland and chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.
Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus – Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to conditions like Endometriosis, previous sterilization treatments or surgeries to correct past problems.
Medications or Treatments – There is a possibility of some treatments affecting infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy.
Usually, the initial steps for diagnosing infertility involve a review of the complete medical history of the patients as well as a physical exam. Post this check-up, some diagnostic tests are conducted for infertility. This might include-
Blood and Urine tests: For checking hormone levels.
Pap smear:For checking the health of your cervix.
X-ray: For outlining the internal shape of the uterus so that blockages in fallopian tubes can be identified.
Age – Increasing age tends to lower the quality as well as the quantity of a woman's eggs
Smoking – Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage. It is also believed to deplete your eggs at a premature stage, thereby reducing your chances of pregnancy.
Weight – Normal ovulation is hindered by being overweight or even significantly underweight. This is because lower levels of BMI (body mass index) reduces the frequency of ovulation, reducing the chances of pregnancy.
Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:
Intrauterine insemination (IUI): deliberately introducing sperm into the uterus of a woman for achieving pregnancy.
Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs.
Surgery to restore fertility.
In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve a pregnancy. It is any form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.
One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperm are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an IVF Specialist.
As much as as physical intimacy is pleasureable at the same time it also affects the health of the woman's reproductive organs in a number of different ways during intercourse. A few of the effects and factors responsible for these effects are listed as below:
- Vaginal secretion: When you are aroused during sex, the blood vessels supplying the vagina expand immediately. The blood flow increases to lubricate the vaginal walls (rugae). The rugae unfold and the space increases. These secretions are important because, women who are sexually inactive for a long time at a stretch, experience dryness that leads to urinating difficulties and rashes.
- Unusual discharge: Apart from natural lubricants, vagina secretes some fluids, the process being termed as 'female ejaculation'. A tiny amount of white fluid made of prostate plasma cells, is produced just before you climax and discharged with some quantity of urine. Sometimes, prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (usually found in semen) are also found in the secretion.
- Changing size of the vagina: The vagina is designed to be elastic and adjustable. So, no permanent change in size is possible but it does undergo temporary changes in sizes as effects of sex. The inner walls of the vagina enlarge during sexual intercourse and during childbirth. Tissues in the clitoris puff out and harden, this also causes an expansion in size. It takes a while to get back to its normal size.
- Vaginal pain: A lot of women report the experience of pain and discomfort inside or around the vagina during and immediately after sex. The pain can result from repeated sex within a short period of time or reduced secretion of natural lubricants. If the pain is too severe, you should see a doctor because yeast infections or chronic vulvodynia can also be responsible for the pain sensation.
- Infections in the urinary tract: The friction caused by sexual intercourse may cause small cuts which enable bacteria to pass from the vagina to the urinary bladder through the urethra. This causes infection in the bladder, the urinary tract and the vagina. These can be avoided by using a condom or by urinating before and after having sex.
There are two types of abortion, namely medical and surgical. In case of medical abortion, pills are taken to terminate the pregnancy; whereas, surgical abortion is done if the pregnancy has reached an advanced stage when pills are ineffective. While generally there are no health risks or negative effects of abortion on fertility, there are rare cases of complications, which can give rise to severe symptoms post abortion. Following is the information you need to know about abortion and its effects on fertility:
When to seek medical assistance:
It is advisable to seek medical help if you have the following symptoms post abortion:
- Persistent pain in the lower abdomen, which lingers even after taking medication
- Excessive bleeding
- A high temperature
Possible effects of surgical abortion on fertility:
- Infection after abortion: Infections post abortion like Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), if left untreated for long can spread and harm your reproductive organs, thereby impacting your fertility. It can cause complications like infertility or ectopic pregnancy.
- Damage to the cervix during abortion: Damage to the cervix during an abortion can cause cervical incompetence and consequently increase the risk of miscarriage.
- Damage to the womb during abortion: There are chances of damage of the womb (uterus) during abortion, resulting in scarring, which can cause fertility issues if not corrected. This is more likely in case you had multiple abortions.
Apart from the above mentioned complications there are a number of other complications, which can happen due to abortion, preterm birth, vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and low birth rate, etc. Further, infertility can also be a possible side effect of abortion pills, which happens due to scarring of the uterus during the procedure of forcible elimination of the fetus. In all such cases it is advisable to schedule regular check up with your gynaecologist.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection i.e. ICSI is different from conventional IVF i.e. In Vitro Fertilization because a single sperm is selected by the embryologist to be injected by a needle into the egg rather than a dish with many sperms placed near the egg so that the fastest swimming sperm enters it. Once the sperm is injected directly into the egg, it fertilizes, after which the embryo is transferred into the womb or uterus.
Your doctor might recommend ICSI treatment for you if you have an extremely low sperm count resulting in infertility or other medical sperm conditions such as poor motility or poor morphology. It may also be suggested if prior attempts at IVF procedures have failed in fertilizing the egg or the fertilization rate is extremely low. You must also consider ICSI treatment if you resort to embryo testing or if the sperm needs to be collected from the epididymis or testicles surgically.
However, you must keep in mind that if your partner has a genetic problem resulting in low sperm count, it could be passed on to your child, if you decide to use your husband's sperm for this process.
Success Rates of ICSI:
The success rate of ICSI treatment depends on your age and your fertility problem. Your eggs are healthier when you are young and as you age, chances are that they will become less healthy.
- 35 per cent if you are under 35 years of age
- 29 per cent if you are between 35 to 37 years of age
- 21 per cent if you are between 38 to 39 years of age
- 14 per cent if you are between 40 to 42 years of age
- 6 per cent if you are between 43 to 44 years of age
- 5 per cent if you are above 44 years of age
Advantages of ICSI Treatment:
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection gives you a chance to conceive a child genetically when most other options are exhausted. Males may be unable to ejaculate on the day the eggs are collected due to anxiety. ICSI proves to be advantageous because sperm may also be surgically extracted for this process. It is extremely helpful for those couples who suffer from unexplained infertility. However, one of the most important factors is that ICSI treatment does not affect your child's physical or mental health.
All you need to know about infections of the uterus, vagina and cervix
The uterus, vagina and cervix are major components of the female reproductive system. Their functioning impacts the overall growth and health of the female body as well as sexuality.
There are a number of infections and diseases that affect the female reproductive organs. Most cases require clinical care and treatment in consultation with a gynaecologist.
Following are the symptoms of infection in the uterus, cervix or vagina:
- pain or numbness in the pelvic region
- unusual discharge from the vagina
- bleeding during or after intercourse
- pain or burning sensation during urination
- skipped periods
- excessively painful menstrual cramps
- nausea and vomiting
- urinary incontinence
There are three main types of infections that affect the organs of the female reproductive system. They are as follows:
This is an infection that affects the vagina. It occurs when the walls of the vagina get inflamed and irritated. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, yeast, chemicals and even clothing. It often occurs due to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The different types of infections that occur as vaginitis are yeast infection, viral vaginitis, bacterial vaginitis, trichomoniasis vaginitis, etc.
This infection affects the cervix. Cervicitis can either be acute or chronic in nature, depending upon what causes the cervix to get inflamed. It occurs most commonly due to sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhoea, chlamydia and herpes. This condition is often confused with vaginitis as the two have similar causes and symptoms.
3. Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (pid) is a serious infection that affects the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. It is caused by sexually transmitted infections like chlamydia and gonorrhoea and can lead to severe complications. It often causes scar tissue to grow between the internal organs and may even lead to ectopic pregnancy. If not properly diagnosed, it can cause infertility and other chronic problems.
Treating the various infections that affect the female reproductive system depends on a number of factors such as nature of the problem, age and medical history of the patient, and the root causes. Early detection and diagnosis ensure effective treatment which makes it important to see a gynaecologist at the onset of symptoms.